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have with him received the seeds of all truth: which being watered
and attended as they ought, will in due time flourish into all their
proper branches and fruits; for all things are gathered into one head
in him, Eph. i. 10.

4. The right performance of this duty enlivens, excites, and acts
all those graces and gracious affections, which are effectual to pre-
serve us in the truth, and to keep us from decays in our profession.
The Lord Christ being the proper object of them, and this considera-
tion consisting in the application of the faculties of our souls unto
that object, by a due exercise of those graces, they must needs be
increased and augmented thereby; as all grace grows and thrives
in and by its exercise, and ordinarily not otherwise. And when any
grace is so applied unto Christ as spiritually to touch him, virtue
goes forth from him for its strengthening. The neglect then also
hereof must of necessity produce the contrary effect, John xv. 5, 6.

Thus in particular is faith increased; for according as the object
of it is cleared, manifested, represented suitable and desirable unto



VER. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 525

the soul, so is faith itself excited, stirred up, and strengthened.
Now, this is no otherwise done but when the soul is enabled gra-
ciously to ponder ou the person and offices of Christ. There it finds
all that is needful unto it to make it happy and blessed, — to procure
pardon, peace, righteousness, and glory for it. This faith receives,
and is improved by it. So the apostle informs us, 2 Cor. iii. 18. Hav-
ing boldness and liberty given us in the gospel to consider and
behold by faith the glory of Christ, we are thereby transformed into
his likeness and image, — namely, by an increase of faith, whereby we
" grow up into him who is the head." And this brings along with it
an increase in all other graces, whereby we are preserved in the
profession and jDractice of the truth.

By this means, also, a fountain of godly sorrow is opened in the
hearts of believers; which is a precious grace, Zech. xii. 10. Tlie
consideration of the Lord Christ as pierced for us, or by us, will
melt and humble the soul, or it will never yield unto any ordinance
of God.

The spouse, in like manner, in the Canticles, giving an account
of her great and incomparable love unto her beloved, manifests that
it aruse from the exact consideration that she had taken of his per-
son and all that belonged thereunto, chap, v, 9-16. The like may
be said of all other graces; and by these must we be preserved, or
utterly fail. As to the use of these things, —

(1.) We may see hence the reason why so many turn aside,
and fall off from the truth and ways of the gospel. They have
given over a due consideration of Jesus Christ, his person, offices,
and mediation, and so have lost the means of their preservation.
They have been weary of him, not seeing form or comeliness in
him for which he should be desired. What a sad instance have we
hereof in those poor deluded creatures, who, neglecting him, pretend
to find all light and life within themselves ! This is their Beth-el,
the beginning of their transgression; for when men have neglected
the person of Christ, is it any wonder if they despise his ways and
oidinances, as is their manner? Indeed, the ordinances of the
gosj)el, its worship and institutions, have no excellency, no beauty
in them, but what ariseth from their relation unto the person and
offices of Christ; and if they are neglected, these must needs be
burdensome and grievous. And as it is in vain to draw men unto
the embracement of them who know him not, who are not acquaint-
ed with him, seeing they appear unto them the most grievous and
intolerable of all things that can be imposed on them; so they who
on any account cease to consider him by faith, as he is proposed
unto them in the gospel, cannot long abide in their observation.
Ciive such men the advantages of liberty, and keeping up a reputa-
tion of profession without them, — which they suppose a new and sin-



