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the whole work of their salvation, wrought out and accomplished by
Jesus Christ. This, therefore, we shall a little insist upon, to de-
clare the grounds and reasons on the account whereof it is to be
ascribed unto him, or what acts are peculiarly assigned unto the
Father in this work of bringing many sons unto glory ; which will
secure the ascription of it unto him, and therein our interpretation
of the place.

(1.) The eternal designation of them unto that glory whereunto
they are to be brought is peculiarly assigned unto him. He " pre-
destinates them to be conformed to the image of his Son," Rom.
viii. 28-30. The "God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ chooseth
us before the foundation of the world," and " predestinateth us unto
the adoption of children by Jesus Christ unto himself," Eph. i. 3-5 ;
and " he hath from the beq-inning chosen us unto salvation," 2 Thess.
ii. 13, 14. And this electing love of God, this eternal purpose of
his good pleasure, which he purposed in himself, is the fountain and
spring of all other immediate causes of our salvation. From hence
faith, Acts xiii. 45, sanctification, 2 Thess. ii. 13, holiness, Eph. i. 4,
preservation in grace, 2 Tim. ii. 19, the death of Christ for thetn,
John iii. 16, and final glory itself, 2 Tim. ii. 10, do all ensue and



380 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. XL

proceed : so that on the account hereof he may be justly said to be
the bringer of many sons to glory.

(2.) He was the spring and fountain of that covenant (as in all
other operations of the Deity) that was of old between himself and
his Son about the salvation and glory of the elect. See Zech. vi. 13;
Isa. xlii. 1; Prov. viii. 22-31 ; Isa, 1. 4-9, liii. 10-12; Ps. xvi. 10, ex.
He, in his love and grace, is still declared as the proposer both of the
duty and of the reward of the mediator, the Son incarnate, as the
Son accepts of his terms and proposals, Heb. x. 5-9. And hence
he intenseness of his love, the immutabiUty of his counsel, the
holiness of his nature, his righteousness and faithfulness, his infinite
wisdom, do all shine forth in the mediation and sufferings of Christ,
Rom. iii. 25, 26, v. 8 ; 1 John iv. 9 ; Heb. vi. 1 7, 18 ; Tit. i. 2. Rathe/-'
than his love should not be satisfied and his counsel accomplished,
he spared not his own Son, but gave him unto death for us.

(3.) He signally gave out tlie first promise, that great foundation
of the covenant of grace; and afterwards declared, confirmed, and
ratified by his oath, that covenant wherein all the means of bring-
ing the elect unto glory are contained, Gen. iii, 15 ; Jer. xxxi. 31—34;
Heb. viii. 8-12. The person of the Father is considered as the prin-
cipal author of the covenant, as the person covenanting and taking
us into covenant with himself; the Son, as the Messiah, being con-
sidered as the surety and mediator of it, Heb. vii. 22, ix. 15, and the
purchaser of the promises of it.

(4.) He gave and sent his Son to be a Saviour and Redeemer for
them and unto them; so that in his whole work, in all that he did
and suffered, he obeyed the command and fulfilled the will of the
Father. Him did God the Father " send," and " seal," and " give,"
and "set forth," as the Scripture everywhere expresseth it. And our
Lord Jesus Christ everywhere remits us to the consideration of the
love, will, and authority of his Father, in all that he did, taught, or
suffered ; so seeking the glor}'- of God that sent him.

(5.) He draws his elect, and enables them to come to the Son, to
believe in him, and so to obtain life, salvation, and glory by him.
" No man," saith our Saviour, " can come to me, except the Father,
which hath sent me, draw him," John vi. 44. No man, no, not any
one of the elect, can come to Christ, unless the Father, in the pur-
suit of that love from whence it was that he sent the Son, do put
forth the efficacy of his grace to enable him thereunto: and accord-
ingly he reveals him unto some, when he is hidden from others.
Matt. xi. 25 ; for the revelation of Christ unto the soul is the imme-
diate act of the Father, Matt. xvi. 17.

(6.) Being reconciled unto them by the blood of his Son, he re-
conciles them unto himself, by giving them pardon and forgiveness
of sins in and by the promises of the gospel; without which they



VER. 10.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 381

cannot come to glory. He is in Christ reconciling us unto himself,
by the non-imputation or forgiveness of our sins, 2 Cor. v. 18-21;
forgiving us all our trespasses for Christ's sake, Epli. iv. 32. There
are many things concurring unto the pardon of sin that are peculiar
acts of tho Father.

