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lay on him the punishment due unto the sons whom he redeemed ;
it became him, on the account of his natural essential justice, to bring
him into sufferings. And in this opinion is contained the truth
laid down in our proposition, which we shall now further confirm,
namely, that it became the nature of God, or the essential properties
of his nature required indispensably, that sin should be punished
with death, in the sinner or in his surety; and therefore if he
would bring any sons to glory, the captain of their salvation must
undergo sufferings and death, to make satisfaction for them.
For,—

(1.) Consider that description which the Scripture giveth us of
the nature of God in reference unto sin; and this it doth either
metaphorically or properly. In the first way it compares God unto
fire, unto " a consuming fire;" and his acting toward sin as the acting
of fire on that which is combustible, whose nature it is to consume
it: Deut. iv. 24, "Thy God is a consuming fire;" which words
the apostle repeats, Heb. xii. 29. " Devouring fire and everlasting
burnings," Isa. xxxiii. 14. Hence, wlien he came to give the law,
which expresseth his wrath and indignation against sin, his pre-
sence was manifested by great and terrible fires and burnings, until
the people cried out, " Let me not see this great fire any more, lest
I die," Deut. xviii. 16. They saw death and destruction in that
fire, because it expressed the indignation of God against sin. And
therefore the law itself is also called " a fiery law," Deut. xxxiii. 2,
because it contains the sense and judgment of God against sin ; as in
the execution of the sentence of it, the breath of the Lord is said
to kindle the fire of it like a stream of brimstone, Isa. xxx. 33 : so
chap. Ixvi. 15, 16. And by this metaphor doth the Scripture lively
represent the nature of God in reference unto sin. For as it is the
nature of fire to consume and devour all things that are put into it,
without sparing any or making difference, so is the nature of God
in reference unto sin ; wherever it is, he punisheth and revengeth it
according to its demerit. The inetaphpr, indeed, expresseth not the
'manner of the operation of the one and the other, but the cer-
tainty and event of the working of both from the principles of the



VER. 10.1 EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 40!)

nature of the one and the otlier. The fire so burneth by a neces-
sity of nature as that it acts to the utmost of its quality and faculty
by a pure natural necessity. God punisheth sin, as, suitably unto
the principle of his nature, otherwise he cannot do; yet so as that,
for the manner, time, measure, and season, they depend on the con-
stitution of his wisdom and righteousness, assigning a meet and
equal recompence of reward unto every transgression. And this
the Scripture teacheth us by this metaphor, or otherwise we are led
by it from a right conception of that which it doth propose; for God
cannot at all be unto sin and sinners as a devouring hre, unless it
be in tlie principles of his nature indispensably to take vengeance
ou them.

Again, the Scripture expresseth this nature of God with reference
unto sin properly, as to what we can conceive thereof in this world,
and that is by his holiness, which it sets forth to be such, as that on
the account thereof/ he can bear with no sin, nor suffer any sinner
to approach unto him; that is, let no sin go unpunished, nor admit
any sinner into his presence whose sin is not expiated and satis-
fied for. / And what is necessary upon the account of the holines-s
of God is absolutely and indispensalily so, his holiness being his
nature. " Thou art," saith Habakkuk, " of purer eyes than to be-
hold evil, and canst not look on iniquity," chaj). i. 13; — ' Thou V
canst not by any means have any thing to do with sin.' That is,
it may be, because he will not. ' Nay,' saith he ; 'it is upon the
accoimt of his purity or holiness/ That is such as he cannot pass
by sin, or let it go unpunished. The psalmist also expresseth tlie
nature of God to the same purpose, Ps. v. 4-6, " Thou art not a God
that hath pleasure in wickedness, neith^FsTiall evil dwell with thee.
The foolish shall not stand in thy sight; thou hatest all workers y
of iniquity. Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing. The
Lord will abhor the bloody and deceitful man." What is thej'or-
niaLrea son and cause of all these things, — thatjhe hates, abhors, and
will destroy sin and sinners? It is because he is sue iraTGroctT^ Thou
art not a God to do otherwise,' — a God of such purity, such holiness.
And should he pass by sin without the punishment of it, he v/ould
not be such a God as he is. Without ceasing to be such a God, so
infinitely holy and pure, this caimot be. Xhe^foghsh and ail workers
of iniquity must be destroyed, because he is such a God. And in
that proclamation of his name wherein he declared many blessed,
eternal properties of his nature, he adds this among the rest, that
" he will by no means clear the guilty," Exod. xxxiv. 7. This his
Dature^^MsJiis_eterna] holiness requireth, that_ the giiilt y he by no
n^ea n£ clear ed. So Joshua instructs the people in the nature oF
this holiness of God, chap. xxiv. 19, "Ye cannot serve the Lord:
for he is an holy God; he is a jealous God; he will not forgive your