526 AN EXPOSITION OF THE , [CHAP. IIL

gnlar opinion will furnish them withal, — and they will quickly cast
them otf as a burden not to be borne. And as it is with gospel
worship, so it is with all the articles of faith, or important truths
that we are to believe. The centre and knot of them all is in the
person of Christ. If they are once loosed from thence, if their union
in him be dissolved, if men no more endeavour to learn " the truth
as it is in Jesus," or to acquaint themselves with the will of God, as
he hath " gathered all things unto a head in him," they scatter, as it
were, of their own accord from their minds; so that it may be they
retain no one of them, or if they do so, yet not in a right manner,
so as to have an experience of the power of them in obedience.
This is the cause of the apostasies amongst us; Christ is neglected, —
not considered, not improved. A lirjht within, or a. formal worship
luithout, is enthroned in his stead; and thence all sorts of errors and
evils do of their own accord ensue. Deal with any whom you see
to nef^lect his ways and truths, and you will find this to be the state
of things with them: — they have left off to value and esteem the
person of Christ ; or they had never any acquaintance with him.
And in vain is it to dispute with men about the streams whilst they
despise the fountain. The apostle gives us a threefold miscarriage
in religion, Col. ii. 18: — [1.] A pretence of a voluntary, uncom-
manded humility, a pretended mortification, indeed a bare covering
of base and filthy pride; [2.] A luorshipping of angels, an instance
to express all false, self-invented worship; and, [3.] Curiosity in
vain speculations, or men's intruding themselves into the things
which they have not seen, setting out things with swelling words of
vanity, wherewith in truth they have no acquaintance, whereof they
have no experience. And all these, saith he, verse 19, proceed from
hence, that they "hold not the Head;" they have let go the Lord
Clirist, from whom all truths are to be derived, and consequently all
truth itself. Here lies the spring of our frequent apostasies.

(2.) Again, we may hereby examine and try ourselves. Do we at any
time find any of the ways, institutions, or ordinances of Christ grievous
or burdensome unto us? do we find a secret dislike of them, or not
that delight in them which we have formerly enjoyed? If we search
into the root of our distempers, we shall find that our hearts and spirits
have not been exercised with that consideration of the person and
offices of Christ which our duty calls for. We have not been kept
in a constant adoration of his majesty, admiration of his excellency,
delight in his beauty, joy in his undertaking, holy thoughtfulness of
his whole mediation. This hath betrayed us into our lukewarmness
and indifferency, and made us faint and weary in his ways. Hence
also all endeavours for a recovery from such a frame, that regard
only the particular instances that we are sensible of, are languid and
successless. He that finds himself faint in or weary of any of the



VER. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWa 627

ways of Christ or any duties of obedience unto him, or that discovers
an undervaluation of any of the truths of the gospel, as to their use
or importance, and thinks to recover himself and retrieve his spirit
only by applying himself unto that particular wherein he is sensible
of his failure, will labour in the fire and to no purpose. It may be
that after some days, or months, or years, he will find himself more
at a loss than ever ; and that because although he striveth, yet he
striveth not Icmfidly. If we would recover ourselves, we must go
to the source and beginning of our decays.

(3.) This tends directly unto our instruction in these perilous
days, such as the latter days are foretold to be. All means that
ever the devil made use of from the foundation of the world, to draw
off or deter men from gospel obedience, are at this day displayed.
The world smiles upon apostates, and promiseth them a plentiful
supply of such things as the corrupt nature of man esteems desirable.
Errors and false worship, with temptations from them, spread them-
selves with wings of glorious pretences over the face of the whole
earth. Trials, troubles, storms, persecutions, attend and threaten
on every hand ; and " he only that endureth unto the end shall be
saved." He that, like Jonah, is asleep in this tempest, is at the door
of ruin ; he that is secure in himself from danger, is in the greatest
danger of falling by security. What, then, shall we do? what means
shall we use for our preservation? Take the counsel of our blessed
apostle, "Holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider
the apostle and high priest of our profession;" and again, chap. xii.
3, "Consider him who endured such contradiction of sinners against
himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds." Be much in
the consideration of the person, offices, and work of Christ. This
will conform you unto him, derive strength from him, arm you with
the same mind that was in him, increase all your graces, keep you
from being wear}'-, and give you assured victory. He deserves it,
you need it; let it not be omitted.