(7.) He quickens them and sanctifies them by his Spirit, to make
them "meet for the inheritance of the saints in light;" that is, for
tlie enjoyment of glory. " He that raised up Jesus from the dead
quickens us by his Spirit," Rom. viii. 11 ; so "saving us by the wash-
iug of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost, which he shed
on us richly by Jesus Christ," Tit. iii. 5, 6. This renovation and
sanctification by the Holy Ghost, and all supplies of actual grace,
enabling us unto obedience, are everywhere asserted as the grant
and work of the Father, " who worketh in us both to will and to
do of his own good pleasure." And so in especial is the saving illu-
mination of our minds, to know the mystery of his grace, and dis-
cern the things that are of God, 2 Cor. iv. 6; Col. ii. 2; Eph. iii.
14-19; Matt. xi. 25.

(8.) As the great Father of the family he adopts them, and naakes
them his sons, that so he may bring them unto glory. He gives
them the power or privilege to become the sons of God, John i. 11 ;
making them heirs and co-heirs with Christ, Rom. viii. 14-17; send-
ing withal into their hearts the Spirit of adoption, enabling them
to cry, " Abba, Father," Gal. iv. 6. The whole right of adopting
children is in the Father; and so is the authoritative translation of
them out of the world and kingdom of Satan into his own family
and household, with their investiture in all the rights and privileges
thereof.

(9.) He confirms them in faith, establisheth them in ohedience,
preserveth them from dangers and oppositions of all sorts, and in
manifold wisdom keeps them through his power unto the glory pre-
pared for them; as 2 Cor. i. 21, 22; Eph. iii. 20, 21; 1 Pet. i. 5;
John xvii. 11.

(10.) He gives them the Holy Ghost as their comforter, Avith all
those blessed and unspeakable benefits which attend that gift of his,
Matt. vii. 11 ; Luke xi. 1.3; John xiv. 16, 17; Gal. iv. 6.

In brief, in bringing the elect unto glory, all the sovereign acts
of power, wisdom, love, and grace exerted therein, are peculiarly
assigned unto the Father, as all ministerial acts are unto the Son
as mediator; so that there is no reason why he may not be said, by
the way of eminency, to be the ayuyihg, the leader or bringer of his
sons unto glory.

And herein lies a great direction unto believers, and a great sup-
portment for their faith. Peter tells us that "by Christ we do be-
lieve in God, that raised him up from the dead, and gave him glory;



382 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. IL

that our faith and hope might be in God," 1 Pet. i. 21. Jesus Christ,
considered as mediator, is the next, but not the ultimate object of
our faith and hope. We so believe in him as by him to beheve ia
God, that is, the Father, whose love is the supreme fountain and
sprino- of our salvation: which the apostle manifests in that double
instance of his raising up Christ and giving him glory, thereby
declaring himself the principal author of the great work of his
mediation. This he directs us unto, so to believe in Christ as that,
discerning in and by him the grace, good-will, and love of the Fa-
ther himself towards us, we may be encouraged to fix our faith and
hope on him, seeing he himself loveth us. So that Christ himself
had no need to pray for the love of the Father unto us, but only
for the communication of the effects of it, John xvi. 26, 27. And
this is the work of faith, when, as we are directed, we pray to the
Father in the name of Christ, John xvi. 23, 24; and we thus place
our faith in God the Father, when we conceive of him as the sove-
reio-n leader of us unto glory, by all the instances before mentioned.
Au'l then doth faith find rest in him, delight, complacency, and
satisfaction, as we have elsewhere declared.

3. There is in these words intimated the principal means that
God fixed on for the accomplishment of this design of his, for the
bringing of many sons unto glory; it was by appointing a " captain
of their salvation." The Jews generally granted that the Messiah
was to be the captain of their salvation; but misunderstanding that
salvation, they also mistook the whole nature of his office. The
apostle doth here evidently compare him unto Joshua, the captain
and leader of the people into Canaan (as he had before preferred
him above the angels, by whose ministry the law was given unto
the people in the wilderness), which was a type of their salvation,
as he further declares, chap. iv. All the sons of God are put under
his conduct and guidance, as the people of old were put under the
rule of Joshua, to bring them nnto the glory designed for them, and
promised unto them in the covenant made with Abraham. And he
is called their af%»]7os, "prince," "ruler," and "captain," or "author"
of their salvation, on several accounts: — (1.) Of his authority and
right to rule over them in order unto their salvation. So he ap-
peared unto Joshua as njn^"X3y"it?'^ Josh. v. 14, "The captain of the
Lord's host;" intimating thus that there was another captain and
other work to do than what Joshua had then in hand, — the general
of all the people of God, as Joab was to Israel, '^^V"'^??'. (2.) Of his
actual leading and conduct of them, by his example, Spirit, and grace,
through all tbe difficulties of their warfare. So he was promised as
'T'^3, Isa. Iv. 4, "princeps," "dux," "antecessor," ap-x/iyog, — "a leader
and commander of the people," one that goes before them for their
direction and guidance, giving them an example in his own person



