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are sanctified are all of one : for which cause he is not
ashamed to call them brethren, saying, I will declare
thy name unto my brethren, in the midst of the church
will I sing praise unto thee. And again, I will put my
trust in him. And again. Behold i and the children
which God hath given me.
The words contain, — First, A further description of the captain
of salvation, and the sons to be brought unto glory by him, men-
tioned in the verse foregoing, taken from his office and work towards
them, and the effect thereof upon them, " He that sanctifieth and
they that are sanctified ;" which is the subject of the first proposition
in these words. Secondly, An assertion concerning them, " They
are all of one." Thirdly, A natural consequence of that assertion,
which includes also the scope and design of it, " He is not ashamed
to call them brethren." Fourthly, The confirmation hereof by a
triple testimony from the Old Testament.

First, He describes the captain of salvation and the sons to be
brought unto glory by their mutual relation to one another in sanc-
tijication. He is 6 ay/a^wy, "he that sanctifieth;" and they are o/
ayial^6,aivoi, " they that are sanctified." Tliat it is the Son, the cap-
tain of salvation, that is intended by the sanctifier, both what the
apostle affirms immediately of him and them, and the ensuing testi-
monies whereby he confirms it, do make evident. And as in the
verse foregoing, giving an account why God would have Christ to
suffer, he describes him by that property of his nature which includes
a necessity of his so doing; so here, setting forth the causes on our
part of that suffering, and the grounds of our advantage thereby, he
expresseth him and the children by those terms which manifest
their relation unto one another, and which they could not have stood
in had they not been of the same nature, as he afterwards declares.
Now, the same word being here used actively and passively, it must
in both places be understood in the same sense, the one expressing
the effect of the other. As Christ sanctifies, so are the children
sanctified. And the act of Christ which is here intended is that
which he did for the sons, when he suffered for them according to
God's appointment, as verse 10. Now, as was said before, to sanc-
tity is either to separate and to dedicate unto sacred use, or to purify
and make really holy; which latter sense is here principally intended.

takes place in the members of the new covenant, in opposition to the relation of
the natur.-il man to Gorl. 'E| £v6;, ''of one;" that is, Father. — Macknight, De
Wetle, Conyheare and Ilowsun, Tholiick, Ebrard, etc.

Translations. — "0 re yoip d-yiu^. Both the purifier and the purified. — iSchoh'
field. He that atoneth, and thi-y that are atoned for. — Turner. He who maketh
expiation, and they for whom expiation is made. — Stuart. ' Ayict^o/xii/oi, lite,
rally, who are in the process of sanctification, — CouT/beare and Howson. — Ed.



VER. 11-13. J EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 413

Thus, when the apostle speaks of the effects of the offering of Christ
for the elect, he disti^i;"llsheth between their rO^iluaig, or " consnm-
m.-ition," and their ay/ac^oj. or *' -^anctiti jation :" cliajx x. 14, M/94
vpodipop^ TiTiXiiuxiv Tovg tty/a^o// -i/uU5* — "■ By one offering he cons;uui-
mated" (or " perfected") ''the sanctified." First, he sanctifieth them,
and then dedicates them unto God, so that they shall never more
need any initiation into his favour and service. This work was the
captain of salvation designed unto. The children that were to be
brought unto glory being in themselves unclean and unholy, and on
that account separated from God, he was to purge their natures and
to make them holy, that they might be admitted into the favour of
and find acceptance with God. And for the nature of this work,
two things must be considered : — first, The impetration of it, or the
way and means whereby he obtained this sanctification for them;
and, secondly. The application of that means, or real effecting of it.
The first consisteth in the sufferings of Christ and the merit thereof.
Hence we are so often said to be sanctified and washed in his blood,
Eph. V. 25 ; Acts xx. 32 ; Rev. i. 5 ; and his blood is said to cleanse
us from all our sins, 1 John i. 7. As it was shed for us, he procured,
by the merit of his obedience therein, that those for whom it was
shell should be purged and purified, Titus ii. 14. The other con-
sists in the effectual working of the Spirit of grace, communicated
unto us by virtue of the blood-shedding and sufferings of Christ, as
the apostle declares. Tit. iii. 4-6. And they who place this sancti-
fication merely on the doctrine and example of Christ (as Grotius
on this place), besides that they consider not at all the design and
scope of the place, so they reject the principal end and the most
blessed effect of the death and blood-shedding of the Lord Jesus.
Now, in this description of the captain of salvation and of the sons,
the apostle intimates a further necessity of his sufferings, — because
the}' were to be sanctified by him, which could no otherwise be done
but by his death and blood-shedding. Having many things to ob-
serve from these verses, we shall take them up as they ofier them-
selves unto us in our procedure; as here, —

