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persons that are partakers of it; in him it was free from them all.
And this the apostle also intimates in the word //.sria^i, changing
his expression from that whereby he declared the common interest
of the children in the same nature, which is every way equal and
alike. The whole is, that he took his own portion, in his own
manner, unto himself.

And this observation removes what is hence objected against the
deity of Christ. " Cum Christus," saith Schlichtingius, " hominum
mortalium et fragilium dux et fautor sit, propterea is non angelus
aliquis, multo vero minus ipse Deus summus qui solus immortalita-
tera habet, sed homo suo tempore malis, et variis calamitatibus ob-
noxius esse debuit." It is true, it appears from hence that Christ
ought to be a man, subject to sufferings and death, and not an
angel, as the apostle further declares in the next verse; but that he
ought not to be God doth not appear. As God, indeed, he could not
die; but if he who was God had not taken part of flesh and hlood,
God could not have redeemed his church " with his own blood.'"
But this is the perpetual paralogism of these men: " Because Christ
is asserted to have been truly a man, therefore he is not God;"
which is to deny the gospel, and the whole mystery of it.

He proceeds with his exceptions against the ajoplication of these
words unto the incarnation of the Lord Christ; the sum whereof is,
' That the words irapa.'xXT^Giui iMiTss-xi denote a universal conformity
or specific identit}^ between Christ and the children, not only as to
the essence, but also as to all other concernments of human nature,
or else no benefit could redound unto them from what he did or
suffered.' But, — (1.) The words do not assert any such thing, as
hath been declared ; ('2.) It is not true. The children were partakers



44)4 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CIIAP. IT.


of human nature either by creation out of the dust of the earth, as
Adam, or by natural generation ; the Lord Christ was conceived of
a virgin, by the power of the Holy Ghost; — and yet the benefit re-
dounds unto the children. It is evident, then, that the similitude
urged by the apostle is confined to the substance of flesh and i)lood,
or the essence of human nature, and is not to be extended unto the
personal concernments of the one or the other, nor to the way whereby
they became partakers of the same nature. Nor is the argument
for the incarnation of Christ taken merely from the expressions in
this verse; but whereas he had before proved him to be above and
before the angels, even God over all, and here intimateth his exists
ence antecedent to his participation of flesh and blood, his incarna-
tion doth necessarily ensue.

2. The necessity of this incarnation of Christ, with respect unto tlie
end of it, hath before been declared, evinced, and confirmed. V/e
shall now stay only a little to admire the love, grace, and mystery
of it. And we see here, —

IV. That the Lord Christ, out of his inexpressible love, willingly
submitted himself unto every condition of the children to be saved
by him, and to every thing in every condition of them, sin only
excepted.

They being of flesh and blood, which must be attended with many
infirmities, and exposed unto all sorts of temptations and miseries,
he himself would also partake of the same. His delight was of old
in the sons of men, Prov. viii. 31, and his heart was full of thoughts
of love towards them; and that alone put him on this resolution,
Gal. ii. 20; Rev. i. 5. When God refused sacrifices and burnt-ofl'er-
ings, as insufficient to make the atonement required, and the matter
was rolled on his hand alone, it was a joy unto him that he had a
body prepared wherein he might discharge his work, although he
knew what he had to do and suffer therein, Ps. xl. 7, 8 ; Heb. x. 5-9.
He rejoiced to do the will of God, in taking the body prepared for
him, because the children were partakers of flesh and blood. Though
he was " in the form of God," equal unto him, yet " that mind," that
love, that affection towards us, was in him, that to be like unto us,
and thereby to save us, " he emptied himself, and took on him the
form of a servant," our foi-m, and became like unto us, Phil. ii. 5-8.
He would be like unto us, that he might make us like unto himself;
he would take our flesh, that he might give unto us his Spirit; he
would join himself unto us, and become "one flesh" with us, that we
might be joined unto him, and become "one spirit" with him, 1 Cor.
vi. 17. And as this was a fruit of his eternal antecedent love, so it
is a spring of consequent love. When Eve was brought unto Adam
after she was taken out of him. Gen. ii. 23, to manifest the ground
of that affection whicn was to be always between them, he says of



VER. 14, 15.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 445

her, " This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh." And
by this condescension of Christ, saith the apostle, we are " members
of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones," Eph. v. 30; whence lie
infers that he loves and nourisheth his church, as a man doth his
own flesh. And how should this inexpressible love of Christ con-
strain us to love him and to live unto him, 2 Cor. v. 14; as also
to labour to be like unto him, wherein all our blessedness consisteth,
seeing for that end he was willing to be like unto us, whence all his
troubles and sufferings arose ! Here also we see that, —

V. It was only in flesh and blood, the substance and essence of
human nature, and not in our personal infirmities, that the Lord
Christ was made like unto us.

