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understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of know-
ledge and of the fear of the Lord; and made him of quick under-
standing in the fear of the LoRD," Is;i. xi. 2, 3. It may be you will
say, ' It did so in some degrees of it only, or iu a singular measure



508 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. III.

above others/ Nay, "God gave not the Spirit by measure unto
him," John iii. 34, when he was sent to speak the words of God ;
not in such a way as that he should only have a greater measure of
the Spirit than others, but in a way wholly different from what they
received. So that when it is said, he was " anointed with the oil of
gladness above his fellows," Heb. i. 9, it is not intended only that he
received the Spirit in a degree above them, but the same Spirit in
another kind ; for " it pleased the Father that in him all fulness
should dwell," Col. i. 19, — all fulness of wisdom and counsel, in a
complete comprehension of the whole will and mind of God. And
accordingly, "in him were hid" (laid up safely) "all the treasures of
wisdom and knowledge," Col. ii. 3. This also was requisite unto this
great apostle, and it was possible to be found only in the Son of God.

(4.) The nature of the work required that the ambassador of God
to sinners should be able to make his message to be believed and
received by them. Without this the whole work and undertaking
might be frustrated. Nor is it sufficient to say that the message itself
is so great, so excellent, so advantageous unto sinners, that there is
no doubt but that upon the first proposal of it they will receive it
and embrace it; for we find the contrary by multiplied experience.
And not only so, but it is certain also that no sinner is able of him-
self and in his own strength to receive it or believe it; for " faith is
not of ourselves, it is the gift of God." Now, if this ambassador, this
apostle from God, have not power to enable men to receive his mes-
sage, the whole design of God must needs be frustrated therein. And
who shall effect or accomplish this? Is this the work of a man, to
quicken the dead, to open the blind eyes, to take away the stony heart,
to create a new spiritual light in the mind, and life in the will? all which
are necessary, that God's message unto sinners may be savingly re-
ceived. This also could be done only by the Son of God ; for " no
man knoweth the Father but the Son, and he to whom the Son will
reveal him," Matt. xL 27. And this he doth by the effectual work-
ing of his Spirit, the dispensation whereof is committed wholly unto
him, as hath been elsewhere declared. By him doth he write the
law of his message in the fleshy tables of the hearts of them to whom
he is sent, 2 Cor. iii. 3, as Moses wrote his message, or had it writ-
ten, in tables of stone. So that the nature of this work required
that it should be committed unto the Son of God. And so did, —

3. The end of it. This was no less than to proclaim and establish
peace between God and man. It is not a place to show how old,
fixed, lasting, and universal this enmity was; nor yet how great, ex-
cellent, and precious, in the means, causes, and nature of it, that
peace was which God sent about. These things are known and con-
fessed. These things were such as none were fit to intermeddle
withal but the Son of God only. He alone who made this peace



VEK. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. £09

was meet to declare it. "He is our peace;" and he "came and
preached peace," Eph. ii. 14, 17. And on the account of the dis-
charge of this work is he called 6 A&'yoj, " the Word of God," Rev.
xix. lo, John i. 1, as by whom God was declared; and ^''^^ ^^?^,
Isa. Ixiii. 9, "The angel of God's presence;" and T^P ^^^^, Job
xxxiii. 23, "The angel the interpreter," the great interpreter of the
mind of God ; and Y\t^\ Isa. ix. 5, 'The counsellor;" and nn^n ^n^q,
Mai. iii, 1, "The angel" (or "messenger") "of the covenant;" as
here, " The apostle of our profession."

