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may be they will be entangled and seduced by you ; but for those who
have thus in any measure known the terror of the Lord, they will
be secured from you by his grace.' Besides, what ground do such
men leave unto the Lord Christ to stand upon, as it were, in his in-
tercession for us in heaven? Do they not take that blood out of his
hand which he is carrying into the holy place? And how do they
despoil him of his honour in taking off from his work ! A miserable
employment ! when men shall study and take pains to persuade them-
selves and others that Christ hath not done that for them which he
hath done for all that are his, and which if he hath not done for
them they must perish for evermore. Is it worth the while for them



4S4 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. II.

to weaken faith, love, and thankfuloess unto Christ? From whom
can such men look for their reward ? Can right reason, or a light
within, be no otherwise adored but by sacrificing the blood of Christ
.unto it, — no otherwise be enthroned but by deposing him from
his office, and taking his work out of his hand; and, by a horrible
ingratitude, because they know no other could do that work, to con-
clude that it is needless? Are men so resolved not to be beholden
unto Jesus Christ, that rather than grant that he hath made recon-
ciliation for us by his blood, they will deny that there was any need
that any such reconciliation should be made? O the depths of
Satan ! O the stupidity and blindness of men, that are " taken alive
by him, and led captive at his pleasure!"

(2.) They who would come unto God by Christ may see what in
the first place they are to look after. Indeed, if they are once
brought into that condition wherein they will seriously look after
him, they will not be able to look from it, though for a while it may
be they will be unwilling to look unto it. Reconciliation they must
have, or they can have no peace. This lies straight before them.
They are willing, it may be, to look upon the right hand and the left,
to see if there be any thing nigh them that will yield them relief ; but
all is in vain. If any thing else gives them ease, it gives them poison ;
if it gives them peace, it gives them ruin. Reconciliation by the
blood of Christ is the only relief for their souls. And nothing more
discovers the vanity of much of that religion which is in the world,
tlian the regardlessness of men in looking after this, which is the
foundation-stone of any durable building in the things of God. This
they will do, and that they will do, but how they shall have an in-
terest in the reconciliation made for sin they trouble not themselves
withal.

II. The Lord Christ suffered under all his temptations, sinned in
none.

He suffered, being tempted ; sinned not, being tempted. He had
the heart of a man, the affections of a man, and that in the highest
degree of sense and tenderness. Whatever sufferings the soul of a
man may be brought under, by grief, sorrow, shame, fear, pain,
danger, loss, by any afflictive passions within or impressions of force
from without, he underwent, liejelt it all. Because he was always
in the favour of God, and in the assurance of the indissolubility of
the union of his person, we are apt to think that what came upon
him was so overbalanced by the blessedness of his relation unto God
as not to cause any great trouble unto him. But we mistake when
we so conceive. No sorroAvs were like to his, no sufferings like unto
his. He fortified not himself against them but as they were merely
penal; he made bare his breast unto their strokes, and laid open his
soul that they might souk into the inmost parts of it, Isa. 1. t). All



VER. 17, 18.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 485

those reliefs and diversions of this life which we may make use of to
alleviate our sorrows and sufi'erings he utterly abandoned. He left
ijothmg, in the whole nature of sorrow or suffering, that he tasted
not and made experience of Indeed, in all his sufferings and temp-
tations he was supported with the thoughts of the glory that was set
before him; but our thoughts ofTiis present glory "should not divert
us from the contemplation of his past real sufferings. All the ad-
vantage that he had above us by the excellency of his person, was
only that the sorrows of his heart were enlarged thereby, and he
was made capable of greater enduring without sin. And it was to
be tl:us with him, —

1. Because, although the participation of human nature was only
necessary that he might be a high priest, yet his sufferingS-JUttder
temptations were so that lie might be a merciful high priest for
tempted sufferers. Such have need not only to be saved by his
atonement, but to be relieved, favoured, comforted by his grace.
They did not only want one to undertake for them, but to undertake
for them with care, pity, and tenderness. Their state required de-
livery with compassion. God, by that way of salvation that he pro-
vides for them, intends not only their final safety in heaven, but also
that, in the sense of the first-fruits of it in this world, they may glo-
rify him by faith and thankful obedience. To this end it was ne-
cessary that they should have relief provided for them in the tender- ^J_\_^ ^
ness and compassion of their high priest; which they could have no a. <o y^
greater pledge of than by seeing him for their sakes exposing him- "^s.^^
self unto the miseries which they had to conflict withal, and so ^^''-^•'<-
always to bear that sense of them which that impression would h'^**'*
surely leave upon his soul. And, — Hi*"

