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contended must needs be in his hand, to change and alter them as
he saw good. [2.] He being the heir and lord of all things, it was
easy for them to conclude, that if they intended to be made partakers
of any good in heaven or earth, in a way of love and mercy, it must
be by an interest in him ; which without a constant abode in obedi-
ence unto his gospel cannot be attained.

(8.) The next words evince this sense, "By whom also he made the
worlds." Probably they render a reason of the equitableness of this
great trust made to the Son. He made all, and it was meet he
should be Lord of all. However, the force of the connection of the
words, 8i' o£ xa/ roue aiSJvag, '" by whom also he made the worlds,"
equals the ^avrcoi/, the " all" foregoing, to the aiuvag, or the " worlds"
following.

(4 ) The inheritance given answers the promise of it unto Abraham,
which was that he should be " heir of the world," Rom. iv. 13, namely,
in his seed, Gal. iii. 16; as also the request made by Christ on that
promise, Ps. ii. 8: both whicli extend it to the whole world, the
ends of the earth.

(5.) The original and rise of this inheritance of Christ will give us
its true extent, which must therefore more especially be considered.

Upon the creation of man, God gave unto him a dominion over
all things in this lower world. Gen. i. 28, 29. He made him his heir,
vicegerent, and substitute in the earth. And as for those other
creatures to which his power and authority did not immediately ex-
tend, as the sun, moon, and stars, the whole inanimate host of the
superior world, they were ordered by Him that made them to serve
for his good and behoof, Gen. i. 14; Deut. iv. 19 ; so that even they
also in a sort belonged unto his inheritance, being made to serve
him in his subjection unto God.

Further, besides this lower part of his dominion, God had for his
glory created angels in heaven above; of whom we shall have occa-
sion hereafter to treat. These made up another branch of God's
providential kingciom, the whole administered in the upper and
lower world, being of each other independent, and meeting in
nothing but their dependence upon and subjection unto God him-
self. Hence they did not so stand in the condition of their creation^



44 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. I.

"but that one kind or race of them might fail and perish without any
impeachment of the other. So also it came to pass. Man might
have persisted in his honour and dignity notwithstanding the fall
and apostasy of some of the angels. When he fell from his heirship
and dominion, the whole subordination of all things unto him, and
by him unto God, Avas lost, and all creatures returned to an imme-
diate absolute dependence on the government of God, without any
respect to the authority and sovereignty delegated unto man. But
as the fall of angels did not in its own nature prejudice mankind,
no more did this fall of man the angels that persisted in tlieir
obedience, they being no part of his inheritance. However, by the
sin, apostasy, and punishment, of that portion of the angels which
kept not their first station, it was manifested how possible it was
that the remainder of them might sin after the simiUtudc of their
transgression. Things being brought into this condition, — one branch
of the kingdom of God, under the administration of man, or allotted
to his service, being cast out of that order wherein he had placed it,
and the other in an open possibility of being so also, — it seemed good
to the Lord, in his infinite wisdom, to erect one kingdom out of these
two disordered members of his first dominion, and to appoint one
common heir, head, ruler, and lord to them both. And this was
the Son, as the apostle tells us, Eph. i. 10: "He gathered together
in one all things in Christ, botli which are in heaven, and which
are on earth ; even in him." He designed ava-AnpayMiwcsaa&ai, " to
bring all into one head" and rule in liim. It is not a similitude
t:iken from casting up accounts, wherein lesser sums are in the close
brought into one head, as some have imagined ; nor yet an allusion
to orators, who in the close of their long orations sum up the matter
they have at large treated of, that the apostle makes use of; both
which are beneath the majesty of, and no way suited to illustrate,
the matter he hath in hand. But as Chrysostom well intimates on
the place, it is as if he had said, Miav xs<paX'/iv d'Traatv ivUr^xi, — " He
appointed one head to them all," angels and men, with whatsoever
in the first constitution of the divine government was subordinate
unto them. So we have found the object and extent of the heir-
ship of Christ expressed in this word irdvruv, which I shall further
exjDlain in that brief scheme of the whole kingdom of Christ which
to the exposition of these words shall be subjoined.

