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cularly applicable to every part of his inheritance, and is especially
pleaded in reference unto angels: Col. i. 15, 16, " Who is the image
of the invisible God, the first-born of every creature," — that is, the
heir and lord of them all; and the reason is, " For by him were all
things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and
invisible, whether thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers:
all things were created by him, and for him." His creation of those
heavenly powers is the foundation of his heirship or lordship over
them. 'Exr/ff^?3, that is, saith a learned man (Grotius) on the place,
"not created or made, but ordered, ordained ; all things were ordered
by Christ as to their state and dignit3\" But what reason is there
to depart from the proper, usual, yea, only sense of the word in this
place ? " Because," saith he, " mention is made of Christ, which is
the name of a man; and so the creation of all things cannot be attri-
buted unto him." But Christ is the name of the Son of God in-
carnate, Gud and man : " Christ, who is over all, God blessed for
ever," Rum. ix. 5. ^ee Luke ii. 11. And he is here spoken of as
"the image of the invisible God," Col. i. 15, — the essential image of
the Father, endowed with all his eternal attributes; and so the



52 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. I.

creator of all. The Socinians add that the words are used in the
ahstract, " principalities and powers," and therefore their dignities,
not their persons, are here intended. But, (1.) " All things created,
m heaven and in earth, visible and invisible," are the substances and
essences of things themselves, and not their qualities and places only.
(2.) The distribution into " thrones and dominions, principalities
and powers," respects only the last branch of things affirmed to be
created by him, namely, "things in heaven, — invisible;" so that if it
should be granted that he made or created them only as to their
dignity, order, and power, yet they obtain not their purpose, since
the creation of all other things, as to their being and subsistence, is
ascribed unto him. But, (3.) The vise of the abstract for the con-
crete is not unusual in Scripture. See Eph. vi. 12, Tviv/Manxd for
rrvivfj^uTa. Thus -/jye/Movag xai (SadiXsTg, " rulers and kings," Matt. x.
18, are termed apx'^'-i "«' i'^ouelai, " principalities and powers," Luke
xii. 11. And in this particular, those who are here " principalities
and powers" are "angels great in power," 2 Pet. ii, 11. And Eph.
i. 20, 21, he is exalted v'Trspdvu '^dsTjg df^rj? xa! s^ouciag xat duvd-
/xi'jjc zai -/.upioTTirog, — that is, above all vested with principality and
power," as the next words evince, " and every name that is named."
So Jude tells us of some of whom he says, Kvpiorrirog zaratppovoZvng,
d'j'^ag ou rp's/jAjvei j3Xag(pr}/^oiJVTig' xvpioT'/jra dhrovffi, ho^ag (SXafffri/Moudr —
"They despise dominion, and speak evil of dignities;" that is,
those vested with them. And Paul, Rom. viii. 38, 39, " I am per-
suaded that neither angels," ovn dpyjx), <yoT% duvdfisig, " nor princi-
palities, nor powers;" ovts rig xriffig iripa, " nor any other creature."
So that these principalities and powers are xrlffiig, certain " crea-
tures," created things and subsistences, — that is the angels, variously
dllferenced amongst themselves; in respect of us, great in power and
dignity.

Tliis is the first foundation of the equity of this grant of all power
over the angels unto the Lord Christ: in his divine nature he made
them ; and in that respect they were before his own ; as on the same
account, when he came into the world, he is said to come iig rd '/dia,
John i. 11, "to his own," or the things that he had made.

2. It is founded in that establishmeyit in the condition of their
creation, which by his interposition to recover what was lost by sin,
and to preserve the untainted part of the creation from ruin, they
did receive. In their own right, the rule of their obedience, and the
example of those of their number and society who apostatized from
God, the}^ found themselves in a state not absolutely infipregnable.
Their confirmation, — which also was attended with that exaltation
which they received by their new relation unto God in and through
him, — they received by his means, God gathering up all things to a
consistency and permanency in him, Eph. i. 10. And hence also it
became equal that the rule and power over them should be com-



VER. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 5.*?

mitted unto him, by whom, although they were not, like us, recovered
from ruin, yet they were preserved from all danger of it. So tliat
in their subjection unto Idni consists their principal honour and all
their safety.