2. Because, although the Lord Jesus, by virtue of the union of his
person and plenary unction with the Spirit, had a habitual fulness
of mercy and compassion, yet he was to be particularly excited unto
the exercise of them towards the brethren by the experience he had**^
of their condition. His internal, habitual fulness of grace and mercy
was capable of excitation unto suitable actings by external objects
and sensible experience. It added not to his mercifulness, but occa-
sioned his readiness to dispose it unto others, and shut the door
against pleas of delaying succour. He bears still in his holy mind

the sense he had of his sorrows wherewith he wasrpressed in the ,• -.y ;*
time of his temptations, and thereon seeing his brethren conflicting '
with the like difficulties is ready to help them ; and because his power
is proportioned unto his will, it is said ", he is able." And whatever
may be the real effects on the mind of Christ from his temptations
and sufferings now he is in heaven, I am sure they ought to be great
on our faith and consolation, when we consider him undergoing them
for this very end and purpose, that seeing he was constituted our



48 G AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. II.

high priest to transact all our affairs with God, he would be sensible
of" that condition in his own person which he was afterwards to pre-
sent unto God for relief to be afforded unto it.

III, Temptations cast souls into danger.

They have need under them of relief and succour. Their spring,
rise, nature, tendency, effects, all make this manifest. Many perish
by them, many are wounded, none escape free that fall into them.
Their kinds are various, so are their degrees and seasons; but all
dangerous. But this I have elsewhere particularly insisted on}

IV. The great dttty of tempted souls, is to cry out unto the Lord
Christ for help and relief.

To succour any one, is to come unto his help upon his cry and call.
This being promised by Christ unto those that are tempted, supposeth
their earnest cry unto him. If we be slothful, if we be negligent
under our temptations, if we look other ways for assistance, if we
trust unto or rest in our own endeavours for the conquest of them,
no wonder if we are wounded by them, or fall under them. This is
the great " arcanum" for the cure of this disease, the only means for
supportment, deliverance, and conquest, namely, that we earnestly
and constantly apply ourselves unto the Lord Christ for succour, and
that as our merciful high priest, who had experience of them. This
is our duty upon our first surprisal with them, which would put a
stop to their progress; this our wisdom in their success and preva-
lency. Whatever we do against them without this, we strive not
lawfully, and shall not receive the crown. Were this more our
practice than it is, we should have more freedom from them, more
success against them, than usually we have. Never any soul mis-
carried under temptation that cried unto the Lord Christ for succour
in a due manner, — that cried unto him under a real apprehension of
his danger, with faith and expectation of relief And hereunto have
we encouragement given us, by the great qualifications of his person in
this office. He is " faithful," he is " merciful," and that which is the
effect of them both, he is ''able;" he is every way sufficient to relieve
and succour poor tempted souls. He hath a sufficiency of care, wisdom,
and faithfulness, to observe and know the seasons wherein succour
is necessary unto us; a sufficiency of tender'ness, mercy , and compas-
sion, to excite him thereunto; a sufficiency of power, to afford suc-
cour that shall be effectual ; a sufficiency of acceptation at the throne
of grace, to prevail with God for suitable supplies and succour. He
is every way " able to succour them that are tempted." To him be
praise and glory for evermore !

' Si-e the treatise on " Temptation," vol. vi. p. 88, of the author's works, — ^Ed.



VER. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 487



CHAPTER III.

The general nature of this whole epistle, as in the former part of
our exposition was declared, is parenetical. And therefore the
doctrines proposed and insisted on in it are constantly improved to
press and enforce the exhortations intended ; as such is the end and
use of all principles in sciences that are practical, especially of that
taught us in the Scripture, which is a wisdom and a knowledge of
living unto God. Wherefore our apostle, having in the foregoing
chapters manifested the excellency of Christ (who was the author of
the gospel), both in his person and his work, and that both abso-
lutely and comparatively with the angels, the most glorious minis-
ters employed in the dispensation of the will of God unto the
church of old, with some respect unto Joshua, the captain of the
people, under whose conduct they entered into Canaan, — in the en-
trance of this chapter he acquaints the Hebrews to what end he
insisted on these things, namely, that by the consideration of them
they might be prevailed with unto constancy and perseverance in
the faith and worship of God, by him declared and revealed. This
is the design of his discourse in this chapter. But, as his manner is
throughout this epistle, he hath no sooner intimated his intention
in the first verse, but he adds a new enforcement to his exhortation,
unto the end of the sixth verse. From thence again he proceedeth
unto his general exhortation, with a supply of new reasons, argu-
ments, and inferences, taken from the consideration or enforcement
newly and occasionally insisted on.