4. "E^jjjtg. The way whereby Christ the Son came
"**' to his inheritance is in this word expressed. God " ap-
pointed" or " placed" him therein. The word may denote either those
special acts whereby he came into the full possession of his heirship,
or it may be extended to other preparatory acts that long preceded
them, especially if we shall take it to be of the same importance
with UiTo in the second aoristus. In the former sense, the glorious



VER. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 45

investiture of the Lord Christ in the full actual possession of his
kingdom after his resurrection, with the manifestation of it in his
ascension, and token of its stability in his sitting at the right hand
of God, is designed. By all these God Un^e, " made him," placed
him with solemn investiture, heir of all. The grant was made to
him upon his resurrection, Matt, xxviii. 18, and therein fully de-
clared unto others, Rom. i. 4; Acts xiii. 33 : as there was of Solo-
mon's being king, when he was proclaimed by Benaiah, Zadok,
and Nathan, 1 Kings i, 31-34. The solemnization of it was in his
ascension, Ps. Ixviii. 17, 18, Eph. iv. 8-10; and typed by Solo-
mon's riding on David's mule unto his throne, all the people crying,
^^^n ^n]^ 1 Kings, i, 39, " Let the king live." All was sealed and
ratified when he took possession of his throne at the right hand of
the Father; by all which he was made and declared to be Lord and
Christ, Acts ii. 36, iv. 11, v. 30, 31. And such weight doth the
Scripture lay upon this glorious investiture of Christ in his inherit-
ance, that it speaks of his whole power as then first granted unto
him, Rom. xiv. 9; Phil. ii. 7-10; and the reason of it is, because he
had then actually performed that work and duty upon the considera-
tion whereof that power and authority were eternally designed and
originally granted unto him. God's actual committing all power
over all things and persons in heaven and earth, to be exerted and
managed for the ends of his mediation, declaring this act, grant, and
delegation by his resurrection, ascension, and sitting at his right
hand, is that which this word denotes.

I will not deny but it may have respect unto sundry things pre-
ceding these, and preparatory unto them; as, — (1.) The eternal 'pur-
pose of God, ordaining him before the foundation of the world unto
his work and inheritance, 1 Pet. i. 20. (2.) The covenant that was
of ola between the Father and Son for the accomplishment of the
great work of redemption, this inheritance being included in the
contract, Prov. viii. 30, 31 ; Isa. liii. 10, 11. (3.) The promises made
unto him in his types, Abraham, David, and Solomon, Gen.
XV. ; Ps. Ixxii. (4.) The promises left vpon record in the Old Testa-
ment for his supportment and assurance of success, Ps. ii. ; Isa.
xlix., etc. (5.) The solemn proclamation of him to be the great heir
and lord ot all, at his first coming into the world, Luke ii. 11,
30-32. But it is the consummation of all these, whatever was in-
tended or declared in these prexious acts of the will and wisdom of
God, that is principally intended in this expression.

Some suppose it ol importance, in this matter of the heirship of
Christ, to assert that he was the rightful heir of the crown and
sceptre of Israel. This opinion is so promoted by Baronius as to
contend that the right of the kingdom was devolved on him, which
was caused to cease for a season in Autigouus, who was slain by JVL



46 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. L

Antony. But what was the right of the kingdom that was in
Antigonus is hard to declare. The Asmonasans, of whom that
ruled he was the last, were of the tribe of Levi. Their right to the
sceptre was no more but what they had won by the sword. So
that by his death there could be no devolution of a right to reiga
unto any, it being that which he never had. Nor is it probable
that our Saviour was the next of kin to the reigning house of Judah;
nor was it any wise needful he should be so; nor is there any pro-
mise to that purpose. His lineal descent was from Nathan, and not
from Solomon, — of that house was Zerubbabel the aichmalotarches,
— which therefore is specially mentioned in the reformation, Zech.
xii. 12. Besides, the heirship promised unto Christ was neither of
a temjooral kingdom of Israel, which he never enjoyed, nor of an}'
other thing in dependence thereon. Were it so, the Jews must first
have the dominion, before he could inherit it. And such, indeed, was
the mistake of the disciples (as it is of the Jews to this day), who
inquired, not whether he would take the kingdom to himself, but
whether he would restore it unto Israel.

We have opened the words: it remaineth that we consider the
sense and persuasion of the Hebrews in this matter; 2. Show the
influence of this assertion into the argument that the apostle hath
in hand; and, 3. Annex a brief scheme of the whole lordship and
kingdom of Christ.