5. This will give direction unto them who are called unto the
work of teaching others. The person and offices of Christ are the
things which principally they are to insist upon; for that which is
the chief est object of the church's faith ought to be the chiefest
subject of our preaching. So Paul tells the Galatians, that in his
preaching Christ was evidently crucified before their eyes. Gal. iii. 1.
He proposed Christ crucified unto their consideration, "determining,"
as he speaks in another place, "to know nothing amongst them but
Jesus Christ, and him crucified." For if the consideration of Christ
be such an important duty in believers, certainly the due proposal
of him unto their consideration" is no less in preachers. Christ alone
is to be preached absolutely, and all other truths as they begin, end,
and centre in him. To propose the Lord Christ as amiable, desirable,
VOL. xu. — 34



628 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. IIL

useful, and every way worthy of acceptation, is the great duty of
the dispensers of the gospel,

I have insisted the longer on this observation, because it com-
priseth the main design of the apostle's words, and is also of singular
use to all that profess the gospel. Those which remain shall be
only named.

XII. The union of believers lies in their joint profession of faith
in the person and offices of Christ, upon a participation in the same
heavenly calling. So it is described by the apostle ; and the addition
of otlier things, as necessary thereunto, is vain.

XIII. The ordering of all things in the church depends on the
sovereign appointment of the Father. He appointed the Lord
Christ unto his power and his office in the church.

XIV. The faithfulness of the Lord Christ in the discharge of the
trust committed unto him, is the great ground of faith and assurance
unto believers in the worship of the gospel. To that end is it men-
tioned by the apostle.

XV. All things concerning the worship of God, in the whole
church or house now under the gospel, are no less perfectly and
completely ordered and ordained by the Lord Jesus Christ than they
were by Moses under the law. The comparison is to be taken not
only subjectively but objectively also, or it will not suit the apostle's
purpose. As the faithfulness of Moses extended itself unto the
wiiole worship of God and all things concerning it under the old
testament, so that of Christ must be extended to the whole worsliip
of God and all the concernments of it under the new testament.
It is true, the faithfulness of Christ intensively would bene less than
that of Moses, if he revealed all that was committed unto him of his
Father unto that purpose, for Moses did no more : but herein would
Moses be preferred before him, if all things any way needful or use-
ful to or in the worship of God, in matter and manner, were com-
mitted unto him, so that nothing might be added thereunto, and not
so unto Jesus Christ; which surely neither the design of the apostle
in this place nor the analogy of faith will allow.

Verses 8-6.

The apostle having made his entrance into the comparison
designed by him between Christ and Moses, and showed in general
wherein they were alike, and as to his purpose equal (which that
those who are compared together should be in some things is neces-
sary), he proceeds to evince the prelation of Christ and his exaltation
above him in sundry signal instances, the matter principally aimed
at: —

Ver. 3—6. — nXslovog yap B6t,rjg oZrog Ta^a Muvsrjv rj^iurai, xad^ ('Gov
'zXiiova riijjr\v 'iVii tov or/.ou 6 xaraff/tEJcctrcc; a^rov -ag yaf> olxog xoltuo-



VER. 3-6.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWa 529

XivaZiTo.! i/cro rivog, 6 di ra Tc/.ura xaraffx.iua.ffa.g, Qsog. Kal 'Moouarj^
(iiv 'ziarlg sv oXw rw o'iku) avrou, u: '^ipuTuv, tig /Maprvpiov rcov XaXridrj-
Co/Msvuv, Xpisrog d's ug [jihg st/ tov oi-kov ahrou' ov oixog ig/MSv rifj^iTg^ idv~ip tyjv
rrappriciav, xai rh %al)yr\ii,a T7Jg iXrvihog fJ'i'/jpi riKwg ^sQaiav xaTcls^^^u/xev.