There are therefore three general parts of this chapter: —

1. An exhortation unto constancy and perseverance in the profes-
sion of the gospel. And therein are observable, (1.) The means
of accomplishing the duty exhorted unto, verses 1, 8, 9, 12, 13;
(2.) The nature of it, verses 6, 14; (3.) The things that are con-
trary unto it, verses 12, 15; (4.) The benefits of it, verse 1 4 ; (5.)
The danger of its neglect, verses 8-11, 15-19.

2. A new enforcement of the exhortation, taken from the fidelity
of Christ in the discharge of the office committed unto him, verses
2-6: wherein occur, (I.) The reason itself, or the fidelity of Christ
asserted ; (2.) The manner of its proposal, by comparing him with
and preferring him above Moses. And therein the apostle [1.]
Prevents an objection that might yet remain on the behalf of the
Judaical church-state upon the account of Moses, the principal re-
vealer of it; and [2.] Lays down a concession of the faithfulness of
Moses in his trust and employment; with [3.] A comparison of
him with the Lord Christ as to the dignity of his person and workj
and [4.] The evictions of his coming short of him therein.



488 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. III.

3. Especial reasons relating unto his general argument, taken
from express testimonies of Scripture, verse 7-11, and the dealings
of God towards others failing in the duty exhorted unto ; which he
pursues at large in the next chapter. The whole, therefore, of this
chapter is a pathetical exhortation, pressed with many cogent reasons,
unto constancy and perseverance in the faith and obedience of the
gospel.

Ver. 1, 2. — "Odsv, aSsXpo/ dyioi, TcX-zjascag sTovpaviov fisro^oi, xaravo-
rjeare rov airoeroT-.ov xal apy^ispia rr^g oixoXoyiag tumuv, Xpiffrhv 'Iriaovv
iriSTov ovTot, Tw 'TroiTjffavTi axirhv, ug xai MuixTTJg iv oXuj rtZ o'Uw ahrou.

The Vulgar leaves out Xjo/ffTo'j/, "Christ;" all ancient copies and translations
beside retain it.

"OOev, that is, " unde," properly " from whence." But these words are used
as illatives; as " proinde," '"itaque," "quamobrem," "quocirca," " quare;" all
vhich are made use of \>y ti-ansiators in this place, — " wherefore." Respect is had
unto the preceding iliscourse, from whence the apostle infers his ensuing exhor-
tation : ' Seeing that things are thus, that the author of the gospel is such an one
as hath been described.'

K'K'yjaeu? sttov poivtov, "vocationis coelestis," "of the heavenly calling." Syr., 1!?"]
**'"??, " which is from heaven." Some render it, " supra-coelestis," "above the
heavens;" as iTrtyc^ovtx are things upon the earth, and so above it. And Plato,
Apolog. Socrat., opposeth roi vtto y'^v, "things under the earth," and t« Ww-
pccvici, " things above the heavens." And this word is almost peculiar unto our
apostle, being used frequently by him in this and his other epistles, and but twice
besides in the whole New Testament, Matt, xviii. 35 ; Jolm iii. 12. See 1 Cor.
XV. 40, 48, 49; Eph. i. 3, 20, ii. 6, iii. 10, vi. 12; Phil. ii. 10; 2 Tim. iv. 18;
Heb. vi. 4, viii. 5, ix. 23, xi. 16, xii. 22. And as he useth this word frequently,
opposing it to iTTiyxiog, so he expresseth the s;ime thing in other words of the
same signification: Phil. iii. 14,5? aivu Khviai;, "the .supernal calling;" that i.s,
t7rovp»i/iog. For oiipctvog, saith Aristotle, de Mund., is rot) Kotrfiov ro oiva, 0£o5
mx-YiTviptou, " that of the world which is above, the dwelling-place of God." And
as our apostle opposeth roi ivovpct-vtot, " heavenly things," so he doth also rot
oivu, "thmgs above," absolutely, unto rd. t^i r^j yijj, "tilings that are on the
earth," Col. iii. 1, 2. This phrase of speech is therefore the same, and peculiar unto
our apostle. And both these expre.ssions denote God, the author of this calling,
Avho is ^^'^^ ^, Job xxxi. 28, " God above;" ©fof sori 'Trctvruv, "God over all,"
Eph. iv. 6 ; s'^ovpuuto;, " heavenly," Matt, xviii. 35.