And hence we may see the great obligation that is upon us to
hearken unto this message, not only upon the account of the mes-
sage itself, but also on the account of him that brings it. The mes-
sage itself is "worthy of all acceptation," and everlasting woe will be
unto them by whom it is rejected. He that refuseth peace with
God shall have war and wrath from him to eternity, and that de-
servedly. But God expects that great weight should be laid on the
consideration of the person that brings it. " Surely," saith he,
" they will reverence my Son." It may be men may think in their
hearts that if they heard Christ himself delivering this message, if
they had heard him preaching this peace, they would undoubtedly
have received and embraced it. So indeed thought the Jews of old,
that if they had lived in the days of the former prophets, they would
not have dealt with them as their forefathers did, but would have
believed their word and obeyed their commands; — as the rich man
thought that his brethren would repent if one might rise from the
dead and preach unto them. All men have pretences for their pre-
sent unbelief, and suppose that if it were not for them they should
do otherwise. But they are all vain and foolish, as our Lord Jesus
manifested in the former instances of the Jews and the rich man in
hell. Here there is no pretence of this nature that can take place;
for this great apostle and ambassador of God continueth yet to speak
unto us, and to press his message upon us. So saith our apostle,
chap. xii. 25, " See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For how
shall we escape, if we turn away from him that speaketh from
heaven?" He did not only speak of old, but he continueth to speak,
he speaketh still; he still speaketh in the word of the gospel, and in
the administration of it according to his mind and will. When
from thence we are pressed to believe, and to accept the terms of
peace that God hath prepared for us and proposeth unto us, if we
refuse them, we reject this great apostle which God hath sent unto
us to treat with us in his name. And what will be the end of such
men? what will be the end of us all, if the guilt hereof should be
foiuid upon us? Another observation also the words will afford us,
according to the foregoing exposition, which shall only be briefly
mentioned, namely, —



510 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. III.

IX. Especial privileges will not advantage men witliout especial
grace.

The Lord Christ was in an especial manner an apostle unto the
Jews. To them was he sent immediately. And unto them was his
ministry in the flesh confined. Greater privilege could none be
made partakers of. And what was the issue? "He came unto his
own, and his own received him not," John i. 11. Incomparably the
greatest part of them rejected him, and the tidings of peace that he
came to bring. It is worth your consideration who are intrusted
with all gospel privileges. They will not save you, they may ruin
you. Look after grace to make them effectual, lest they prove "the
savour of death unto death" to any of you. Once more, from the
ascribing of both these offices to our Lord Jesus Christ, —

X. The Lord Christ is all in all in and unto his church, — the king,
priest, and apostle or prophet of it. all in one.

So our apostle tells us that Christ is rd Tai/ra zai h itasi unto
believers,— "all things, and in all things," Col. iii. 11 ; supplying all
wants, answering all privileges, the spring of all grace, effecting all
mercy: so that in him alone they are complete, as chap. ii. 10 of
the same epistle. Here he proposeth it as a privilege and advantage
that we have in him above what was enjoyed under the old testa-
ment. And this consisteth in two things:- — 1. That what they had
m the type only, that we have in reality and substance. 2. Such
was the poverty of the types, that no one of them could so much as
shadow out or represent all that advantage which we really enjoy;
and therefore they were multiplied, and the work distributed amongst
them which they were to represent. This made them a yoke, and
that grievous and burdensome. The way of teaching in them and
by them was hard and obscure, as well as their observation was
diflficult. It was a hard thing for them to learn the love, grace, and
mind of God by them. God revealed himself in them ToXy/xspSf,
by many parts and pieces, according as they were capable to receive
impression from and make representation of divine wisdom, good-
ness, and grace; whence our apostle says, that the law had but ffx/ai/,
"a shadow," and not a.\jrv\\i rriv iVmvo. 'rrpayijArm, Heb. X. 1, — " the
image itself of things." It had some scattered shades, which the
great limner had laid the foundation of symmetry in, but so as to
be discernible only unto his own infinite wisdom. A perfect image,
wherein all the parts should exactly answer unto one another, and
so plainly represent the thing intended, that it had not. Now, it
was a work beyond their wisdom, out of these scattered pieces and
parts of revelation, especially being implanted on carnal things, to
gather up the whole of the grace and good-will of God. But in
Christ Jesus God hath gathered all into one head, Eph. i. 10,
wherein both his person and grace are fully and at once represented.