H'hilovoi. Viilg. Lat,, "Amplioris enim glorise iste prse Moyse dignu-; est
habiius." Retaining the case of the Greek substantive, the Latin is corrupt, as
Vailii, Erasmus, and Vatahlus observe. But the sense is not obscured. The
Syriac renders not ri^iura,! at all, but reads the words "For the glory" (or
"honour") "of this man is more" (or " greater") "than that of Moses."

Erasmus and Beza supply '•tanto" at the beginning of the verse, to answer
Kccff oVoy, which thc-y translate "quanto," in the next words; or they take that
expression to answer "tant"," "quanto." Ours, "in quantum," "inasmuch,"
properly.

Oy-of, "iste," "this man." A demonstrative pronoun, u=ed sometimes in a
way of contempt, as John ix. 29, Tovrou ovk o'iooifisv Tvo'hv eaTtv, whc^re we render
it "This fellow," as being spoken with contempt; but more frequently in a way
of ex ellency, as, Ovroj s(jtIv 6 An^uoT^ivn;, — " This is that Demosthenes " So
Lucian, Asi%ei ae ra oax.rv'ho), ovro: iKeho; 'heyuv — " He shall point at thee, saying,
This is that excellent person." Which the poet expresseth, —

" At pulchrum est digito monstrari et dicier, Hie est." — Pers. Sat. i. 28.
JMostly it is simply demonstrative and distinctive, as in this place: " This man of
whoai we speak," or "person."

The words of compjirison are doubled: TLT^n'os/o; Trctpdi Mwi/o-iji/, for vi ^luvavic:, or
rtiv ^luvai:ug;ov absolutely, Ao'|-/9f -Tretpoi Mavaijv. But thf' conjunction of Trapci
with an adjective comparative, as it is not unuual, so it is emphatical, and denotes
the greatness of the prelation of Christ above Moses.

'H|/(yT«/, " dignus habitus est," — "is" (or " was") "counted worthy." But
the word signifies not only a bare being accounted worthy, but so as also to be
possessed of that whereof one is so e.^teemed worthy. ' AS,iudii; "hupuu is not only
" worthy of gifts," or " rewards," but he that is " muneritms donatus quibus
dignus censetur ;" that is, possessed of the rewards whereof he is worthy. So that
d^tu6i\g ript.yii and Bc-'|nc, is he that hath that honour and glory whereof he is
esteemed worthy. And therefore the Syriac leaves this out, namely, "esteem" or
"accounting," and expresseth that which is principally intended: "His glory was
greater than that of Moses."

Tl'Kiiovci TifiYtv 'i)csi roi oi'icov. Vulg. Lat., " Quanto ampliorem honorem habet
domus, qui fabricavit illam." Rendering the Greek construction by the same
case, oix,ou by domus, not only is the speech barbarous, but the sense is also per-
verted; yet the Rhemists retain this ambiguity, "By so much as more ample
glorv than the house hath he that framed it." But 'ir'Kiioiiix.rii^viu e^^si toIi oi'kov, is
'"majorem," or "ampliorem habet honorem quum ipsa domus;" — "hath more hon-
our than the house," or " the bouse itself."

Ao|>7 and ripc'y}, " glory and honour," are used by the apostle as iaoovva^uoiiyroe;
words of the same im|iortance and signification; and so are they frequently used
el.-e where in the Scripture.

Toy otnov, " the house." Many of the old translators render it '• the temple,"
because the temple of old was frequently called ^'tV, "the hou-e." But the allu-
sion of tiie apostle is general unto any house, and the building of it.

And Moses was faithful ug ^ipdciruv, " tanquam famulus:" Syr., **"??, "servus,"
"a servant." Qsp»7rav is properly and most usually one that doth "inservire
sacris," that attends upon and ministers about holy things, 'hsizovpyo;. So
amongst the heaihtn, BipxT^-eviiuToii; Beov?, and ^ 'Tripl tov; ^iovg Bepct7;-eict, — "tho
sacred service of the gods." So Pollux Onomast. lib. i.,'0u6/:<,xTci rov; iiove



530 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. III.

