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1-", from T,'i', "to waste" or "destroy;" as also "p-as, — which, as John tells us, is the
Hebrew name of the angel of the bottomless pit. Rev. ix. 11, as his Greek name
is ' A'TTo'hXvav, that is, r:tTi -jsVi, and c'hodpivrrig. Thirdly, The later Jews sup-
pose that this angel of death takes away the life of every man, even of those who
die a natural death. And hereby, as they express the old faith of the church,
that death is penal, and that it came upon all for sin through the temptation of
Satan, so also they discovt r the bondage that they themselves are in for fear of
death all their days; for when a man is ready to die, they say the angel of death
appears to him in a terrible manner, with a drawn sword in his hand, from thence
drops I know not what poison into him, whereon he dies. Hence they wofully
howl, lament, and rend their garments, upon the death of their friends; and they
have composed a prayer for themselves against this terror. Because also of this
their being slain by the angel of death, they hope and pray that their death may
be an expiation for all their sins. Here lies " the sting" of death, mentioned by
the apostle, 1 Cor. xv. 55. Hence they have a long story in their Midrash, or
mystical exposition of the Pentateuch, on the last section of Deuteronomy about
Samael's coming to take away the life of Moses, whom he repelled and drove
away with the rod that had the Shem Hamphorash wi-itten in it. And the like
story they have in a book about the acts of Moses, which Aben Ezra rejects on
Exod, iv. 20. This hand of Satan in death, manifesting it to be penal, is that



4SG AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. IL

which keeps them in bonckge and fear all their days. Fourthly, They suppose
that this angel of death hath power over men even after death. One liornble
penalty they fancy in particular that he inflicts on them, which i-. set down l)y
Elias in his Tishbi in -^zpTj uun, out of the Midrash of Rabbi Isaac, the son of
Painser ; for when a man, as they say, departs out of this world, n-.ttn -n'v: X3
•("■ap h-j 3'2:^-, " the angel of death comes and sits upon his grave." And he
brings with him a chiin, partly of iron, partly of fire, an<l making the soul to
return into the body, he breaks the bones, and torments variously both body and
soul for a season. This is their purgatory; and the best of their hopes is, that
their punishment after this life shall not be eternal. And this various interest of
Satan in tiie power of death both keeps thera in dismal bondage all their days,
and puts them upon the invention of several ways for their deliverance. Thus
one of their solemn prayers on the day of expiation, is to be delivered from u-an
'"'^i-pn, or this punishment of the devil in their graves; to which puri)Ose also they
offer a cock unto him for his pacification. And their prayer to this purpose in
their Bei-achoth is this, nv3»-3 "^ra '■?3"2 nvsn m'^iai wj-^ nn^Ti'o nj'^-'ym "yjn tt'
•inp Va u-arTsi asm hv nnm; — '• That it may please thee (good Lord) to deliver
us from the evil decrees" (or " law.s,') "from poverty, from contempt, from all kind
of punishments, from the judgments of hell, and from beating in the grave by the
angel of death." And this supposition is in like manner admitted by the Mo-
hammedans, who have also this prayer, "Deus noster lil^iera nos ab angelo inter-
rogante tormento sepulchri, et a via mala." And many such lewd imaginations
are they now given up unto, proceeding from their ignorance of the I'ighteuusness
of God. But yet from these apprehensions of theirs we may see what the apostle
intended in this expres.sion, calling the devil " him that had the power of death."

K«( acx«>iXa|); Tot/Tov? offo;, " Et liberaret ipsos," " hos," '• quotquot," " qui-
cunque," — "and free those who." ' h.'Trxha.Tcu is " to dismiss," "discharge," "fre ■ ;"
and in the use of the word unto the accusative case of the person, the genitive of
the thing is added or understood: 'Ax«>iaTT<y at rovrov, — "I free thee from this."
TetvTutf ix.7cotXKa,Z,iiv <ji rij; 6(f^x\jniui, Aristoph. — " To deliver thee from this eye-
sore." And sometimes the genitive case of the thing is expressed where the
accusative of the person is omitted: ' A'TrxXhoomtv (p6oov, — that is, tivu,, " to free
or deliver one from fear ;" as here the accusative case of the person is expressed
and the genitive of the thing omitted: 'A7r«XX«|ij rwrovg, — that is, (po'Soy or
^uvccrov, '• to deliver them," that is, from death or from fear because of death.