406 AN EXPOSITION OF THE fCHAP. JI.

tiansgressions nor your sins." That is, ' If you continue in your
sins, if tiiere be not a way to free you from them, it is in vain for you
to have any thing to do with this God ; for he is holy and jealous, and
■will therefore certainly destroy you for your iniquities/ Now, if such
1)6 the nature of God, that with respect thereunto he cannot but
punish sin in whomsoever it be found, then Ahe suffering of every
ginner, in his own person or by his surety, doth noi depend on a mere
free, voluntary coiistitution, nor is to be resolved merely into the vera-
city of God in his commination or threatening, but is antecedently unto
them indispensably necessary, unle^jve would have the nature of
God^,changed,_tJha^^ be__fi:eed. / Whereas, therefore, the

Lord Christ is assigned the captain of our salvation, and hath un-
dertaken the work of bringing sinners unto glory, it was meet, with
respect unto the holiness of God, that he should undergo the punish-
ment due unto their sin. And thus the necessity of the sufferinrs
and satisfaction_j)iL.JCiirist_ is xesolved into the Tioliness and natuio
oF God. He being such a God as he is, it could not other-
wise be.

(2.) The same is manifest from that principle whereunto the
punishment of sin is assigned; which is not any free act of the
will of God, but an essential property of his nature, namely, his
justice or righteousness. What God doth because he is righteous
is necessary to be done. And if it be just with God in respect of
his essential justice to punish sin, it would be unjust not to do it;
fon'to condemn the innocent and to acquit the guilty are equally un-
just/ Justice is an eternal and unalterable rule, and what is done
according unto it is necessary ; it may not otherwise be, and justice
not be impeached. That which is to be done with respect to justice
must be done, or he that is to do it is unjust. Thus it is said to be
*' a rijihteous thing with God" to render tribulation unto sinners,
2 Thess. i. 6; because he is righteous^ and from his righteousness or
justice: so that the contrary would be unjust, not answer his right-
eousness. And it is " the juilgment of God that they who commit
sin are worthy of death," Rom. i. 32; — namely, it is that which his
justice requireth should be so ; that is the judgment of God. Not
only doth he render death unto sinners because^ hath threatened
so to do, but because his justice necessarily requireth that so he
should do. So the apostle further explains himself, chap. ii. 5-9,
where he calls the last day " the day of the revelation of the righteous
judgment of God;" wherein, by rendering tribulation unto sinners,
he will manifest what his righteousness requires. And what that
requires cannot otherwise be, God being naturally, necessarily^
essentially righteous. And this property of God's nature, requiring
lliat punislunent he inflicted on sin and sinners, is often in Scripture
called his "aiiger" and "wrath;" for although sometimes theeftects



VER. 10.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 407

of anger and Avrath in punisliment itself he denoted b}' these expres-
sions, yet often also they denote the habitude of th e nature of God
in his justice towards sin. For anger in itself, being a passion and
perturbation of mind, including change and weakness, cannot pro-
perly be ascribed unto God; and therefore when it is spoken of as
that which is in him, and not of the effects which he works on
others, it can intend nothing but his vindictive justice, that pro-
perty of his nature which necessarily inclines him unto the punisli-
ment of sin. Thus it is said that his " wrath " or anger is " revealed
from heaven against all ungodliness," Rom. i. 18; that is, he discovers
in his judgments what is his justice against sin. And thus when he
comes to deal with Christ himself, to make him a propitiati()n for
us, he is said to have "set him forth fig hdu^iv rijg dixaioauv^g,'' Rom.
iiu_25^(j, — "to declare^ii§ - rigbt^fi'iiSiLess for the remission of sins;
tjiat he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in
Jesus?" As God would pardon sin, and justify them that believe,
so he would be just also. And how could this be? By^punishing our
sins in Christ; — that declared his righteousness. "Evbu^ig here is as
much as 'ivdiij/jba, *' dccunientum," — a declaration by an especial
instance or example: or as imdsiy/xa, as he is said to have punished
8odom and Gomorrah, and to have left them Cvodnyf^a /MiXXovruv
aaiQsTv, — "an example unto them that should live ungodly ;'' that
is, an instance of what his dealings would be with sinners. So Goil
is said here to have " declared his righteousness," by an example in
the sufferings of Christ ; which, indeed, was the greate st ins tance of
the severity and inexorableness of justice against sm that God ever
gave in this world. And this he did that he might be just, as well
as gracious and merciful, in the forgiveness of sin^y Now, if the jus-
tice of God did not require that sin should be punished in the Me-
diator, how did God give an instance of his justice in his sufferings;
for nothing can be declared but in and by that which it requires?
For to say that God showed his righteousness in doing that which
might have been omitted without the least impeachment of his
righteousness, is in this matter not safe,