I. That all the children which are to be brought unto glory,
antecedently unto their relation unto the Lord Christ, are polluted,
defiled, separate from God.

They are all to be sanctified by him, both as to their real purifi-
cation and their consecration to be God's hallowed portion. This, for
many blessed ends, the Scripture abundantly instructs us in: Tit. iii.
3, " We ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived,
serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hatefid,
and hating one another." A most wretched, defiled, and loathsome
condition, that which justly might be an abhorrency to God and all
his holy angels ! and such, indeed, God describes it to be by. his
prophet: Ezek. xvi. 5, 6, "Thou wast polluted in thy blood, and cast



41 4 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. II.

out in the open field, to the loathing of thy person." Thus we were,
saith the apostle ; even we, who are now sanctified and cleansed by
tlie means which he afterwards relates. The like description he
gives of this estate, 1 Cor. vi. 11, with an assertion of the same
delivery from it. We are naturally very proud, — apt to please our-
selves in ourselves; to think of nothing less than of being polluted or
defiled, or at least not so far but that we can wash ourselves. What
a hard thing is it to persuade the great men of the world, in the
midst of their ornaments, paintings, and perfumes, that they are all
over vile, leprous, loathsome, and defiled ! Are they not ready to
wash themselves in the blood of them who intimate any such thing
unto them ? But whether men will hear or forbear, this is the con-
dition of all men, even of the sons of God themselves, before they
are washed and sanctified by Christ Jesus. And as this sets out the
infinite love of God in taking notice of such vile creatures as we are,
and the unspeakable condescension of the Lord Christ, with the
efficacy of his grace in cleansing us by his blood, so it is sufficient
to keep us humble in ourselves, and thankful unto God all our
days.

II. That the Lord Christ is the great sanctifier of the churcli.
His title is 6 ayid^uv, "the sanctifier;" of which more afterwards.
The Lord Christ, the captain of our salvation, sanctifies every son
whom he brings unto glory.

He will never glorify an unsanctified person. The world, indeed,
is full of an expectation of glory by Christ; but of that which is
indispensably previous thereunto they have no regard. But this
the Scripture gives us as a principal effect of the whole mediation
of Christ;— of his death, Eph. v. 26; Titus ii. 14; — of his communi-
cation of his word and Spirit, John xvii. 19; Titus iii. 5, 6; — of his
blood-shedding in an especial manner, 1 John i. 7; Rom. vi. 5, 6;
Rev. i. 5; — of his life in heaven and intercession for us. Col. iii. 1-3.
This he creates his people unto by his grace, Eph. ii. 8, excites them
unto by his promises and commands, 2 Cor. vii. 1, John xv. 16, 17.
So that no end of the mediation of Christ is accomplished in them
who are not sanctified and made holy. And this was necessary for
him to do, on the part, — 1. Of God; 2. Of himself; 3. Of them-
selves.

1. Of God, unto whom they are to be brought in glory. He is
holy, " of purer eyes than to behold evil," — no unclean thing can
stand in his presence; holy in his natui-e, "glorious in holiness;" holy
in his commands, and "will be sanctified in all that draw nigh unto
him." And this Peter urgeth as that which requires holiness in us,
1 Epist. i. 15, 16, "As he which hath called you is holy, so be ye holy
in all manner of conversation; because it is written, Be ye holy, for
I am holy." And thence it is said that " holiness becometh his hou;ie,"