VER. 10.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 383

of doing and suffering the will of God, and so entering into glory.
So he is their crpo^o/xos, Heb. vi. 20, "antecessor," "forerunner;"
or, as Daniel calls him, T'P? 0''P''?, Dan. ix. 25, "Messiah the prince,"
or " guide." (.3.) As he is unto them alnog ffurriplag aiciiviou, as Heb.
V. 9, "the author" (or "cause") "of eternal salvation;" he procured
and purchased it for them. So that the expression denotes both liis
acquisition of salvation itself, and his conduct or leading of the
people of God unto the enjoyment of it. And the Holy Ghost
hereby also intimates, that the way whereby God will bring the sons
unto glory is full of difficulties, perplexities, and oppositions, as that
of the Israelites into Canaan was also; so that they have need of a
captain, leader, and guide, to carry them through it. But yet all is
rendered safe and secure unto them, through the power, grace, and
faithfulness of their leader. They only perish in the wilderness and
che in their sins, who, either out of love unto the flesh-pots of Egypt,
the pleasures of this world, or being terrified with the hardships of
the warfare which he calls them unto, refuse to go up under his
command.
^ '4. There is expressed in the words the especial way whereby God
fitted or designed the Lord Christ unto this office, of being a captain
of salvation unto the sons to be brought unto glory. To understand
this aright, we must observe that the apostle speaks not here of the
redemption of the elect absolutely, but of the bringing
tnem to glory, when they are made sons m an especial
manner. And therefore ne treats not absolutely of the designation,
consecration, or fitting of the Lord Christ unto his office of mediator
in general, but as unto that part, and the execution of it, which espe-
cially concerns the leading of the sons unto glory, as Joshua led the
Israelites into Canaan.'" This will give us light into what act of God
towards the Lord Christ is intended in this expression, n/.si'iigai ahrhv
bia 'TraSrjfjijdruv. And sundry are here pleaded by expositors, not
without some probability; as, — (L) Some think that his bringing
him to glory is intended: it became him rsXuojeat, to bring him to
gloi'y, by and through sufferings, so to perfect him. But besides
that the word is nowhere so used, nor hath any such signification,
the apostle doth not declare what God intended to bring him unto,
but by what in and about him he intended to bring many sous
to glory. (2.) Some would have it to denote the finishing of God's
work about him ; whence in his sufferings on the cross he said Ters-
Xisrat, "It is finished," John xix. SO. This answers, indeed, the sense
of the word «Xiw, used in that place by our Saviour, but not. of
Ts}.ii6u, the word here used by the apostle, which never signifies .to
end or finish, or to perfect by bringing unto an end. (3.) Some think
God made the Lord Christ perfect by sufferings, in that he gave him
thereby a full sense and experience of the condition of his people,
VOL. XII.— 25