'"Euoxoi ojo-«i/ ^ov'hiiccg. "Evo)(,o? is " obnoxious," " obstrictus," " reus," " dam-
nas." He that is legally obnoxious, subject, liable to anything; that is, law,
.crime, judge, judgment, punishment, in all which respects the word is used. He
that is under the power of any law is ivo^co; tu vofiu, " subject unto its authority
and penalty." See Matt. v. 21, 22, xxvi. 66; Mark iii. 29; 1 Cur. xi. 27;
James ii. 10. Now the SovXs/ot, " servitude," or " bondage," here mentioned, is
penal, and therefore are men said to be hoxoi, "obnoxious" unto it.'

Ver. 14, 15. — Forasmuch then as [or, seeing therefore
that] the children are [u^ere in commoji] partakers of
flesh and blood, he also himself likewise [after the same
manner'] took part [did partake] of the same ; that

' Readings. — Tischendorf, on the strength of a considerable preponderance of
MS. authorities, reads «7^«toj xai au.px.6g.

Exposition. — He, in order to make us partakers in his sonship to God, has
tirst taken part in our sonship to Aciam.

TRANSLATIONS. — KciTupy. Render powerless. — Craik. Subdue him. — Stuart
Undo him. — De Welle. — Ed.



VER. 14, 15.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 437

tliroufrli [^y] death he might destroy \j7iake void the
autlwrity q/] hiin that had the power of death, that
is, tlie devil; and dehver \_free, discharge^ them who
through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to
bondage.

o

In the former verses, as was showed, the apostle declared the
necessity that there was on the part of God, intending to bring
many sons unto glory, to constitute such a union between them
and the captain of tlieir salvation as that it might be just for him
to suffer in their stead. In these he proceeds to manifest in par-
ticular what that nature is in the common participation whereof
the union designed did consist, wherein they were all of one, and
what were the especial reasons why the Lord Christ was made par-
taker of that nature. This coherence of these verses Chrysostoin
briefly gives us: E/ra bii^ccg rr^v ddsX(p6rriTa, xai r^v aJriav ri&r^Gi tyu
oixovofMi'ag, — " Having showed the brotherhood" (that was between
Christ and the children) " he lays down the causes of that dispen-
sation;" and what they are we shall find here expressed.

There are sundry things which the apostle supposeth in these
words as known unto and granted by the Hebrews; as, first, that
the devil had the power of death; secondly, that on this account
men were filled with fear of it, and led a life full of anxiety and
trouble by reason of that fear; thirdly, that a deliverance from this
cundition was to be effected by the Messiah ; fourthly, that the way
wliere!)y he was to do this was by his suffering. All which, as they
are contained in the first promise, so that they were allowed of by
the Hebrews of old we have fully proved elsewhere. And by all
these doth the apostle yield a reason of his former concession, that
the Messiah was for a little while made lower than the angels, the
causes and ends whereof he here declares. There are in the
words, —

First, A supposition of a twofold state and condition of the chil-
dren to be brought unto glory: — 1. Natural, or their natural state
and condition; they were all of them in common partakers of flesh
and blood: "Forasmuch then as the children were partakers of
flesh and blood." 2. Moral, their moral state and condition ; they
were obnoxious unto death, as it is penal for sin, and in great bon-
dage through fear of it: " Them who through fear of death were all
their lifetime subject to bondage."

Secondl}'^, There is a double affirmation with respect unto this suj)-
position, on the part of Christ, the captain of salvation : — 1. As
to their natural condition, that he did pay-take of it, he was so to
do: "He also himself did partake of the same." 2. As to their
moral condition, he freed them from it: " And deliver them."



438 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. IL

Thirrlly, The means whereby he did this, or this was to be done,
evidencing the necessity of his participation with them in their
condition of nature, that he might relieve them from their condition
of trouble ; he did it by death : " That by death."

Fourthly, The immediate effect of his death, tending unto their
delivery and freedom, and that is the destruction of the devil, as to
his power over and interest in death as penal, whereof their deliver-
ance is an infallible consequent: " That he might destroy him," etc.