The testimonies given to this heirship of the Messiah in the Old
Testament, sufficiently evidencing the faith of the church guided by
the rule thereof, will be mentioned afterwards. For the present, I
shall only intimate the continuance of this persuasion among the
Jews, both then when the apostle wrote unto them and afterwards.
To this purpose is that of Jonathan in the Targum on Zech. iv. 7:
i^n\J?^ bn d^'l^'^i ]'i2ipbi2 nnti' inosn i^n'^i^'D iT ''^n; — "He shall reveal
the Messiah, whose name is from everlasting, who shall have the do-
minion over all kingdoms." See Ps. Ixxii. 11. And of him who
was brought before the Ancient of days, like the Son of man, Dan. vii.,
to whom all power was given, they say, rT'ti'Dn l^D J<"i"; — " He is Mes-
siah, the king." So R. Solomon on the place. So R. Beehai on
Exod. xxiii. 21, "My name is in him." "He is called," saith he,
" jliLStan, because in that name two significations are included, }nx, ' a
lord,' and ^''i'E^^, 'an ambassador;'" the reasons of which etymology
out of the Greek and Latin tongues he subjoins, I confess foolishly
enough. But yet he adds to our purpose: "It may have a third
sionification, of a 'keeper;' for the Targum, instead of the Hebrew
mDD'D, hath mOD, from "iDl Because he, that is the Messiah, pre-
serves or keeps the world, he is called ^itniy "lOi:^, ' the keeper of Is-
rael.' Hence it appears that he is the Lord of all things, they being
put under him, and that the whole host of things above and below



VER. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 47

are in his hand. He is also the manager of all above and henoath,
hocause God hath made him to rule over all, hath appointed him
tne lord of his house, the ruler of all he hath/' Which expressions
how consonant they are to what is delivered by the apostle in this
place and chap, iii., is easily discerned.

The influence of this assertion or common principle of the
Judaieal church into the argument that the apostle hath in hand is
evident and manifest. He who is the heir and lord of all things,
spiritual, temporal, ecclesiastical, must needs have power over all
Mosaical institutions, be the lord of them, which are nowhere
exempted from his rule.

The words being opened, and the design of the apostle in them
discovered, because they contain an eminent head of the doctrine of
the gospel concerning the lordship and kingdom of Jesus Ciirist,
the Messiah, I shall stay here a little, to give in a scheme of his
whole dominion, seeing the consideration of it will not again so
directly occur unto us. That which is the intendment of the words,
in the interpretation given of them, is this: —

God the Father, in the pursuit of the sovereign purpose of his
will, hath granted unto the Son as incarnate, and mediator of the
new covenant, according to the eternal counsel between them both,
a sovereign power and authority over all things in heaven and earth,
with the possession of an absolute proprietor, to dispose of them at
his pleasure, for the furtherance and advancement of his proper and
peculiar work, as head of his church.

I shall not insist on the several branches of this thesis; but, as I
said, in general confirm this grant of power and dominion unto the
Lord Christ, and then give in our scheme of his kingdom, in the
several branches of it, not enlarging our discourse upon them, but
only pointing at the heads and sj)rings of things as they lie in the
Scripture.

OF THE KINGDOM OR LORDSHIP OF CHRIST.

The grant of dominion in general unto the Messiah is intimated in
the first promise of him, Gen, iii. 15, — his victory over Satan was to
be attended with rule, power, and dominion, Ps. Ixviii. 18, Isa. liii.
12, Eph. iv. 8, 9, Col. ii. 15; — and confirmed in the renewal of that
prorais^ to Abraham, Gen. xxii. 17, 18; for in him it was that
Abraham was to be " heir of the world," Rom. iv. 13; — as also unto
Judah, whose seed was to enjoy the sceptre and lawgiver, until he
came who was ^o be Lord over all, Gen. xlix. 1 ; — and Balaam also
saw the Star of Jacob, with a sceptre for rule. Num. xxiv. 17, 19.
This kingdom was fully revealed unto David, and is expressed by
him, Ps. ii. throughout, Ps. xlv. 3-8 Ixxxix. 19-24, etc., Ixxii. 6-9,

VOL. xn.— 4:



48 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. L

etc., Ps. ex. 1-3 ; — as also in all the following prophets. See Isa. xL
1-4, ix. 6, 7, liii. 12, Ixiii. 1-3; Jer. xxiii. 5, 6; Dan. vii. 13, 14, etc.