VER. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 61 1

Thus they had no one that was king, priest, and prophet to the
church ; nor could any be so after the giving of the law, the kingdom
being promised unto the tribe of Judah, and the priesthood confined
to the house of Aaron, of the tribe of Levi. Neither could any
typical person alone of himself answer exactly and completely that
wherein he was a type; for besides their own imperfections and
failings, even in the discharge of their typical office, — which rendered
them a weak and imperfect representation of him who was abso-
lutely perfect in all things, — they could not in and by themselves at
all discharge their office. Kings who were his types were to act,
and did act, according to the counsel of others, and those sometimes
none of the best; as David was much guided by the counsel of
Ahithophel, which was to him as if he had "inquired at the oracle of
God," 2 Sam. xvi. 23. But Christ, our king, hath all stores of wisdom
and counsel in himself, and "needed not that any should testify of
man; for he knew what was in man," John ii. 25. So it was pro-
phesied of him that " upon one stone," the foundation-stone of the
house of God, "there should be seven eyes," Zech. iii. 9. Counsellors
are 6(pdaX/j.oi jSaffiXsuv, — " the eyes of kings," And in the monarchy
of Persia, whence this prophet was newly come, there were always
seven of them: Ezra vii. 14, "Thou art sent of the king, and of his
seven counsellors;" and their names at that time are reckoned up,
Esth, i. 14. 'But,' saith he, 'all these eyes shall be on the foun-
dation-stone itself, so that he shall no way need the advice or counsel
of others.' Or, to the same purpose, it may denote a perfection of
wisdom and knowledge, which by that number is frequently signified.
And for the high priest, he could do nothing alone. Unless he had
an altar and a sacrifice, fire from above and a tabernacle or temple,
his office was of no use. But our Lord Jesus is all this, — both
priest, Heb. iv. 14, and altar, Heb. xiii. 10, and sacrifice, Eph. v. 2,
and tabernacle or temple, John ii. 19, 21, Col. ii. 9, and the fire,
Heb. ix. 14, all in his own person, as shall, God willing, be afterwards
declared. The like may be said of the prophets. Who sees not,
then, herein the great privilege of the new testament, seeing we
have these things all really which they had only in type, and all in
one which among them were distributed amongst so many, and those
all weak and imperfect.

Now, seeing that he is thus all unto us, two things do naturally
and necessarily follow : —

1 That we should seek for all in him. To what end were all
typical offices, with their attendancies, instituted in the church of
old? was it not that in them, one thing in one, another in another,
they might find and obtain whatever was ncedlul or useful for or
unto the worship of God, their own edification and salvation? And
shall we not seek for all in him who was represented, and that but

VOL. xn.— ^j3



512 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. III.

darkly and infirmly, by them all? Whatever any one stood in need
of in the commonwealth of Israel, he might have it fully answcjred
either by king, priest, or prophet. And shall we not be perfectly
justified by him who is really and substantially all in one? Yea,
all our defects, weaknesses, and troubles, arise from hence, that we
make not our applications unto him for that assistance which he is
able, ready, and willing to give unto us.

2. As we must go to him for all, so we must receive and take
him for all, that he may be all and in all. We are not only to
address ourselves unto him as our priest, to be interested in his sac-
rifice and the atonement made thereby, but as our king also, to
rule us by his Spirit, and to instruct us as the apostle of our profes-
sion. To take Christ, as some do, for a prophet, the apostle of God,
but not as a high priest, or a priest properly so called, is to reject
the true Christ, and to frame an idol to ourselves in our own
imaginations. It is the same to divide him with respect unto any
of his other offices or parts of his work whatever.

The exposition of the second verse yet remaineth, which will make
way for that observation which is comprehensive of the principal
design of the apostle in this place. Having laid down the sum of
his exhortation, by an addition of the fidelity of Christ the apostle
maketh a transition to the comparing of him with Moses as to his
office apostolical or legatine, as afterwards he proceeds to compare
him with Aaron in his office sacerdotal.

Ver. 2. — "Being faithful to him who appointed him, even as Moses
in his whole house."

Entering upon a comparison of the Lord Christ with Moses as he
was the apostle of God, or one sent by him to reveal his will, he
recommends him to the faith of the Hebrews under the principal
qualification of a person in that office, "He was faithful." This being
a term of relation, he further describes it by its respect unto God,
and that act of God whereunto it answered, "To him that appointed
him :" and then in general expresseth the comparison intended ; 1. By
naming the person with whom he compared him, "Even as Moses;"
and, 2. The subject of his employment, " The whole house of God."
First, The chief qualification of an apostle or ambassador is, that
he be faithful. God's apostle is the chief steward or
dispenser of his mysteries, and it is principally "required
in stewards, that a man be found faithful," 1 Cor. iv. 2. ^AmeToXog
Iv o'lTiui, an "apostle in the house" is olxovo/iog, the steward and dis-
pen.ser of all things in and unto the house. This, therefore, the
apostle expresseth in the first place, and that absolutely and compa-
ratively. He was "faithful," and "faithful as was Moses." His faith-
fulness as a high priest, and wherein that faithfulness did consist,



VEK. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 513

we have declared, chap. ii. 1 7, 1 8. Here, though that expression, Tiarht
ovra, being " faithful," is annexed unto the mention of two offices,
apostolical and sacerdotal, yet, as appears from the ensuing dis-
course, it relates only unto the former.