In the first place the apostle expresseth, as by way of supposition,
]. The natural condition of the children, — that is, the children whom
God designed to bring unto glory, those who were given unto
Christ ; they were in common " partakers of flesh and blood." I shall
not stay to remove the conceit of some, who yet are not a few among
the Romanists, who refer these words unto the participation of the
flesh and blood of Christ in the sacrament; whereunto also, as we
have observed, the Ethiopic version gives countenance: for not only
is there not any thing in the expression that inclines unto such an
imagination, but also it enervates the whole design of the apostle's
discourse and argument, as from the former consideration of it doth
appear. " Flesh and blood" are, by a usual synecdoche, put for the
whole human nature; not as though by "blood" the soul were in-
tended, because the life is said to be in it, as not acting without it;
but this expression is used, because it is not human nature as ab-
solutely considered, but as mortal, passible, subject unto infirmities
and death itself, that is intended. And it is no more than if he had
said, ' The children were men subject unto death;' for he gives his
reason herein why the Lord Christ was made a man subject unto
death. That he and the children should be of one nature he had
showed before. Forasmuch, then, as this was the condition of
the children, that they were all partakers of human nature, liable
to sufferings, sorrow, and death, he was so also. And this is thus
expressed to set forth the love and condescension of Jesus Christ,
as will afterward appear.

2. The second thing in these words is the moral condition of the
children. And there are sundry things, partly intimated, partly
expressed, in the description that is here given us of it; as, — (1.)
Their estate absolutely considered, — they were subject to death:
(2.) The consequences of that estate, — [1.] It wrought/ear in them;
[2.] That fear brought them into bondage: (3.) The continuance
of that condition, — it was for the whole course of their lives.

(1.) It is implied that they were subject, obnoxious unto, guilty
of death, and that as it was penal, due to sin, as contained in the
curse of the law; which what it comprehendeth and how far it is
extended is usually declared. On this supposition lies the whole
wui-ht of the mediation of Christ. The children to be brought



VER, 14, 15.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 4o9

unto glory were obnoxious unto death, and the curse and wrath of
God therein, which he came to deliver them from.

(2.) [1.] The first effect and consequent of this obnoxiousnrss
unto death concurring unto their state and condition is, that they
were filled luithfear of it: " For fear of death." Fear is a pertur-
bation of mind, arising from the apprehension of a future imminent
evil; and the greater this evil is, the greater will the perturbation
of the mind be, provided the apprehension of it be answerable. The
fear of death, then, here intended, is that trouble of mind which men
have in the expectation of death to be inflicted on them, as a pun-
ishment due unto their sins. And this apprehension is common to
all men, arising from a general presumption that death is penal, and
that it is the "judgment of God that they which commit sin are
worth}'' of death," as Rom. i. 32, ii. 15. But it is cleared and con-
firmed by the law, whose known sentence is, " The soul that sinneth
it shall die." And this troublesome expectation of the event ol
this apprehension is the fear of death here intended. And accord-
ing unto the means that men have to come unto the knowledge of
the righteousness of God are, or ought to be, their apprehensions of
the evil that is in death. But even those who had lost all clear
knowledge of the consequences of death natural, or the dissolution
of their present mortal condition, yet, on a confused apprehension of
its being penal, always esteemed it foZspm (po^spuirarov, — the moat
dreadful of all things that are so unto human nature. And in some
this is heightened and increased, until it come to be poCspd Ix^oy^^
xpldfMg, xai 'jrvph; ^^Xog, hdlsiv fiiXXovro; roig b-Trivavriovg, as our apostle
speaks, chap. x. 27, — " a fearful expectation of judgment and fiery
indignation, which shall devour the adversaries." And this is the
first thing that is in this description of the estate and condition
of the children to be brought unto glory. Being obnoxious unto the
sentence of death, they could not but live in fear of the execution
of it. [2.] They are by this means brought into bondage. The
troublesome expectation of death as penal brings them into bondage,
into the nature whereof we must a little inquire. Sundry things
concur to make any state a state of bondage; as, Ist. That it be in-
voluntary. No man is in bondage by his will ; that which a man
chooseth is not bondage unto him. A man that would have his ear
bored, though he were always a servant, was never in bondage; for
he enjoyed the condition that pleased him. Properly all bondage is
involuntary. '2.dly. Bondage ingenerates strong desires after, and puts
men on all manner of attempts for liberty. Yokes gall, and make
them on whom they are desire ease. So long as men are sensible of
bondage, which is against nature (for that which is not so is not
bondage), they will desire and labour for liberty. When some in
the Roman senate asked an ambassador of the Privernates, after they