He took to himself the nature of all men, and not the person of
any man. We have not only human nature in common, but we
have every one particular infirmities and weaknesses following that
nature, as existing in our sinful persons. Such are the sicknesses
aud pains of our bodies from inward distempers, and the disorder of
the passions of our minds. Of these the Lord Christ did not par-
take It was not needful, it was not possible that he should do so;
— not needful, because he could provide for their cure without as-
suming them; not possible, for they can have no place in a nature
innocent and holy. And therefore he took our nature, not by an
immediate new creation out of nothing, or of the dust of the earth,
like Adam; for if so, though he might have been like unto us, yet
he would have been no kin to us, and so could not have been our
Goel, to whom the right of redemption did belong: nor by natural
generation, which would have rendered our nature in him obnoxious
to the sin ana punishment of Adam: but by a miraculous concep-
tion of a virgin, whereby he had truly our nature, yet not subject
on its own account unto any one of those evils whereunto it is liable
as propagated from Adam in an ordinary course. And thus, though
he was joined unto us in our nature, yet as he was " holy, harmless,
and undefiled" in that nature, he was " separate from sinners," Heb.
vii. 2b'. So that although our nature suffered more in his person
than it was capable of in the person of any mere man, yet, net being
debased by any sinful imperfection, it was always excellent, beau-
tiful, and glorious. And then, —

VL That the Son of God should take part in human nature with
the children is the greatest and most admirable effect of divine love,
wisilom, aud grace.

So our apostle proposeth it, 1 Tim. iii. 16, — a mystery which the
angels with all diligence desire to look into, 1 Pet. i. 11, 12. See
John i. 14; Isa. ix. 6; Rom. ix. 5. Atheists scoff at it, deluded
Christians deny it; but tlie angels adore it, the church professeth it,
believers find the comfort and benefit of it. " The heavens." indeed.



446 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [niAP. II.

"declare the glory of God, and the firmament showeth his liandy-
•work," Ps. xix. 1; and "the invisible things of God from the creation
ol' the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that
are made, even his eternal power and Godhead," Rom. i. 20. In
particular, man himself is "fearfully and wonderfully made." These
works of God's power and providence do greatly manifest the glory
of his wisdom, omnipotency, and goodness, and are like the liglit,
which was created on the first day, at the beginning of all things, as
we have showed. But in this instance, "of assuming human nature
into personal subsistence with himself, that scattered light is gatliered
into one sun, giving out most glorious beams, unto the manifesta-
tion of his infinite excellencies far above all other things. And this
surely was not done but for the greatest end that can be conceived ;
and such is the salvation of sinners.

But we must proceed with our apostle; and he gives the reason
and end of this wonderful dispensation. The end is, the delivery of
the children from the condition before described. And, first, the
means whereby he wrought and brought about this end is proposed
unto us : " By death," — he was to do it by death.

" That by death he might deliver them;" that is, by his own death.
This, as it is placed as one principal end of his being made partaker
of flesh and blood, so it is also the means of the further end aimed
at, namely, the delivery of the children out of the condition ex-
p)essed. Some translations add, "By his own death," — which is evi-
dently understood, though it be not literally in the text, — the death
which he underwent in the nature of man, whereof he was partaker.
His death was the means of delivering them from death. Some
distinguish between death in tlie first place which Christ under-
went, and that death in the close of the verse which the children
are said to be in fear of; for this latter, they say, is more extensive
than the former, as comprising death eternal also. But there doth
not any thing in the text appear to intimate that the captain of sal-
vation by death of one kind should deliver the children from that
of another; neither will the apostle's discourse well bear such a sup-
position. For if he might have freed the children by any way or
means as well as by undergoing that which was due unto them for
sin, whence could arise that indispensable necessity which he pleads
for by so many considerations of his being made like unto them,
seeing without the participation of their nature which he urgeth he
might have done any other thing for their good and benefit, but
only suffer what was due to them? And if it be said that with-
out this participation of their nature he could not die, which it
was necessary that he should do, I desire to know, if the death
which he was to undergo was not that death which tJiey were ob-
no.vivus unto for Nvhom he died, how could it be any way more bene-