VER 11-13.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBKEWS. 415

— that is, all that draw nigh unto him ; and the apostle sets ft down
as an uncontrollable maxim, that "without holiness no man i^hall see
the Lord." If the Lord Christ, then, will bring the children unto God,
he must make them holy, or they can have no admittance into his
presence, no acceptance with him; for no unclean thing, nothing that
defileth, can enter into the new Jerusalem, the place where his
holiness dwelleth. It is utterly impossible that any soul not washed
with the blood of Christ, not sanctified by his Spirit and grace, should
stand in the sight of God. And this was expressed in all the typical
institutions about cleansing which God appointed unto his people
of old. He did it to teach them that unless they were sanctified,
washed, and cleansed from their sins, they could be admitted unto
no communion with him nor enjoyment of him. Neither can any
serve him here unless their consciences be purged by the blood of
Christ from dead works; nor can they come to him hereafter, unless
they are washed from all their defilements. Their services here he
rejects as an unclean and polluted thing; and their confidences for
the future he despiseth as a presumptuous abomination. God will
not divest himself of his holiness, that he may receive or be enjoyed
by unholy creatures. And the day is coming wherein poor unsancti-
fied creatures, who think they may miss holiness in the way to glory,
shall cry out, " Who amongst us shall inhabit with those everlasting
burnings?" for so will he appear unto all unsanctified persons.

2. Of himself, and the relation whereinto he takes these sons
with himself. He is their head, and they are to be members of his
body. Now, he is hol}^, and so must they be also, or this relation
will be very unsuitable and uncomely. A living head and dead mem-
bers, a beautiful head and rotten members, — how uncomely would
it be ! Such a monstrous body Christ will never own. Nay, it
would overthrow the whole nature of that relation, and take away
the life and power of that union that Christ and his are brought into
as head and members; for whereas it consists in this, that the whole
head and members are animated, quickened, and acted by one and
the self-same Spirit of life, — nor doth any thing else give union be-
tween head and members, — if they be not sanctified by that Spirit,
there can be no such relation between them. Again, he takes them
imto himself to be liis bride and spouse. Now, you know that it
was appointed of old, that if any one would take up a captive maid
to be his wife, shoAvas to shave her head, and pare her nails, and
wash herself, that she might be meet for him. And the Lord Christ
takmg this bride unto himself, by the conquest he hath made of her,
must by sanctification make them meet for this relation with him-
self. And therefore he doth it: Eph. v. 25-27, "Christ loved the
church, and gave himself for it; that he might sanctify and cleanse
it with the waching of water by the word, that he might present it

VOL,, xii.— 27



416 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. IL

to himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any
such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish." This
it became him to do, this was the end why he did it: he sanctifieth
his church that he may present it a meet bride or spouse unto him-
self. The like may be said of all other relations wherein the Lord
Christ stands unto his people; there is no one of them but makes
their sanctification absolutely necessary.

8. On the part of the children themselves ; for unless they are re-
generate, or born again, wherein the foundation of their sanctifica-
tion is laid, they can by no means enter into the kingdom of God.
It is this that makes them "meet for the inheritance of the saints
in light." As without it they are not meet for their duty, so are
they not capable of their reward. Yea, heaven itself, in tiie true
light and notion of it, is undesirable unto an unsanctified person.
Such a one neither can nor would enjoy God if he might. In a
word, there is no one thing required of the sons of God that an un-
sanctified person can do, no one thing promised unto them that he
can enjoy.

Tliere is surely, then, a woful mistake in the world. If Christ
sanctifies all whom he saves, many will appear to have been mistaken
in their expectations another day. It is grown amongst us almost
an abhorrency unto all flesh, to say that the church of God is to be
holy. What though God hath promised that it should be so, and
Christ hath undertaken to make it so? what if it be required to be
so? what if all the duties of it be rejected of God if it be not so? — it is
all one. If men be baptized whether they will or no, and outwardly
profess the name of Christ, though not one of them be truly sancti-
fied, yet they are, as it is said, the church of Christ. Why, then,
let them be so; but what are they the better for it? Are their per-
sons or their services therefore accepted with God ? are they related
or united unto Christ? are they under his conduct unto glory? are
they meet for the inheritance of the saints in light? Not at all ; not
all, not any of these things do they obtain thereby. What is it,
then, that they get by the furious contest which they make for the
reputation of this privilege? Only this, that satisfying their minds
by it, resting if not priding themselves in it, they obtain many ad-
vantages to stifle all convictions of their condition, and so perish un-
avoidably. A sad success, and for ever to be bewailed ! Yet is there
nothing at this day more contended for in this world than that Christ
might be thought to be a captain of salvation unto them unto whom
he is not a sanctifier, — that he may have an unholy church, a dead
body. These things tend neither to the glory of Christ, nor to the good
of the souls of men. Let none, then, deceive themselves : sjinctifieation
is a qualification indispensably necessary unto them who will be under
the conduct of the Lord Christ unto salvation, he will lead none