440 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CUAP. XL

were overthrown in battle, if they granted them peace, how they
would keep it, what peace they should have with them? he answered,
" Si bonam dederitis, et fidam et perpetuam ; si malam, hand diutur-
nam." Whereat some in the senate stormed, as if he had threatened
them with war and rebellion; but the wiser sort commended him as
one that spake like a man and a freeman, adding as their reason, "An
credi posse, ullum populum, aut hominem denique in ea conditione,
cujus eum poeniteat, diutius quam necesse sit raansurum," Liv., lib. viii.
cap. xxi. So certain it is that bondage wearieth and stirreth up restless
desires in all, and endeavours in some after liberty. 'Sdly. Bondage
pi-rplexeth the mind. It ariseth from fear, the greatest perturbation
of the mind, and is attended with weariness and distrust ; all which are
perplexing. 4thly. Where bondage is complete, it lies in a tendency
unto future and greater evils. Such is the bondage of condemned
malefactors, reserved for the day of execution; such is the bondage
of Satan, who is kept in chains of darkness for the judgment of the
great day. And all these things concur in the bondage here in-
tended; which is a dejected, troublesome state and condition of
mind, arising from the apprehension and fear of death to be inflicted,
and their disability in whom it is to avoid it, attended with fruitless
desires and vain attempts to be delivered from it, and to escape the
evil feared. And this is the condition of sinners out of Christ,
whereof there are various degrees, answerable unto their convictions;
for the apostle treats not here of men's being servants unto sin,
winch is voluntary, but of their sense of the guilt of sin, which is
wrought in them even whether they will or no, and by any means
tliey would cast ofif the yoke of it, though by none are they able so
to do : for, —

(3.) They are said to continue in this estate all their lives.
Not that they were always perplexed with this bondage, but that
they could never be utterl}' freed from it; for the apostle doth not
say that they were thus in bondage all their days, but that they
were obnoxious and " subject" unto it. They had no ways to free or
deliver themselves from it, but that at any time they might righteously
be brought under its power; and the more they cast off the thoughts
of it, the more they increased their danger. This was the estate
of the children whose deliverance was undertaken by the Lord
Clirist, the captain of their salvation. And we may hence observe
that, —

I. All sinners are subject unto death as it is penal. The first
sentence reacheth them all, Gen. ii. 17; and thence are they said to
be " by nature children of wrath," Eph. ii. 3, — obnoxious unto death,
to be inflicted in a way of Vv'rath and revenge for sin. This passeth
upon "all, inasmuch as all have sinned," Rom. v. 12. This all men
see and know; but all do not sufficiently consider what is contained



VER. 14, 15.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 441

ill the sentence of death, and very few 1k)\v it may be avoided.
Most men look on death as the common lot and condition of man-
kind, upon the account of their frail natural condition ; as though it
belonged to the natural condition of the children, and not the moral,
and were a consequent of their being, and not the demerit of their
sin. They consider not that although the principles of our nature
are in themselves subject unto a dissolution, yet if vve had kept the
law of our creation, it had been prevented by the power of God, en-
gaged to continue life during our cbedience. Life and obedience
were to be commensurate, until temporal obedience ended in life
eternal. Death is penal, and its being common unto all hinders not
but that it is the punishment of every one. How it is changed unto
believers by the death of Christ shall be afterward declared. In the
meantime, all mankind are condemned as soon as born. Lite is a
reprieve, a suspension of execution. If during that time a pardon
be not effectually sued out, the sentence will be executed according
to the severity of justice. Under this law are men now born; this
yoke have they put on themselves by their apostasy from God.
Neither is it to any purpose to repine against it or to conflict with
it; there is but one way of delivery.