MiToxot, " participes," " partakers ; " " consortes," Beza. To the same pur-
pose, Syr,, P'"'"'"!!?'?''"! , "who are called with an holy calling," omitting ihe force
of this word, intended to express their common interest in the same calling. The
signification of this word was declared on chap. ii. 14. The matter intended is
fully expressed by the same apostle, Eph. iv. 4, "Ei* au/nee, x.xl h Uvsvy.u, xotdug
Ktui ix,'hvi$riri h /moi i'X-Trioi rvis xhiiasoi; {/pt.Zv, — " One body and one Spirit, even
as ye were called in one hope of your calling;" that is, partakers of and com-
panions in the same heavenly calling.

K/x.rce.voviact.Ti, "considerate," " contemplamini," — " consider," " meditate on."
KaToii/o£6> is properly " animadverto," — to set the mind diligently to mark and
consider, so as to understand the thing con.'idered; whence it is often rendered
(as by Cicero) by " intelligo," and "perspicio," "to understand," and "perceive."
Se ' Rom. iv. 19, where it is denied of Abraham. " Consider diligently."

Toy uTTosroMu, " apostolum," "legatum," — " the apostle," " legate," "ambas.



VER. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 4S9

sador." Syr., ''^n i^^J^f''?, "hunc apostolum," "this apostle." He is so only;
he thit was " sent of God," namely, to the work of revealing him by the gospel.
And by a periphrasis hereof he often describes himself, calling his Father toV d'^ro-
mi'KuvTci, '• him that sent him." Ethiopic, "apostolum vestrum," "your apostle."
K«< dpxupioc, "et pontificem," "and the high priest," or "chief priest ;" Syr., s"]
*'T:;''^, " prince of priests;" whereof we have spoken before, chap. ii. 17.

T'^f oi^ohoyiccg ijfiuv. ' Of^oKoyia. is properly a "joint agreement," "consent," or
"conciuTence" in the declaration of anything. It is used also in good authors for
a "convention," "covenant," or "agreement." Syr.,Tr"'""r"!,"ofour confe-sion;"and
so the Vulgar, " confessionis nostrae:" both with respect unto the Greek transla-
tion of the Old Testament, wherein ~"^ in Hiphil, signifying properly "to cele-
brate," " to praise," to set forth praise by words, is constantly rendered £|o,wo-
T^oyia, " to confess." Hence these words of our apostle, 2 Cor. ix. 13, AoZ,d.^ovTig
Tov Qiov STirt rri VTrorctyyi tti; ofio'Koyi'xi v/nZv di to iiixyyiKiov rov Xptarov, are
rendered by the Vulgar, " Deum glorificamus quod subjecti sitis confession!
evangelii;" — "We glorify God that you are subject to the confession of the gos-
pel;" very imperfectly, and without any clear sense. "The subjection of your
profession " is a Hebraism for " professed subjection," as ours well render the
words. 'OfioMyea is but once used in the New Testament for to "confess," 1 John
i. 9, any otherwise than as to confess is coincident in signification with to pro-
fess or make profession. And this hath obtained in common use; whence the
doctrines that men profess, or make profession of, being declared, are called their
confession, or the confession of their faith. So our apostle calls it t^w x«A'/)i/
ofco'hoyicii/, "that good confession," 1 Tim. vi. 12, 13; and absolutely t^i/ oj^o'ho-
ytciv, "profession." chap. iv. 14 of this epistle; and rviv o/xc'Xoyloiv riig iT^'Trilo?,
chap. X. 23, "the profession of hope." And it is to be ob.-erved that this word
also is peculiar unto our apostle, and by him frequently used. It is public or
joint profession. Some copies of the Vulgar read " vestra," "your" profession,
but without countenance from ancient copies or translations.

Tw 'T^oiYtdxvrt ccvTou, "facienti ipsum," " ei qui fecit ipsum," — "to him that made
him." Some Socinians from these words would prove that Christ is a mere crea-
ture, because God is said to make him. But it is not of the essence or nature of
Christ that the apostle treateth, as Schliehtingius himself acknowledgeth, but of
his office and work. See Acts ii. 36, Kvpiov x.xl Xpiazcv otvTov 6 ©soj- k'jrotrias, —
" God hath made him both Lord and Christ ;" the same with e^viKi, Heb. i. 2, —
he hath " made," "appointed," " designed," " exalted" him. So in the Hebrew,
'^■f ?. " fecit," " he made," is used and applied 1 Sam. xii. 6, "r"'!!'?"'^^'! "'f!''"^*' ™^ ''^'?;
which the LXX. render, o voitiaccg tov Muvcr,v, "who made Moses and Aaron;"
that is, 'jj or ^''p^, " raised up," or " exalted," or " appointed them," — that is,
to their office. For whom God raiseth up or exalteth, he doth it unto some work
and service : and whom he appointeth unto any service, he doth therein exalt.