As this was foretold in the Old Testament, so the accomplishment
of it is expressly asserted in the New, Upon his bii'th he is pro-
claimed to be "Christ the Lord," Luke ii. 11 ; and the first inquiry
after him is, "Where is he that is born king?" Matt. ii. 2, 6. And
this testimony doth he give concerning himself, namely, that all
judgment was his, and therefore all honour was due unto him, John
V. 22, 23; and that "all things were delivered unto him," or given
into his hand, Matt. xi. 27; yea, "all power in heaven and in earth,"
Matt, xxviii. 18, — the thing pleaded for. Him who was crucified did
God make "both Lord and Christ," Acts ii. 35, 36 ; exalting him at
his right hand to be "a Prince and a Saviour," Acts v. 31. He is
"highly exalted," having "a name given him above every name," Phil,
ii. 9-11; being "set at the right hand of God in heavenly places,
far above," etc., Eph. i. 20-22 ; where he reigns for ever, 1 Cor. xv.
25; being the "King of kings, and Lord of lords," Rev. xix, 16,
V. 12-14; for he is " Lord of dead and living," Rom. xiv. 7-9.

And this in general is fully asserted in the Scripture, unto the
consolation of the church and terror of his adversaries. This, I say,
is the spring of the church's glory, comfort, and assurance It is
our head, husband, and elder brother, who is gloriously vested with
all this power. Ournearest relation, our best friand, is thus exalted;
not to a place of honour and trust under others, a thing that contents
the airy fancy of poor earth-worms; nor yet to a kingdom on the
earth, a matter that swells some, and even breaks them with pride;
no, nor yet to an empire over this perishing world: but to an abid-
ing, an everlasting rule and dominion over the whole creation of
God. And it is but a little while before he will cast off and dispel
all those clouds and shades which at present interpose themselves,
and eclipse his glory and majesty from them that love him. He
who in the days of his flesh was reviled, reproached, persecuted,
crucified, for our sakes, that same Jesus is thus exalted and made " a
Prince and a Saviour," having "a name given him above every name,"
etc. ; for though he was dead, yet he is alive, and lives for ever, and
hath the keys of hell and death. These things are everywhere
proposed for the consolation of the church.

The consideration of it also is suited to strike terror into the
hearts of ungodly men that oppose him in the world. Whom is it
that they do despise? against whom do they magnify themsflves,
and lift up their horns on high? whose ordinances, laws, institutions,
do they contemn? whose gospel do they refuse obedience unto?
whose people and servants do they revile and persecute? Is it not
he, are they not his, who hath " all power in heaven and in earth"
committed unto him, in whose hand are the lives, the souls, all the



VER 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 49

concernments of his enemies? Ca3sar thought he had spoken with
terror, when, threatening him with death who stood in his way, lie
told him, "Young man, he speaks it to whom it is as easy to do it."
He speaks to his adversaries, who stand in the way of his interest,
to " deal no more so proudly," wlio can in a moment speak them,
into ruin, and that eternal. See Rev. vi. 14-17.

Thus is the Son made heir of all in general. We shall further
consider his dominion in a distribution of the chief parts of it ; and
manifest his power severally in and over them all. He is lord or
heir 'jravruv, — that is, of all persons and of all things.

Persons, or rational subsistences, here intended, are either awr/e?s
or men; for it is evident that " He is excepted who hath subjected
all things unto him," 1 Cor. xv. 27.

Angels are of two sorts: — 1. Such as abide doing the will of God,
retaining that name by way of eminency; 2. Such as by sin have
lost their first habitation, state, and condition, — usually called evil
angels, or devils. The Lord Jesus hath dominion overall, and both
sorts of them.

Men may be cast under one common distribution, which is com-
prehensive of all distinctions whereby they are differenced; for they
all are either elect or reprobates. And the Lord Jesus hath rule
and dominion over them all.

Things that are subject unto the Lord Jesus may be referred
unto four heads; for they are either,— 1. Spiritual; or, 2. Ecclesi-
astical; or, 8. Political; or, 4. Natural.

Again, 8'piritual are either, (1.) Temporal, as, [1.] Grace; [2.]
Gifts ; or (2.) Eternal, as glory.

Ecclesiastical or church things are either, (1.) Judaical, or old
testament things; or, (2.) Christian, or things of the new testament.

Political and civil things may be considered as they are managed,
(1.) By his friends ; (2.) His enemies.

Of Natural things we shall speak in a production of some par-
ticular instances, to prove the general assertion.

Those, in the first place, assigned as part of the inheritance of
Christ are, — L The angels, and the good angels in especial. These
belong to the kingdom, rule, and dominion of Christ. I shall be brief
in this branch of his heirship, because it must be professedly handled
in opening sundry other ver.ses of this chapter, in which the apostle
insisteth on it.

Of the nature of angels, their glory, excellency, dignity, work,
and employment, we have here no occasion to treat. Something
must afterwards be spoken unto these things. Christ's pre-eminence
above them, rule over them, their subjection unto him, with the
original right and equity of the grant of this power and authority
unto him, are the things which now fall under our consideration.