VER It, 15.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 447

ficial unto them than any thing else which he might have done for
them, although he had not died? There is no ground, then, to ])i-e-
tend such an amphibology in the words as that which some contend
for. Now, as we observed before, the death of Christ is here placed
in the midst, as the end of one thing, and the means or cause of
anotiier, — the end of his own incarnation, and the means of the
children's deliverance. From the first v/e may see, —

VII. That the first and principal end of the Lord Christ's assum-
ing human nature, was not to reign in it, but to sutfer and die in it.

He was, indeed, from of old designed unto a kingdom ; but he was
to " suffer," and so to enter into his glory, Luke xxiv. 26. And he so
speaks of his coming into the world to suffer, to die, to bear witness
unto the truth, as if that had been the only work that he was incar-
nate for. Glory was to follow, a kingdom to ensue, but suffering and
dying were the principal work he came about. Glory he had with
his Father " before the world was," John xvii. 5; and therein a joint
rule with him over all the works of his hands. He need not have
been made partaker of flesh and blood to have been a king; for he
was the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the King of kings and
Lord of lords, the only Potentate, from everlasting. But he could not
have died if he had not been made partaker of our nature. And
therefore, " when the people would have taken him by force, and
made him a king," he hid himself from them, John vi, 15; but ho
hid not himself when they came to take him by force and put him to
death, but affirmed that for that hour, or business, he came into the
world, John xviii. 4, 5, IL And this further sets forth his love and
Condescension. He saw the work that was proposed unto him, — how
he was to be exposed unto miseries, afflictions, and persecutions, and
at length to " make his soul an offering for sin," — yet, because it was
all for the salvation of the children, he was contented with it and
delighted in it. And how, then, ought we to be contented with the
difficulties, sorrows, afflictions, and persecutions, which for his sake
Ave are or may be exposed unto, when he on purpose took our na-
ture, that /or our sakes he might be exposed and subject unto much
more than we are called unto !

There yet remain in these verses the effects of the death of Christ:
"Tliat he might destroy sin, and deliver," etc.; v.herein we mu^t
consider, — 1. ]17i0 it is that had the power of death; 2. Wherein
that power of his did consist; 3. How he was destroyed; 4. How
by the death of Christ; 5. What was the delivery that was obtained
for the children thereby.

L He that had the power of death is described by his name, o bid-
/3oXo5, "the devil;" — the great enemy of our salvation; the great
Calumniator, make-bate, and false accuser; the firebrand of the crea-
tion; the head and captaiu of the apostasy from God, ami of all

VOL. XII.— 29



448 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. II.

desertion of the law of the creation; the old serpent, the prince of the
apostate angels, with all his associates, who first falsely accused God
unto man, and continues to accuse men falsely unto God : of whom
before.

2. His power in and over death is variously apprehended. What
the Jews conceive hereof we have before declared, and much of tlie
truth is mixed with their fables; and the apostle deals with thera
upon their acknowledgment in general that he had the power of
death. Properly in what sense, or in Avhat respect, he is said so to
have it, learned expositors are not agreed. All consent, (1.) That
the devil hath no absolute or sovereign, supreme power over death;
nor, (2.) Any i^oveia, or " authority" about it, " de jure," in his own
right, or on grant, so as to act lawfully and rightly about it accord-
ing unto his own will; nor, (.8.) Any judging or determining power
as to the guilt of death committed unto him, which is peculiar to
God, the supreme rector and judge of all, Gen. ii. 17, Deut. xxxii.
Sy, Rev. i. 18.