^ioxvivovruV rZv BeZu ^ipctTrevTKi hpslc, viux,6poi, the same with priests, sacred
officers. The word is used in the New Testament only in this place; Bipavelx
and hipctTTiW) often, hut always for healing or curing the sick and infirm ; which
is another sense of the word And in this sense it is derived fi'om the Hebrew
''2"', "to heal;" whence is °''^?"1 rendered sometimes "physicians," sometimes
"dead men." Qipaviviii/, when it is used elsewhere for '• to serve," is applied unto
the service of a freeman, and is more honourable than lovhiviiv, although that
also is translated into an honourable use in the gospel, from the object and lord
or author of it: AouXo; 'InaoD XpiaTOii, cc(papi<jf^evog d; svuyyi'Kiov, Rom. i. 1; —
"A servant of Jesus Chri-t, sep.rated to the service of the gospel."

'O jcoiTc(.(7Kiva.(Tcts, "qui prceparat," " prepareth," " frameth it;" and, as re-
specting rov o'i'kou, a house, " built it."

"If we hold fast T'iiv TrappYKjiuv." Vulg. Lat., " fiduciam," "trust" or "con-
fidence." Syr., ''s? '^■'"'H, " the revelation," or " opening of the face;" alluding
to that of the apostle, 2 Cor. iii. 18, ' AvansKxT^v/^/^iuu vpoauva, '• With open face
behold the glory of God:" an Hebraism for confidence. Beza, "loquendi liber-
tatem," "fi-eedom" (or "boldness") "of speaking unto God." So TetppYKrix^o-
fiui is most frequently used to speak openly or boldly. And as ■Trotppmatoe, is
joined here with x.ctvx,yi,u-ei; " glorying," or " boasting," it may have that sense.
And the rise of the word refers to speaking. It is from piiaig, " dictio,""a saying,"
or " speaking," from li'pa, " dice;" and is as mucli as 'Truupyiai'x, the speaking of all
that is or ought to be spoken ; " fandi libertas," "a liberty of speaking," and "bold-
ness in speaking," notwithstanding opposition and danger. So he in the poet: —

"Dicam equidem, licet ille milii mortemque minetur;"
" Ue would speak truth, though it cost him his life."

And so ■xctppncrietv 'hi^6u»i is to give liberty of speech. Boldness and confidence
absolutely is Ssoippog. Ours leave Beza (which they do seldom), and render this
word "confidence." It is used frequently in the New Testament; sometimes ad-
verbially, for " boldly," " openly," •' plainly," especially by John in the Gospel ;
sometimes substantively, for " boldness," or " confidence ;" but constantly in an
indifferent sense. Nowhere doth it denote any Christian grace, but only in this
epistle of Paul and the first epistle of John.

Kul TO Kuv^Yipiu TJjf tXTTtlo;. Vulg. Lat., "et gloriam spei," "the glory of
hope." So the Rhemi.sts. "Gloriationem spei," "the glorying" (or "boasting")
"of hope," Arias, Erasm.jVatab. Ours," the rejoicing of hope," wanting a word to
render "gloriatio ;" usual, [i. e., indifferent,] and not restrained to an ill sense. And
xavx,yifiec is sometimes used for dyot.T^'hictpt.oe: Beza, " Spem illam de qua glori-
amur," " that hope whereof we buast." This word is peculiar to Paul, and not
used in the New Testament but by him, and by him frequently; as are also
x.KVX'i'Of^cti and x,»v)^yiat:. And it is a word, as ti^at foregoi"g, sk tZv yAauv, of an
indifferent sense and acceptation, which may be jipplied either unto good or evil.
Some Ktiiv^cW^' Of " boasting," is not good, James iv, 16: and there is a x.ci.vxyi{^a,
which here and elsewhere our apostle commends, a rejoicmg, or exultation in that
which is good.