Now, the fidelity of a legate, ambassador, or an apostle, consists
principally in the full revelation and declaration of the whole mind
and will of him by whom he is sent, as to the end for which he is
sent, and nothing in his name but what is so his mind and will.
Tims, our apostle, to declare his faithfulness in his office apostolical,
affirms that he had "kept nothing back " from them to whom he was
sent, " that was profitable unto them," Acts xx. 20, nor " shunned
to declare unto them all the counsel of God," verse 27.

There are two things in faithfulness; — first, trust; and, secondly,
the discharge ihereot Faithfulness respects trust. Our Lord, there-
fore, nuist have a trust committed unto him, wherein he was faith-
ful : which also he had, for it pleased the Father to lay up in hiiu
*' all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge," Col. ii. 3, — to commit
unto him the whole mystery of his will and grace, — and so sent him
to declare himself, John i. 18; and his "name," John xvii. 6, — to
make known the last full declaration of his mind and will, as to his
worship, with the obedience and salvation of the church, Heb. i. 1 , 2,
and therewithal to " seal up vision and prophecy," Dan. ix. 24, that no
new or further revelation of the will of God should ever be made or
added unto what was made by him, Rev. xxii. 18, 19. Being in-
trusted with this work, his authority for it is proclaimed, the Father
giving command from heaven unto all to "hear him," Matt. xvii. 5,
who was thus sent by him. And therein "he received from God the
Father honour and glory," 2 Pet. i. 17, being declared to be that
great prophet whom all were obliged to hear on pain of utter exter-
mination. Dent, xviii. 18, 19; Acts iii. 22, 23.

This was the trust of the Lord Christ in this matter, and in the
dischai'ge hereof did his fidelity consist. And this he manifested ia
three things : — 1. In that in this great work he sought not his
own glory, but the glory of him that sent him, John viii. 50; de-
claring that he came not in his own, but in his Father's name,
John V. 43. He turned not his message unto his own advant:ige,
but unto the advantage or honour of him that sent him. 2. In
that he declared his word or message not to he his own, that is
originally or principally, but his Father's: "The word which ye
hear is not mine, but the Father's which sent me," John xiv.
24. 3. In that he declared the zuhole will or woi^d of God
that was committed unto him, for the end mentioned: "I have
given unto them the words which thou gavest me," John xvii. 8;
witnessing therein a good confession, 1 Tim. vi. 13, sealing the
truth with his blood, which he came into the world to bear wit-



514 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. III.

ness unto, John xviii. 37. And greater faithfulness could not be
expressed.

Secondly, This faithfulness he discharged towards " him that ap-
pointed him/' The apostle mentioning the offices of Christ distinctly,
addeth unto every one of them his designation or appointment to
them: unto his kingly office, Heb. i. 2, — ' He was appointed heir, or
lord of all ;' unto his sacerdotal, chap. v. 5, — 'He took not on himself
the office of a priest, without the call of God;' and here, as to his
apostolical or prophetical office, — ' He was appointed of God.' And
this he doth for two ends; — first, To evidence that the Lord Christ
took not any thing upon him in the house of God without call or
authority; secondly. That we might see the love and care of God,
even the Father, in the mediation of the Lord Christ, as appointing
him to his whole office and work.

" To him that appointed him." This appointment
, ; '^''""'"'"■' of Christ, or his being made the apostle of God, con-
sists in a fivefold act of God in reference thereunto : —

1. In his eternal designation of him to his work and office ;
for as he was in general irpoiyMusiiivoi irph xaraZoXrig xo'c/xou, 1 Pefc.
i. 20, " fore-ordained before the foundation of the world," so was
he in particular designed of God to be his apostle for the instruc-
tion of his church, Isa. xlviii. 16; Zech. vi. 13; Pro v. viii. 22-31.
Hence that eternal life which he was to manifest, 1 John i. 2,
and to bring to light by the gospel, 2 Tim. i. ] 0, is said to be " pro-
mised before the world began," Tit. i. 2, even because of this pur-
pose of sending the Son to declare it; on which account also it is
said to be with the Father before it was manifested by him, 1 John
i. 2. And herein lie's the foundation of the appointment of Christ
unto his office.