884 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. IL

whence he is said to "learn obedience by the things which he suffered,"
Heb. V. 8. And this is true, God did so; but it is not formally and
directly expressed by this word, which is never used unto that pur-
pose. This is rather a consequent of the act here intended than the
act itself. TiXnoJcai, then, in this place signifies to "consecrate," " de-
dicate," to " sanctify" unto an office, or some especial part or act of
an office. This is the proper meaning of the word. TeXjj are " mys-
teries;" and reXtTal, *' sacred acts and offices;" rirsXsg/Msvoi are those
who are initiated and consecrated unto sacred offices or employ-
ments. See Exod. xxix. 33, 35, in the LXX. Hence the ancients
called baptism TiXnurrig, or consecration unto the sacred service of
Christ. And ccyid'i^oo, the word next insisted on by our apostle, is so
used by Christ himself, John xvii. 19 : 'Ttj^ avTciv syu u,yiuXjM
ifiaurtr — " For theirsakesi sanctify" (that is, " dedicate, cousfcrati.',
sejjarate") " myself" to be a sacrifice. And his blood is said to be
that Bv (Z nyidedri, Heb. x. 29, " wherewith he was so consecrated."
]\or is this word used in any other sense in this whole epistle,
wherein it is often used, when applied unto Christ. See chap. v. 9,
vii. 28. And this was the use of the word among the heathen, si^r-
nifying the initiation and consecration of a man into the mysteries
of tlieir religion, to be a leader unto others. And among some of
them it was performed, through the instigation of the devil, by great
sufferings : Oux dv e/'? ^lidpa:' duvriaairo Tig TjXiffS^mi si f^ri Bid rivuv
jSaO/xSJv rrapsT'Jojv ruv xoXaff/Aoii', hii^ri savrlv Ssiov x.ai d'rad)^, sailh Gregory
Niizianzen, Orat. cont. Jul. i.; — " No man could be consecrated unto
the mysteries of Mithra" (the sun) "unless he proved himself holy,
and as it were inviolable, by passing through many degrees of pun-
ishments and trials." ji Thus it became God to dedicate and conse-
crate the Lord Christ unto this part of his office by his own suffer-
ings. He consecrated Aaron to be priest of old, but by the hands
of Moses, and he was set apart to his office by the sacrifice of other
things. But the Lord Christ must be consecrated by his own suf-
ferings and the sacrifice of himself And thence it is that those very
sufferings which, as antecedaneous unto his being a captain of salva-
tion, to this end that he might lead the sons unto glory, are the
means of his dedication or consecration/are in themselves a great
part of that means whereby he procures salvation for them. By all
the sufferings, then, of tlie Lord Christ in his life and death, — by
which sufferings he wrought out the salvation of the elect, — did God
consecrate and dedicate him to be a prince, a leader, and captain of
salvation unto his people; as Peter declares the whole matter, Acts
V. 30, 31, and chap. ii. o6./ And from these things last mentioned,
of the Lord Christ being the captain of our salvation, and being
dedicated unto that office by his own sufferings, it appeareth, —
I. That tlie whole work of saving the sons of God, from first



VER. 10.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. S85

to last, their guidance and conduct through sins and sufferings unto
glory, is committed unto the Lord Jesus; whence he is constantly to
be eyed by believers in all the concernments of their faith, obedi-
ence, and consolation. *' Behold," saith the Lord", " I have given
him for a witness to the people, a leader and commander to the
people," Isa. Iv. 4; — a witness, to testify the truth, in revealing the
mind and will of God; a leader, going before them as a prince and
captain, as the word signifies; and a commander, that gives out laws
and rules for their obedience. God hath set him as a lord over his
•whole house, Heb. iii, 6, and committed all the management of all
its concernments unto him. There is no person that belongs unto
God's design of bringing many sons to glory, but he is under his
rule and inspection ; neither is there any thing that concerns any of
them in their passage towards glory, whereby they may be furthered
or hindered in their way, but the care is committed unto him, as the
care of the whole aimy lies on the general or prince of the host.
Tuis the prophet sets out in his type, Eliakim, Isa. xxii. 21-24. He
is fastened as a nail in a sure place; and all the glory of the house,
and every vessel of it, from the greatest unto the least, is hanged on
him. The weight of all, the care of all, is upon him, committed
unto him. When the people came out of Egypt with Moses they
Were numbered unto him, he being the administrator of the law,
and they died all in the wilderness; but they were delivered again
by tale and number unto Joshua, the type of Christ, and none of
them, not one, failed of entering into Canaan. And, first, he dis-
chargeth this trust as a faithful captain, — -^

,' (1.) With care and watchfulness: Ps. cxxi. 4, "Behold, he that
keepeth Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep." There is no time
nor season wherein the sons committed unto his care may be sur-
prised through any neglect or regardlessness in him; his eyes are
always open upon them ; they are never out of his heart nor thoughts ;
they are engraven on the palms of his hands, and their walls are con-
tinually before him; or, as he expresseth it, Isa. xxvii. 3, "I the
Loud do keep my vineyard; I will water it every moment: lest any
hurt it, I will keep it night and day." Greater care and watchfulness
cannot be expressed; "night and day," and "every moment" in them,
he is intent about this work. Oh how great an encouragement is
this to adhere unto him, to follow him in the whole course of obedi-
ence that he calls unto! This puts life into soldiers, and gives them
security, when they know that their commander is continually care-
ful for them.

y (2.) He dischargeth this great ti^ust with tenderness and love:
Isa, xl. 11, "He shall feed his flock likeashtpherd: he shall gather
the lambs with his arm, and carry them in his bosom, and shall
gently lead those that are with young." These sons are of vaiious