(3.) God is the supreme ruler, governor, and judge of all. To
him as snich it belongeth to do right. So saith Abraham, Gen.
xviii. 25, "Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?" Un-
doubtedly he will do so, it belongs imto him so to do; for, saith the
apostle, "Is God unrighteous who taketh vengeance? God forbid:
for then how shall God judge the world?" Rom. iii. 5, 6 Right
judgment in all things belongs unto the universal rectitude of the
nature of God, as he is the supreme governor and judge of all the
world. Now, the goodness and Tightness of all things consists in tiie
observation of that place and order which God in their creation
aiioiied unto them, whereon he pionounced that they were exceeding



408 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. II.

good. And that this order be preserved for the good of the whole,
it belongs unto the government of God to take care; or if it be in
any thing transgressed, not to leave all things in confusion, but to
reduce them into some new order and subjection unto himself.
That this order was broken by sin we all know. What shall now
the crovernor of all the world do? Shall he leave all things in dis-
order and confusion? cast otf the works of his hands, and suffer all
things to run at random? Would this become the rightecms gover-
nor of all the world? What, then, is to be done to prevent this
confusion? Nothing remains but that he who brake the first order
by sin should be subdued into a new one by punishment. This
brings him into subjection unto God upon a new account. And to
say that God might have let his sin go unpunished, is to say that he
miijht not be rio^hteous in his government, nor do that which ia
necessary for the good, beauty, and order of the whole. But hereof
somewhat was spoken in the opening of the words, so that it need
not further be insisted on.

(4.) Lastly, there is no common presumption ingrafted in the
hearts of men concerning any free act of God, and which might have
been otherwise. No free decree or act of God is or can be known unto
any of the children of men but by revelatidn ; much less have tiiey
all of them universally an inbred persuasion concerning any such
acts or actings. But of the natjaral_propert]es of God, and his acting
suitably unto them, there is a secret light and persuasion ingrafted
in the hearts of all men by nature. At least, those things of God
whereof there is a natural and indelible character in the liearts of
all men are natural, necessary, and essential unto him. Now, that
God is just, and that therefore he will punish sin, all sin, is an
inbred presumption of nature, that can never be rooted out of the
minds of men. All sinners have an inbred apprehension that God
is displeased with sin, and that punishment is due unto it. They
cannot but know that it is " the judgment of God that they who
commit sin are worthy of death." And therefore, though they have
not the written law to instruct them, yet "their thoughts accuse them"
upon sin, Rom. ii. 14, 15, — that is, their consciences, — which is the
judgment which a man makes of himself in reference unto the
judgment of God. And therefore all nations who retained any
knowledge of a deity constantly invented some ways and means
whereby they thought they might expiate sin, and appease the god
that they feared. :/All which manifests that the punishment of sin
inseparably follows the nature of God, and such properties thereof
as men have a natural, inbred notion and presumption of; for if it
depended merely on the will of God, and his faithfulness in the
accomplishing of that threatening and constitution whereof they
Lad no knowledge, they could not have had such an immovable and



VER. 10.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 4-09

unconquerable apprehension of it. But these things I have handled
at large elsewhere.^