But wherein this power of Satan doth positively consist they are
not agreed. Some place it in his temptations unto sin, which bind
unto death; some, in his execution of the sentence of death, — he hath
the power of an executioner. There cannot well be any doubt hut
that the whole interest of Satan in reference unto death is intend' d
in this expression. This death is that which was threatened in the
beginning. Gen. ii. 17, — death penally to be inflicted in the way of a
curse, Deut. xxvii. 26, Gal. iii. JO; that is, death consisting in the
dissolution of soul and body, with every thing tending penally there-
unto, with the everlasting destruction of body and soul. And there
are sundry things wherein the xpdrog, or power of Satan in reference
unto this death doth consist; as, — (1.) He was the 7neavs of bring-
ing it into the world. So is the opinion of the Jews in this matter
expressed in the book of Wisdom, written, as is most probable, by
one of them not long before this e^Distle. They tell us, chap. i. 13, *0
Qio; '^ai/aroi/ oux sToirisi, — "God made not death," it belonged not imto
the original constitution of all things; but, chap. ii. 24, ^JJnij hiaZoXau
^duarog uon'Kkv ilg rov xoc/iov, — "By the envy of the devil death entered
into the world." And that expression of ihn'kdiv ug rhv -/.odfj^ov is re-
tained by the apostle, Rom. v. 12; only he lays the end of it on the
morally-deserving cause, the sin of man, as here it is laid on the
efficiently-procuring cause, the envy of the devil. And herein con-
sisted no small part of the power of Satan with respect unto death,
i^eitig able to introduce sin, he had power to bring in death also,
which, in the righteous judgment of God, and by the sentence of the
law, was inseparably annexed thereunto. And, by a parity of reason,
so far as he yet continueth to have power over sin, deserving death,
he haih power over death itself.



VEK. 14, 15.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 440

(2.) Sin and death being thus entered into the world, and all
mankind being guilty of the one and obnoxious unto the other,
Satan came thereby to be their jJ't^ince, as being the prince or author
of that state and condition whereinto they are brought. Hence he
is called "the prince of this world," John xii. 31, and the "god" uf
it, 2 Cor. iv. 4; inasmuch as all the world are under tlie guilt of that
sin and death which he brought them into.

(3.) God having passed the sentence of death against sin, it was
in the power of Satan to terrify and affright the consciences of men
with the expectation and dread of it, so bringing them into bondage.
And many God gives up unto him, to be agitated and terrified as it
were at his pleasure. To tliis end were persons excommunicate
given up unto Satan to vex them, 1 Tim. i. 20. He threatens them
as an executioner with the work that he hath to do upon them.

(4.) God hath ordained him to be the executioner of the sentence
of death upon stubborn sinners unto all eternity; partly for the aggia-
vation of their punishment, when they shall ».lways see, and with-
out relief bewail, their folly in hearkening unto his allurements; and
partly to punish himst- If in his woful employment. And for the.^e
several reasons is Satan said to have the power of death. And
hence it is evident that, —

VIII. All the power of Satan in the world over any of the sons
of men is founded in sin and the guilt of death attending it. Death
entered by sin; the guilt of sin brought it in. Herewith comes in
Satan's interest, without which he could have no more to do in the
earth than he hath in heaven. And according a^ sin abounds or isj
subdued, so his power is enlarged or straitened. |>As he is a spirit,
he is mighty, strong, wise; as sinful, he is malicious, subtle, ambi-
tious, revengeful, proud. ) Yet none of all these gives him his power.
He that made him can cause his sword to pierce unto him, and pre-
serve man, though weak and mortal, from all his force as a mighty
spirit, and his attempts as a wicked one. And yet these are the
things in him that men are generally afraid of, when yet by them
he cannot reach one hair of their heads. But here lies the founda-
tion of his power, even in sin, which so few regard. Tnen, —

IX. All sinners out of Christ are under the power of Satan.
They belong unto that kingdom of death whereof he is the princt^ and
ruler. " The whole world lies h rui Tovripuj," — "in the power of ihis
wicked one." If the guilt of death be not removed from any, thrf
power of the devil extends unto them. A power it is, indeeil, that
is regulated. Were it sovereign or absolute, he would continually
devour. But it is limited unto times, seasons, and degrees, by the
Avill of God, the judge of all. But yet great it is, and answerable
unto his titles, the prince, the god of- the world. And however men
may flatter themselves, as the Jews did of old, that they are free,



450 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. IL

if they are not freed by an interest in the death of Christ, they are
in bondage unto this beastly tyrant; and as he works effectually in
them here, he will ragingly inflict vengeance on them hereafter.