2. In the solemn promise made from the beginning to send
him for this purpose. This gave him a virtual law-constitution,
whereby he became, as its prophet, the object of the church's faith
and expectation. And this was included in the first promise, Gen.
iii. 15. Darkness, blindness, and ignorance, being come upon us by
sin, he that was to deliver us from all the effiscts and consequents
of it must of necessity be our instructor in the light and knowledge
of God. But the first open, plain expression of it by the way of
promise is Deut. xviii. 18; which is confirmed by following promises

, innumerable. See Isa. xi. 1-5, xl. 11, xlii. 1-7, xlix. 1-4, 8, 9, Iii.
15; Zech. vi. 12, 13; Mai. iii. 1-4.

3. In sending him actually into the world to be "the light of
men," John i. 4, and to " manifest that eternal life which was with
the Father," 1 John i. 2 ; to which end he furnished him with his
Spirit and all the gifts thereof in all fulness, for the discharge of
his office, Isa. xi. 2, 3, Ixi. 1-3. For to this end he received not



VER. 1, 2,] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 515

the Spirit by measure, John iii. 34, but was "anointed with the oil
of glaiiness above his fellows," Heb. i. 9 ; of which uiKJtion we have
treated at large before.

4. In the declaration he made of him to be his apostle and am-
bassador by a visible sign. This was done in the descending of the
Holy Ghost upon him in the likeness of a dove, John i. 32, 33.

And herewithal did God commit his charge and trust unto him,
which he was to keep and preserve, Zech. vi. 12, 13. Being thus
sent by the Lord of hosts, Zech. ii. 8, and therein clothed with his
name, authority, and majesty, Mic. v. 4, he acted in all things as
his legate and apostle, — by his commission and authority, in his
name, and unto his glory.

5. Lastly, Unto these acts of his appointment God added his com-
mand, and published it from heaven unto all, to hear and obey him,
as the great teaciier sent from God, as his apostle, speaking in his
name. Matt. xvii. 5.

By these means was the Lord Christ appointed to be the apostle
of God; and "he was faithful unto him that appointed him," as
hath been declared.

Thirdly, " As was Moses in his whole house." The last thing in
these words is the further assertion of the fidelity of ,
Christ by a comparison with Moses, who was " faith-
ful in his whole house." We observed before, that it is not evi-
dent unto whom these words are immediately applied. But whomso-
ever they have respect unto, tliey belong also to the other; for the
one as well as the other was faithful in the whole house of God. But
tlie apostle seems directly to express the words used by God himself
concerning Moses, Num. xii. 7: ^^'^ i^??^ ''ri"'?"''?f ; — "In tola domo
mea fidelis ipse;" — "He is faithful in all my house." And they
are therefore here firstly intended of him. Three things are, then,
considerable in these words : 1. The commendation of Moses, — he
was " fa'thful." 2. The extent of his faithfulness, — it was "in all the
house of God;" both which are expressed in the words. 3. The
comparison implied between Christ and him.

1. " Moses was 19^^., " faithful." It is true, he failed personally
in his faith, and was charged of God that he believed him not, Num.
XX. 12; but this was in respect of his own faith in one particular,
and is no impeachment of his faithfulness in the especial office in-
tended. As he was the apostle, the ambassador of God, to reveal
his mind and institute his worship, he was universally faithful ; for
he declared and did all things according to his will and appoint-
ment, by the testimony of God himself, Exod. xl. 16, "According
to all that the LoRD commanded him, so did he." He withheld
nothing of what God revealed or commanded, nor did he add any
thing thereunto; and herein did his faithfulness consist.



516 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. in

2, The extent of his faithfulness was in " the whole house of God,"

— h oA(f Tui o7xw: that is, saith Chrysostom, h oXifi rSt
» exu rco ^^ — „ .^ ^j^^ whole people." " In his house ;" that is,

in his household, his family : Acts ii. 36, 'AcpaXws yivu-
cxero 'jrag oinog 'lepariX' — " Let the whole house of Israel know ;" that
is, the whole family, the posterity of Jacob, or Israel. See " house"
for "household," Acts xvi. 15; 1 Cor. i. 16; 2 Tim. i. 16. The "house
of God," then, is his household, his family, his church; called his
"house," — (1.) By way of appropriation ; his lot, his portion, as a man's
house is to him. Dent, xxxii. 9, "The Lord's portion is his people;
Jacob is the lot of his inheritance." (2.) Because of his inhabita-



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