VER, 11-18,] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 41 7

to heaven but whom he sanctifies on the earth. The holy God will
not receive unlioly persons; this living head will not admit of dead
members, nor bring men into the possession of a glory which they
neither love nor like.

Secondly, Having given this description of the captain of salva-
tion and of the sons to be brought unto glory, the apostle affirms of
them that they are s^ li/o'g, "of one ;" which made it meet . ^ . /
for him to suffer and for them to be made partakers of
his sufferings. The equity hereof lies in the agreement, that he and
they are of one; which what it is we must now inquire.

1. The word hath this ambiguity in it, that it may be of the
masculine gender, and denote one person, or of the neuter, and
signify one thing. If it relate unto the person, it may have a
double interpretation: —

(1.) That it is God who is intended. They are " all of one;" tlint
is, God. And this may be spoken in several respects. The Son was
of Iiim by eternal generation ; the many sons, by temporal creation, — ■
they were made by him. Or, they are all of him: he ordained him
to be the sanctifier, them to be sanctified; him to be the captain
of salvation, and them to be brought unto glory. And this sen.se
the last testimony produced by the apostle seems to give countenance
unto: *' Behold I and the children which God hath given unto me;"
• — ' me to be their father, captain, leader; they to be the children to
be cared for and conducted by me.' And this way went most of the
ancients in their exposition of this place. In this sense, the reason
yielded by the apostle in these words why the captain of salvation
should be made perfect by sufferings is, because the sons to be brought
unto glory were also to suffer, and they were all of one, both he
and they, even of God. But though these things are true, yet they
contain not a full reason of what the apostle intends to prove by
this assertion: for this interpretation allows no other relation to be
expressed between Christ and the sons than what is between him
and angels; they are also, with him, of one God. And yet the
apostle afterwards showeth that there was another union and relation
between Christ and the elect needful, that they might be saved by
him, than any that was between him and angels. And if notliing
be intimated but the good pleasure of God appointing him to be a
Saviour and them to be saved, because they were all of himself, of
one God, which was sufficient to make that ajipointment just and
righteous, then is here nothing asserted to prove the meetness of
Christ to be a Saviour unto men and not to angels, which yet the
apostle in the following verses expressly deduceth from hence.

(2.) If it respect a person, it may be " ex uno hornine," " of one
man;" that is, of Adam. They are all of one common root and
stock, he and they came all of one, Adam. Unto him is the genea-



418 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. II.

logy of Christ referred by Luke. And as a common stock of our
nature he is often called the " one," the " one man/' Ttom. v. And
tliis, for the substance of it, falls in with what will be next con-
sidered.

2. It may be taken in the neuter sense, and denote one thing.
And so also it may receive a double interpretation : —

(1.) It may denote the same mass of hiwian nature. 'E^ svhg fu-
fdiirxTOQ, of one and the same mass of human nature; or, Jg hlc,
aifMarog. So it is said of all mankind that God made them l| hlc,
a'iiMaTOi, "of one blood," Acts xvii. 26, of one common principle;
which gives an alliance, cognation, and brotherhood, unto the wiiole
race of mankind. As the making of all mankind by one God gives
them all a relation unto him, as saith the apostle, " We are also his
offspring;" so their being made of "one blood" gives them a brother-
hood among themselves. See Acts xiv. 15. And this interpreta-
tion differs not, in the substance of it, from that last preceding,
inasmuch as the whole mass of human nature had its existence in
the person of Adam ; only it refers not the oneness mentioned for-
mally unto his person, but unto the nature itself Avhereof he was
made partaker. And this sense the apostle further explains, verse
14 ; as he also observes it, Rom. ix. 5.