60 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. I.

1. His yre-eminence above them is asserted by the apostle in the
fourth verse of this chapter. He is "made better" ("more excellent")
" than the angels." See the words opened afterwards. This was to the
Jews, who acknowledged that the Messiah should be above Moses,
Abraham, and the ministering angels. So Neve Shalom, lib. ix. cap. v.
We have testimony unto it: Eph. i. 20, 21, " He set him at his own
right hand," h I'rovpavloig, " among heavenly things, far above all
principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name
that is named," whatever title of honour or office they enjoy, " not
only in this world, but also in that which is to come," who enjoy
their power and dignity in that state of glory; which is promised
unto them also who here believe on him. Phil. ii. 9, " God also
hath highly exalted him, and given him a name" (power, authority,
and pre-eminence) " which is above every name: that at the name
of Jesus" (unto him vested with that authority and dignity) " every
knee should bow" (all creatures should yield obedience and be in
sivbjection), " of things in heaven," the 7diov oiKriT^ptov, " praper habi-
tation" and place of residence of the blessed angels, Jude 6. For, —

2. As he is exalted above them, so by the authority of God the
Father they are made subject unto him: 1 Pet. iii. 22, " He is gone
into heaven," ucroraj/svrwi/ airp ayysXuv, "angels being brought into
order by subjection unto him." Eph. i. 22, Udvra t/TST-agji', " He
hath put all things" (angels, of which he treats) "in .subjection to
him;" " under his feet," as Ps. viii. 7, ""'^r-'^Dn; 1 Cor. xv. 27. And
thi.5 by the special authority of God the Father, in a way of grant
of privilege and honour unto him, and to evidence the universality
of this subjection.

3. They adore and worship him, — the highest act of obedience
and most absolute subjection. This they have in command, Heb.
i. 6, " Let all the angels of God worship him;" Ps. xcvii, 7, ''"Tl^'^n,
" Avorship him," — with prostration, self-abasement, and all possible
subjection to him: of which place afterwards. Their practice answers
the command given them, Rev. v. 11-14. All the angels round
about his throne fall down, and ascribe " blessing, and honour, and
glory, and power" unto him ; as we are taught to do in our deepest
acknowledgment of the majesty and authority of God, Matt. vi. 13.
And as to outward obedience, they are ready in all things to receive
his commands, being " ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for

•them who shall inherit salvation," Heb. i. 14; and that by Him who
is " head over all to the church," Eph. i. 22. As, for instance, he
sent out one of them to his servant John, Rev. i. 1 ; who, from their
employment under him towards them that believe, are said to be their
"fellow-servants," — that is untoChrist, — namel}', of all them who have
"the testimony of Jesus," Rev. xix. 10, xxii. 9. And to this purpose, — -

4. They always attend his throne: Isa. vi. 1, 2, " I saw the Lord



VER. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 61

sitting upon a throne,"and '•'about it stood the seraphim." Thislsaiah
"spake of him when he saw liis glory," John xii. 39-41. He was upon
his throne when lie spake with the church in the wilderness, Acts vii.
S8, — that is, on mount Sinai : where the angels attending him as on
chariots, ready to receive his commands, were " twenty thousand,
even thousands of angels," Ps. Ixviii. 17, Eph, iv. 8; or "thousand
thousands, and ten thousand times ten thousand," as another pro-
phet expresseth it, Dan. vii. 10, And so is he in the church of the
new testament, Rev. v. 1] ; and from his walking in the midst of the
golden candlesticks. Rev. i. 18, are the angels also present in church
assemblies, as attending their Lord and Master, 1 Cor. xi. 10. And
so attended shall he come to judgment, 2 Thess. i. 7; when he shall be
"revealed from heaven with the angels of his power:" which was fore-
told concerning him from the beginning of the world, Jude 14, 15.

Thus his lordship over angels is universal and absolute, and their
subjection unto him answerable thereunto. The manner of the grant
of this excellency, power, and dignity unto him, must be further
cleared in the opening of these words of the apostle, verse 4, " Being
made better than the angels." The original right and equity of
this grant, with the ends of it, are now only to be intimated.

1. The radical, fundamental equity of this grant lies in his divine
nature, and his creation of angels, over whom as mediator he is
made Lord. Unto the general assertion of his being made " heir of
all," the apostle in this place subjoins that general reason, manifest-
ing the rise of the equity of it in the will of God that it should be
so: " By whom also he made the worlds." AVhich reason is parti-



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