S. He is destroyed : " Destroy him." The sense and importance
of the word here used was before declared. It is not applied
unto the nature, essence, or being of the devil, but unto his power
in and over death; as it is elsewhere declared, John xii. 31, " Now
is the judgment of this world, now is the prince of this world cast
cwt" That which is here called the destroying of the devil, is there
called the casting out of the prince of this world. It is the casting
him out of his power, from his princedom and rule; as Col. ii. 15,
" Having spoiled principalities and powers, he made an open show
of them, triumphing over them in his cross ;^' as conquerors used to
do when they had not slain the persons of their enemies, but de-
prived them of their rule, and led them captive. The destruction,
tl:ien, here intended of " him that iiad the power of death," is the
dissolution, evacuation, and removing of that power which he had in
and over death, with all the effects and consequences of it. }

4. The means whereby Satan was thus destroyed is also expressed.
It was " by death," by liis own death. This of all others seemed
the most unlikely way and means, but indeed was not only the best,
but the only way whereby it might be accomplished. Ami the
manner how it was done thereby must be declared and vindicated.
The fourfold power of Satan in reference unto death, before men-
tioned, was all founded in sin. The obligation of the sinner unto
death was that which gave him all his power. The taking away, then,
of that obligation must needs be the dissolution of his power. The
foundation being removed, all that is built upon it must needs fall to
the ground. Now this, in reference unto the children for whom he
died, was done in the death of Christ, — virtually in his death itself,
actually in the application of it unto them. When tiie sinner ceaseth
to be obnoxious unto death, the power of Satan ceaseth also. And
this every one doth that hath an interest in the death of Christ: for
" there is no condemnation unto them that are in Christ Jesus,"
Rom. viii. 1 ; and this because he died. He died for their sins, took
that death upon himself whicli was due unto them; which being
conquered thereby, and their obligation thereunto ceasing, the
power of Satan is therewith dissolved. /The first branch of his power
•consisted in the bringing of sin into tne world. This is dissolved by
Christ's " taking away the sin of the world," John i. 29 ; which he
did as " the Lamb of God," by the sacrifice of liimself in his deatl^
typified by the paschal lamb and all other sacrifices of old. Again,
his power consisted in his rule in the world, as cast under sin and
death. From this he was cast out, John xii. 31, in the death of
Christ. When contending with him for the continuance of his



VER. 14, 15.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 451

sovereignty, he was conquered, the ground whereon he stood, even
the guilt of sin, being taken away from under him, and his title de-
feated. And actually believers are translated from under his rule,
from the power of darkness, into the kingdom of light and of the
Son of God. Nor can he longer make use of death as penal, as
threatened in the curse of the law, to terrify and affright the con-
sciences of men: for " being justified by faith" in the death of Christ,
" they have peace with God,'' Rom. v. 1. Christ making peace be-
tween God and us by the blood of his cross, Eph. ii. 14, 15, 2 Cor.
V. 19-2], the weapons of this part of his power are wrested out of
his hand, seeing death hath no power to terrify the conscience, but
as it expresseth the curse of God. And, lastly, his final execution
of the sentence of death upon sinners is utterly taken out of his hand
by the death of Christ, inasmuch as they for whom he died shall
never undergo death penally. And thus was Satan, as to his power
over death, fully destroyed by the death of Christ. And all this
depended on God's institution, appointing the satisfactory sufferings
of Christ, and accepting them instead of the sufferings of the chil-
dren themselves.

The Socinians give us another exposition of these words, as know-
inof that insisted on to be no less destructive of their error than the
death of Christ is of the power of the devil. The reason hereof,
saith Schhchtingius, is, "Quia per mortem Christusadeptus estsupre-
niam potestatem in omnia; qua omnes inimicos suos quorum caput
est diabolus, coercet;^ eorum vires frangit, eosque tandem penitus
abolebit." But if this be so, and the abolishing of the power of
Satan be an act of sovereign power, then it was not done by the
death of Christ, nor was there any need that he should partake of



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