(2.) By " one," some understand the same spiritual nature, the
principle of spiritual life which is in Christ the head, and the chil-
dren his members. And this, they say, is that which is their peculiar
oneness, or being of one, seeing all wicked men, even reprobates,
are of the same common mass of human nature as well as the
children. But yet this is not satisfactory. It is true, indeed, that
after the children are really sanctified, they are of one and the same
spiritual nature with their head, 1 Cor. xii. 12, and hereby are they
differenced from all others : but the apostle here treats of their
being so of one that he might be meet to suffer for them ; which is
antecedent unto their being sanctified, as the cause is unto the
effect. Neither is it of any weight that the reprobates are partakers
of the same common nature with the children, seeing the Lord
Christ partook of it only on the children's account, as verse 14;
and of their nature he could not be partaker without being partaker
of that which was common to them all, seeing that of one blood
God made all nations under heaven. But the bond of nature itself
, is, in the covenant, reckoned only unto them that shall be sanctified.

It is, then, one common nature that is here intended. He and
they are of the same nature, of one mass, of one blood. And hereby
he came to be meet to suffer for them, and they to be in a capa-
city of enjoying the benefit of his sufferings; which how it answers
the whole design of the apostle in this place doth evidently appear.

First, he intends to show that the Lord Christ was meet to suffer



VER. 11-13.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 419

for the children; and this arose from hence, that he was of the
same nature with them, as he afterwards at large declares. And
he was meet to sanctify them by his sufferings, as in this verse he
intimates. For as in an offering made unto the Lord of the first-
fruits, of meat or of meal, a parcel of tiie same nature with the
whole was taken and offered, whereby the whole was sanctified,
Lev. ii. ; so the Lord Jesus Christ being taken as the first-fruits of
the nature of the children, and offered unto God, the whole lump,
or the whole nature of man in the children, — that is, all the elect,
— is separated unto God, and effectually sanctified in their season.
And this gives the ground unto all the testimonies which the apostle
produceth unto his purpose out of the Old Testament; for being
thus of one nature with them, "he is not ashamed to call them
brethren," as he proves from Ps. xxii. For although it be true, that,
as brethren is a term of spiritual cognation and love, he calls them
not so until they are made partakers of his Spirit, and of the saine
spiritual nature that is in him, yet the first foundation of this appel-
lation lies in his participation of the same nature with them; without
which, however he might love them, he could not properly call them
brethren. Also, his participation of their nature was that which
brought him into such a condition as wherein it was needful for
him to put his trust in God, and to look for deliverance from him in
a time of danger; which the apostle proves in the second place by a
testimony out of Ps. xviii.: which could not in any sense have been
said of Christ had he not been partaker of that nature, which is
exposed unto all kinds of wants and troubles, with outward straits
and oppositions, which the nature of angels is not. And as his
being thus of one with us made him our brother, and placed him in
that condition with us wherein it was necessary for him to put his
trust in God for deliverance; so being the principal head and first-
fruits of our nature, and therein the author and finisher of our sal-
vation, he is a father unto us, and we are his children: which the
apostle proveth by his last testimony from Isa. viii., " Behold I and
the children which the Lord hath given unto me." And further,
upon the close of these testimonies, the apostle assumes again his
proposition, and asserts it unto the same purpose, verse 14, showing
in what sense he and the children were of one, namely, in their
mutual participation of " flesh and blood."

And thus this interpretation of the word will sufficiently bear the
whole weight of the ^postle s argument and inferences. But if any
one list to extend the word further, and to comprise in it the mani-
fold relation that is between Christ and his members, I shall not
contend about it. There may be in it, — ] . Their being of one Godf
designing him and them to be one mystical body, one church, — lie
the head, they the members; 2. Their taking into one covenant,



420 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAF. II.

made originally with him, and exemplified in them ; 8. Their
being of one common princijjle of human nature; 4. Designed
unto a manifold spiritual union in respect of that new nature
Avhich the cliildren receive from him ; with every other thing that
concurs to serve the union and relation between them. But that
wliich we have insisted on is principally intended, and to be so con-
sidered by us. And we might teach from hence, that, —

III. The agreement of Christ and the elect in one common nature
is the foundation of his fitness to be an undertaker on their behalf,



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