' rij Kdl M&tr^f iv ohu ru oIku ccvtov, " Even as Moses in his whole house. "
These words, " in his whole house," may be referred unto the former expression
concerning Christ, "Faithful to him that appointed him in his whole house, even
a^ was Moses." So the Arabic translation disposeth the words. Thus a comma is
to be placed after Moses, or, " even as Moses," is to be enclosed in a parenthesis.
Or they may be referred unto Mose.s, and then they are to be rendered, as by
ours, "as was Moses;" and then the sense is to be supplied by repeating ■Tztsroi
"fiithful:" "As Moses was faithful in his whole hotise." But as to the matter
itself, both are intended, and the same words are used of Moses elsewhere,
Kum. xii, 7.1

' Exposition. — Jesus is called dvoaroKog, from the analogous relation in which
he stands to the ^"■' "s^'s, as messenger of God to men; dp/jipivg, from the



490 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. III.

Ver. 1, 2. — Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the
heavenly calling, consider \_diligentlif\ the apostle and
high priest of our profession, Christ Jesus, who was
faithful [being faithful^ to him that appointed him
[made him so], even as Moses in all his house [in his
whole house.]

The apostle in these two verses entereth upon the application of
the doctrine which he had declared and confirmed in the two fore-
going chapters. Herewithal, according to his constant method in
this epistle, he maketh way for what he had further to deliver of
the same nature and importance.

The first word respects that which went before, " wherefore,"
or, ' seeinof thinsfs are as I have manifested, — namely,

"0^l» 5 O >-. _ ' ^ '

that he of whom I speak unto you is so excellent and
so highly exalted above all, and that whereas he was humbled for a
season, it was unspeakably for the benefit and advantage of the
church, — it cannot but be your duty to consider him ; that is, both
what he is m himself, and what he is unto us.' His design is to
press upon them his general exhortation unto constancy and perse-
verance in the profession of the gospel; but he doth not express it
in these verses, insisting only upon an intermediate duty, subservient
unto that principally intended. Now, this is their diligent consider-
ation of Jesus Christ, with what he had delivered concerning him,
and what he was yet further to declare unto them. And this he
urgeth as the only way whereby they might be prevailed on unto
and assisted in the stability aimed at. This is the connection of his
discourse and the intention of his inference; whence observe, that, —

I. All the doctrines of the gospel, especially those concerning the
person and offices of Christ, are to be improved imto practice in
faith and obedience.

This course our apostle insists on: having before laid down the
doctrine of the person and offices of Christ, here he applies it unto
their duty and establishment in the profession of the truth. These
things are not revealed unto us only to be known, but to be practi-
cally used for the ends of their revelation. We are so to know
Christ as to live to him in the strength of his grace, and unto the
praise of his glory. " If ye know these things," saith he, " happy
are ye if ye do them," John xiii. 17. It is our privilege to know
them, a great privilege; but it is our blessedness to do them. When

analogy between him and '"^^l T'P, as representative of men be/ore God. —
JCbrard.

Translations. — Tij? o'^oA. Confession.- — De Wette, Wahl, Craik, Conyhear6
a.nd Howson, Ebrard. Covenant. — TitniO'nn, Tholuck. Whom we have acknow-
ledged. — Starr, Stuart. — Ed.



VEK. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 491

men content themselves with the notion of spiritual things, without
endeavouring to express their power and efficacy in the practical
conformity of their minds and souls unto them, it proves their ruin.
Tliat word which is preached unto us ought to dwell in us. See
what it is to "Jearn Christ" in a due manner, Eph. iv. 20-24-. There
is a miserable profession, where some preach without application,
and others hear without practice.

To hear that we may learn, to learn that we may learn, is but
part of our duty; indeed, in and for themselves no part of it. To
hear and to learn are good, but not for themselves, for their own
sake, but only for the practice of what we hear and learn. The
apostle tells us of some who are " always learning, but are never
able to come tig imyvuffiv aXfikiag," 2 Tim. iii. 7 ; that is, to a prac-
tical acknowledgment of it, so as to have an impression of its power
and efficacy upon their souls. And such are some who are vavron
(lav&dvovTig, — such as make it their business to hear and to learn, so
that they scarcely do any thing else. Gospel truths are " medicina
anirajE," — physic for a sin-sick soul. Now, of what use is it to get
a store of medicines and cordials, and never to take them? No more
is it to collect, at any price or rate, sermons, doctrines, instructions,
if we apply them not, that they may have their efficacy in us and



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