And this fully discovers the vile and horrid nature of sin. "Fools,"
as the wise man tells us, "make a mock of it." Stifling for a while
their natural convictions, they act as if sin were a thing of naught ;
at least, not so horrible as by some it is represented. And few there
are who endeavour aright to obtain a true notion of it, contenting
themselves in general that it is a thing that ought not to be. What
direct opposition it stands in unto the nature, properties, rule, and
authority of God, they consider not. But the last day will discover
the true nature of it, when all eyes shall see what it deserves in the
judgment of God, which is according unto righteousness. Is it a
small thing for a creature to break that order which God at first
placed him and all things in, to cast oif the rule and authority^f
God, to endeavour to detlirgne him, so that he cannot continue to
be the sirpreme governor of all things, and judge of all the world,
unlessTie punish it? Is it a smalTtFing to set up that which hath
an utter inconsistency with the holiness and righteousness of God,
so that if it go free, God cannot be holy and righteous? If these
things will not now sink into the minds of men, if they will not learn
the severity of God in this matter from the law, on the threatening
and curse whereof he hath impressed the image of his holiness and
justice, as was said, they will learn it all in hell. Why doth God
thus threaten and curse sin and sinners? Why hath he prepared
an eternity of vengeance and torment for them? Is it because he
would? Nay, but because it could not otherwise be, God being so holy
and righteous as he is. Men may thank themselves for death and
hell. They are no more than sin hath made necessary, unless God
should cease to be holy, righteous, and the judge of all, that they
might sin freely and endlessly. And this appears most eminently
in the cross of Christ ; for God gave in him an instance of his righte-
ousness and of the desert of sin. Sin Jaeiiig_Jmptitecl..uiito the only
Son_pf God, he could not_ be spared. If he be made sin, he must
be made a curse; if he will take away our iniquities, he must make
his soul an offering for sins, and bear the punishment due unto
them. Obedience in all duties will not do it; intercession and
prayers will not do it; ^in^igguired another manner of expiation.
Nothing but undergoing the wrath of God and the curse of the law,
and therein answering what the eternal justice of God required, will
effect that end. How can God spare sin in his enemies, who could
not spare it on his only Son? Had it been possible, this cup should
have passed from him; but this could not be, and God continue
righteous. These things, I say, will give us an insight into the

' In bis treatise De Divina Justitia, etc., vol. x of the author's works. — Ed.



410 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. IL

nature of sin, and the horrible provocation wherewith it is at-
tended.

And this also opens the mystery of the wisdom, and love, and
grace of God, in the salvation of sinners. This is that which ho will
for ever be admired in: A way he liath found out to exercise grace
ari d sati s^LJustLce^at _the same iirae, irTSmTby the same person.
Sin shall l)e punished, all sin, yet grace exercised; sinners shall be
saved, yet justice exalted; — all in the cross of Christ.

Verses 11-13.

The great reason and ground of the necessity of the sufferings of
Christ hath been declared. It became God that he should suffer.
But it doth not yet appear on what grounds this suffering of his
could be profitable or beneficial unto the sons to be brought unto
glory. It was the sinner himself against whom the law denounced
the judgment of death; and although the Lord Christ, undertaking
to be a captain of salvation unto the sons of God, might be willing
to suffer for them, yet what reason is there that the punishment of
one should be accepted for the sin of another? Let it be granted
that the Loni Christ had an absolute and sovereign power over his
own life and all the concernments of it, in the nature which he
assumed, as also that he was willing to undergo any sufferings that
God should call hiin unto; this, indeed, will acquit the justice of God
in giving him up unto death, but whence is it that sinners should
come to be so interested in these things as thereon to be acquitted
from sin and brought unto glory? In these verses the apostle enters
upon a discovery of the reasons hereof also. He supposeth, indeed,
that there was a compact and agreement between the Father and
Son in this matter; which he afterwards expressly treateth on,
chap. X. He supposeth, also, that in his sovereign authority, God had
made a rejaxationot" the law as to the person suffering, though not
as to the penaltij to be su^^ered ; which God abundantly declared unto
the church of the Jews in all their sacrifices, as we shall manifest.
These things being supposed, the apostle proceeds to declare the
grounds oi the equity of this substitution of Christ in the room of
the sons, and of their advantage by his suffering, the proposition
whereof he lays down in these verses, and the especial application
in those that ensue.

Ver. 11—13. — "O Ts "/Sep ayid^uv xai o'/ ay/a^o/xfvo/ 1^ Ivoj Tavri;*
2/' TiV aiTiav ovx, i'TraieyJjMtrai ddiX(f>oug ahrou; xaXslv, Xfywv* ' AirayyiXu to
ovo/j,d ffov TO?; dBeX(pois ,aou, iv iLtew sTcxXrifflas bfjjvrjau a. Ka! TccX/r 'Eyi
e'ffo.aa/ iTiiroidug jV aOrjD* xai ituXir 'l^oO lyu xai rd, Taidia d jao/ sduxsv
i Qiog.