S86 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAR IL

sorts and degrees; the best and strongest of them are but sheep, —
poor, infirm, and helpless creatures; and amongst them some are
young and tender, as lambs; some heavy and burdened with sins
and afflictions, like those that are with young. In tender compas-
sion he condescends unto all their conditions; feeds and preserves
the whole flock as a shepherd ; gathers in his arm and bears in his
bosom those that otherwise, by their infirmity, would be cast behind
and left unto danger. Compassion he hath for them that err and
are out of the way ; he seeks for them that wander, heals the diseased,
feeds them when they are even a flock of slaughter. And where
these two concur, care and compassion, there can be no want of any
thing, Ps. xxiii. 1. Indeed, Zion is ready sometimes to complain
that she is forgotten. The sons in great distresses, afflictions, per-
secutions, temptations, that may befall them in their way to glory,
are apt to think they are forgotten and disregarded, — that they are
left as it were to shift for themselves, and to wrestle with their diffi-
culties by their own strength and wisdom, which they know to be as
a thing of nought. But this fear is vain and ungrateful. Whilst
they are found in the way, following the captain of their salvation,
it is utterly impossible that this watchfulness, care, love, and tender-
ness, should in any thing be wanting unto them.

v (3.) He leads them with j^oiver, authority, and majesty : Mic. v. 4,
*' He shall stand and rule in the strength of the Lord, in the ma-
jesty of the name of the Lord his God; and they shall abide." The
"name of God" is in him, accompanied with his power and majesty,
which he puts forth in the feeding and ruling of his people ; whereon
their safety doth depend. "They shall abide," or dwell in safety;
because in this his glory and majesty he shall be great, or be magni-
fied unto the ends of the earth. So also is he described in his rule:
Zech. vi. 13, " Even he shall build the temple of the Lord; and he
shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his throne; and he
shall be a priest upon his throne." Having built the temple, raised
a house and family to God, he shall be the ruler or captain of it,
to preserve it unto glory ; and this in a glorious manner, — bearing the
glory of God, sitting upon a throne, in the whole discharge of his
office both as a king and priest. Unto this end is he intrusted with
all the power and authority which we have before described, God
having given him to be "head over all things unto his church." There
is nothing so high, so great, so mighty, that lies in the way of his
sons to glory, but it must stoop to his authority and give place to his
power. The whole kingdom of Satan, the strongholds of sin, the
high imaginations of unbelief, the strength and malice of the world,
all sink before him. And thence are they described as so glorious and
successful in their way : Mic. ii. 1 S, " The breaker is come up before
them : they have broken up, and have passed throuoh the gate, and



VER. 10.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. SS7

are gone out by it: and their king shall pass before them, and the
Loud on the head of them." Many obstacles lie in their way, but
tht^y shall break through them all, because of their king and lord
that goes before them. And those difficulties which in this world
they meet withal, that seem to be too hard for them, their persecu-
tions and sufferings, though they may put a stop unto somewhat of
their outward profession, yet they shall not in the least hinder them
in their progress unto glory. Their captain goes before them with
power and authority, and breaks up all the hedges and gates that
lie in their way, and gives them a free and abundant entrance into
the kingdoni of God.

Secondly,^ As the manner how, so the acts wherein and whereby
this antecessor and captain of s:dvation leads on the sons of God
may be considered. And he doth it variously: —

(1.) He goes before them in the whole way unto the end. Tliis
is a principal duty of a captain or leader, to go before his soldiers.
Hence they that went unto the war were said to go at the feet of
their commanders: Judges iv. 10, " Barak went up with ten thou-
sand men at his feet;" that is, they followed him, and went where he
went before them. And this also became the captain of the Lord's
host, even to go before his people in their whole way, not putting
them on any thing, not calling them to any thing, which himself
passeth not before them in. And there are three things whereunto
their whole course may be referred: — [1.] Their obedience; [2.]
Their sufferings; [3.] Their entrance into glory; and in all these
hath the Lord Christ gone before them, and that as their captain
and leader, inviting them to engage into them, and courageously to
pass through them, upon his example «,nd the success that he sets
before them. ^ — "^

[1.] As unto obedience, he himself was " made under the law," and
" learned obedience," " fulfilling all righteousness." Though he was
in his. own person above the law, yet, he submitted himself to every
law of God and righteous law of men, that he might give an example
unto them who were of necessity to be subject unto them. So he
tells his disciples, as to one instance of his humility, " I have given



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