Tvii IXtt/ooj. Syr., ^I;a5'l, "of his hope;" that is, the hope we have in him.
Ethiop., " If we hold fast our grace, and our rejoicing, and our hope."

BsSot/av x.a,Ta,a%uyiv, " firmam retinuerimus." BeQxicci' is properly referred
to Trapprntct", not agreeing with x.a.i/x,rijiix in gender, nor with iX-Trihog in case;
which latter it may have yet respect unto, supposing a trajection in the words.
Our translators have fitly rendered these words by " holding fost our hope firm;"
for " firm" regards the thing held, and not our manner of holding. Beza supposeth
it ought to be fiiQaiov, but unnecessarily (as such conjectures were the only fault
of that great interpreter), for it refers principally to ■^eee.ppnaiot.v. The Syriac ex-
presseth it not.

T'he rest of the words are plain and obvious. Only the Vulgar Latin stumbles oft



VER. 3-6.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 531

in this verse. It renders ov o7k6? iaftiv, "quae domus sumus nos," as the Rhemists;
*' wliich house we are," for "whose house are we." The transhitor seems to have
read o;, not ov: and so Beza affirms that he found it in one Greek copy.

And aufain, " Christ as a son in domo sua," "in his house;" that is eu oha
etiiroii, for ettj rov oTkov, " over his own house." The Rhemists retain " in his
h'luse," corrupting the sense.

AvroZ, not xiiTov, '• his own house,'' not "his house;" or, if the relative be re-
tained, it refers unto Christ, — " I will," saith he, " build my church," — and not
to God the Father.'

Ver, 3-6. — For this [m«;i] was counted worthy of more
glory \ivas more honourable^ than Moses; inasmuch as
he who hath builded the house [_an house\ hath more
honour than the house. For every house is builded
by some man ; but he that built all things is God.
And Moses verily [was\ faithful in all his house as a
servant, for a testimony of those things which were
[after^ to be spoken. But Christ \icas faithful] as a
son over his own house; whose house are we, if we hold
fast the confidence and the rejoicing of [or glorying in]
the hope firm unto the end.

The apostle proceeds in these words with his design of evidencing
the excellency and prelation of Christ above Moses, as he had done
before in reference unto angels and all other revealers of the will of
God unto the church, reserving an especial consideration for him who
was of especial esteem with the Hebrews. Herewithal he expresseth
the reason of his desire that they would seriously " consider" him,
namely, in his person and offices.

Two things in general are to be borne in mind for the right under-
standing of these words, and the meaning of the apostle in them: —

First, That he is now dealing with the Hebrews in the last and
greatest instance of the excellency of the gospel, taken from the con-
sideration of his person by whom it was revealed; for here he pre-
fers him above Moses, whose dignity was the last plea and pretence
of the Hebrews for retaining their old church-state and customs.
But no plea or pretence will prescribe unto the authority and honour
of Jesus Christ.

Secondly, That the subject he here treats of is not his utmost in-
tention ; but he useth it as an argument or medium to prevail with

1 Readings. — Lachmann and Tischendorf read Idv instead of cKwip. The
latter also omits entirely fii)cpi -ziMvi, and instead of oIkov etvTov he gives oixo*
ctvroZ. The English translation of the words, •' his own house," is foun<]ed on
the former reading; which is corroborated by the Vulgate, "in domo sua."

Exposition. — Ebrar<i finds a threefold difference between Christ and Moses;—
the toruier filling the place of the x.ctru.(!x.ivci,act;, the latter that of a part of the
familia; the former being Lord of the hviiig house, the latter serving in a house
which w;is for a testimony of a future revelation; the former bting the Son, the
latter a servant. — Ed.



532 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. III.

tbem unto constancy and perseverance, as the verses immediately
ensuing do manifest.

The connection of the discourse is denoted in the first word,
" for," a causal conjunction, which sometimes renders
^''^' a reason of what hath been before spoken; sometimes
directs unto an inference of what is afterwards to be introduced, as



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