There is no variety in the reading of these words in any copies, nor do tians-
lators differ in rendering the sense of them. The Svriae renders ihe last testi-
mony as if the words were spoken unto God, " Behold I and the children ^fT:^']



VER. n-]3.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREW& • 411

**"??• "*'> — " "hom thou hast given unto me, O God." The Etiiiopic, "Where-
fore they who sanctify and they who are sanctified are altogether;" to what pur-
pose I cannot gue>s.

' Aytei^a is used in this epistle both in the legal sense of it, " to separate," " conse-
crate," "dedicate;" and in the evangelical, "to purify," "sanctify," to make inter-
nally and really holy. It seems in this place to he used in the latter sense, though
it includes the former also, kxt ctKoMi/dmiv, " by just consequence," fur they
who are sanctified are separated unto God. The word, then, expresseth what ilie
Lord Christ doth unto and for the sons as he is the captain of their salvation. lie
consecrates them unto God, through the sanctification of the Spirit, and washing
in his own blood.

'E| sv6;. It may be of the masculine gender, and so denote one person; or of the
neuter, and so one thing, one mass, one common principle; whereof afterward-.

The first testimony is taken from Ps. xxii. 23, ^.'""5 '^V'? "^'"""^ "V- ' ~^''^' ~'^~? 5
which the LXX. render Az/jy^iro^ot/ to ovo/icii aov rdli cide'h^ol; f^ov, ev fiiau ix.-
sO^miag v^^vviau ai. The first word, ~'^?"*'., '•narral>o," "annunciabo," the apostle
renders by otTrety/ihu, more properly than they by Sri^ysjtro^os/. In the rest of
the words there is a coincidence, the original being exjjressiy rendered in them.
For though '.-r^", be rendered simply "to praise," yet its most frequent u-e, when
respecting God as its object, is " to praise by hymns or psalms;" as the apostle
here,' Tf^vYiau ae, " Tihi hymnos canam," or, " Te hymnis celebrabo," — "I will
sing hymns unto thee," or " praise thee with hymns:" which was the principal
way of setting forth God's praise under the old testament.

It is not certain whence the second testimony is taken. Some suppose it to be
from Isa. viii. 17, from whence the last also is cited. The words of the prophet
there, *" "^Ty.l, are rendered by the LXX. K«< vi'Troidui 'iaoficti et' otvrqi, the
words here used by the apostle. But there are sundry things that will not allow
us to close with this sut)posal : — First, the original is not rightly rendered by the
LXX., and, as we shall see, the apostle's words do exactly express the original in
another place. Besides, ~^ij is never but in this place and once more turned into
"TFsidu by the LXX., but is constantly rendered by them /^ivu, or vTrofiivu: so
that it is not improbable but that these words might be inserted into th • Greek
text out of this place of the apostle, there being some presumptions and hkeii-
hoods that it was the place intended by him, especially because the next testimony
Used by the apostle consi-sts in the words immediately ensuing these in the pro-
phet. But yet that yields another reason ag;iinst this supposition; for if the
apostle continued on the words of the prophet, to what end should he insert in
the midst of them that constant note of proceeding unto another testimony, x.x\
ircO^Lv, " and again," especially considering that the whole testimony speaks to the
same purpose?

We shall, then, refer these words unto Ps. xviii. 3, ^""^L:*?; which the LXX.
render, 'EAtt/S ki: ctv-cov, "I will hope in him;" the apostle more properly, "Eao^aot/
viiroiSui iTir uvTi), " 1 will put my trust in him." And that that psalm had re-
spect unto the Lord Christ and his kingdom our apostle showeth elsewhere, by
citing another testimony out of it concerning the calling of the Gentiles, Rom.
XV. 9 : nor was the latter part of the psalm properly lulfilled in David at all.

The last testimony is unquestionably taken out of Isa. viii. 18, where the words
are, ~~? "? irj "'??? ^''"7?'^"' "'^-? ^'r.~; "nd rendered by the LXX., as here by the
apostle, ' llov iyu xui rat vrsiiotx cl (/.ot souKiv 6 Qeo;. ^"'7''^. is properly " nati," ysv-
vriToi, or 'inyouoi, those that are begotten or born of any one, whilst they are in
their tender age. But it may be rendered by vctthiu, as it is by the LXX., Gen.
XXX. 2G, xxxii. 23, xxxiii. 1, 2, which is " chddren" in a larger sense.'

' Exposition. — ^"Ay/a^., according to Ebrard, refers neither to sanctification
nor to ju^tifi uiion, as sudi, but to the total change in their relation to God which



41 2 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. IL

Ver. 11-13. — T'or both he that sanctifieth and they who



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