II. Fear of death, as it is penal, is inseparable from sin, before
the sinner be delivered by the death of Christ. They were in '* fear
of death." There is a fear of death that is natural, and inseparable
from our present condition; that is but nature's aversation of its
own dissolution. And this hath various degrees, occasioned by the
differences of men's natural constitution, and other accidental occur-
rences and occasions: so that some seem to fear death too much,
and others not at all; I mean of those who are freed from it as it
is in the curse and under the power of Satan. But this difference
is from occasions foreign and accidental ; there is in all naturally the
same aversation of it. And this is a guiltless infirmity, like our
weariness and sickness, inseparably annexed unto the condition of
mortality. But sinners in their natural state fear death as it is
penal, as an issue of the curse, as under the power of Satan, as a
dreadful entrance into eternal ruin. There are, indeed, a thousand
ways whereby this fear is for a season stifled in the minds of men.
Some live in brutish ignorance, never receiving any full convicti ^n
of sin, judgment, or eternity. Some put off the thoughts of their
present and future estate, resolving to shut their eyes and rush into
it, wlienas they can no longer avoid it. Fear presents itself unto
them as the forerunner of death, but they avoid the encounter, and
leave themselves to the power of death itself. Some please them-
selves with vain hopes of deliverance, though well they know not
how nor why they should be partakers of it. But let men forego
these helpless shifts, and suffer their own innate light to be excited



442 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. IL

^viLll such means of conviction as they do enjoy, and they will
quickly find what a judgment there is made in their own souls con-
cerning death to come, and what effects it will produce. They will
conclude that it is "the judgment of God, that they which commit
sin are worthy of death," Rom. i. 32; and then their own con-
sciences do accuse and condemn them, Rom. ii. 14, 15; whence un-
avoidably fear, dread, and terror will seize upon them. And then, —

III. Fear of death, as penal, renders the minds of men obnoxious
%mto bondage; which what it is we have in part hefore declareil.
It is a state of trouble, which men dislike, but cannot avoid. It is
a penal disquietment, arising from a sense of future misery. Faiu
would men quit themselves of it, but they are not able. There is a
chain of God in it not to be broken. Men may gall themselves with
it, but cannot remove it; and if God take it from them without grant-
ing them a lawful release and delivery, it is to their further misery.
And this is, in some measure or other, the portion of every one that
is convinced of sin before he is freed by the gospel. And some
have disputed what degrees of it are necessary before believing. But
"what is necessary for any one to attain unto is his duty; but this
bondage can be the duty of no man, because it is involuntary. It
will follow conviction of sin, but it is no man's duty; rather, it is
such an effect of the law as every one is to free himself from, so soon
as he may in a right way and manner. This estate, then, befalls
men whether they will or no. And this is so if we take bondage
pa.ssivelv, as it affects the soul of the sinner; which thy apostle
seems to intend by placing it as an effect of the fear of death. Tuke
it actively, and it is no more than the sentence of the law, which
works and causeth it in the soul; and so all sinners are inevitably
obnoxious unto it. And this estate, as we observed, fills men with
desires after, and puts them upon various attempts for deliverance.
Some desire only present ease, and they commonly withdraw them-
selves from it by giving up themselves wholly unto their hearts'
lusts, and therein to atiieism ; which God oftentimes, in his righteous
judgment, gives them up unto, knowing that the day is coming
wherein their present woful temporal relief will be recompensed with
eternal misery. Some look forward unto what is to come, and ac-
cording to their light and assistance variously apply themselves to
seek relief; some do it by a righteousness of their own, and in the
pursuit thereof also there are ways innumerable, not now to be in-
sisted on; and some do it by Christ, which how it is by him effected
the apostle in the next place declares.

Two things, as was showed, are affirmed of the Lord Christ, in
consequence unto the premised supposition of the children's being
partakers of flesh and blood, and of their obnoxiousness unto death
and to bondage : — 1. That of their natural condition he himself



VER. 14, 15.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 443


partook. 2. That from their wora^ condition he delivered them;
whicli that he might do, it was necessary that he should partake of
the other.

1. " He himself likewise did partake of the same." The word
'Trapa'xXrisiug, " hkewise," " in like manner," doth denote
sucii a Similitude as is consistent with a specihcai iden-
tity. And therefore Chrysostom from hence urgeth the Marcionites
and Valentinians, who denied the reality of the Immau nature of
Christ, seeing that he partook of it in like manner with us; that is,
truly and really, even as we do. But yet the word, by force of its
composition, doth intimate some disparity and difference: ' He took
part of human nature really as we do, and almost in like manner
with us.' For there were two differences between his being partaker
of human nature and ours: — First, In that we subsist singly in tliat
nature; but he took his portion in this nature into subsistence with
himself in the person of the Son of God. Secondly, This nature in
us is attended with many infirmities, that follow the individual



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