And as this act of God, in appointing Christ Lord of angels, hath
these equitable foundations, so it hath also sundry glorious ends: —

1. It was as an addition unto that glory that tvas set before hivi
in his undertaking to redeem sinners. A kingdom was of old pro-
mised unto him; and to render it exceedingly glorious, the rule and
sceptre of it is extended, not only to his redeemed ones, but to the
holy angels also, and the sovereignty over them is granted him as a
part of his reward, Phil. ii. 8-11 ; Eph. i. 20, 21.

2. God hereby gathers up his ivhole family, — at first distinguisheil
by the law of their creation into two especial kinds, and then differ-
enced and set at variance by sin, — into one body under one'head, re-
ducing them that originally were twain into one entire family: Eph.
i. 10, " In the fulness of times he gathered together in one all things
in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth ; even
in him," as was before declared. Before this the angels had no im-
mediate created head: for themselves are called ^^'"'''1^, " cfods," Fs.
xcvii. 7; 1 Cor. viii. 5. Whoever is the head must be D'^'^-'i^v' ''O''*'?,
[])eut. X. 17], the " God of gods," or " Lord of lords,"— which Christ
alone is; and in him, or under him as a head, is the whole family of
God united.

3. The church of mankind militant on the earth, whose conduct
unto eternal glory is committed unto Clirist, stands in need of the
ministry of atigels. And therefore hath God granted rule and power
over them unto him, that nothing miyht be wantinfj to enable him
" to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him." So
God hath given him to be " head over all tilings to the church,"
Eph. i. 22; that he should, with an absolute sovereignty, use and
dispose of all things to the benefit and advantage of the church.

Tliis is the first branch of the lordship and dominion of Christ,
according to the distribution of the severals of it before laid down.
He is Lord of angels, and they are all of them his servants, the fel-
low-servants of them that have the testimony of Jesus. And as
some men do wilfully cast themselves, by their religious adoration of
angels, under the curse of Canaan, to be servants unto servants. Gen.
ix. 25 ; so it is the great honour and privilege of true believers, that
in their worship of Christ they are admitted into the society of "an
innumerable company of angels," Heb. xii. 22, Rev. v. 11-13: for
they are not ashamed to esteem them their fellow-servants whom their
Lord and King is not ashamed to call his brethren. And herein
consists our communion with them, that we have one common Head
and Lord ; and any intercourse with them, but only on this account,
or any worship performed towards them, breaks the bond of that



64 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. I.

communion, and causetb us not to " hold the Head," Col. ii. 19. The
privilege, the safety, and advantage of the church, from this subjec-
tion of angels to its Head and Saviour, are by many spoken unto.

Secondly, There is another sort of angels, who by sin left their
primitive station, and fell off from God; of whom, their sin, fall,
malice, wrath, business, craft in evil, and final judgment, the Scrip-
ture treateth at large. These belong not, indeed, to the possession
of Christ as he is the heir, but they belong unto his dominion as he
is Lord. Though he be not a king and head unto them, yet he is
a judge and ruler over them. All things being given into his hand,
they also are subjected unto his power. Now, as under the former
head, I shall consider, — 1. The right or equity, and, 2. The end of
this authority of Christ over this second sort of the first race of in-
tellectual, creatures, the angels that have sinned.

1. As before, this right is founded in his divine nature, by virtue
whereof he is 'ikuvos, fit for this dominion. He made these angels
also, and therefore, as God, hath an absolute dominion over them.
The creatures cannot cast off the dominion of the Creator by rebel-
lion. Though they may lose their moral relation unto God, as obe-
dient creatures, yet their natural, as creatures, cannot be dissolved.
God will be God still, be his creatures never so wicked; and if they
obey not his will, they shall bear his justice. And this dominion of
Christ over fallen angels as God, makes the grant of rule over them
to him as mediator just and equal.

2. The immediate and peculiar foundation of his right unto rule
over fallen angels, rendering the special grant of it equal and right-
eous, is lawful conquest. This gives a special right, Gen. xlviii. 22.
Now, that Christ should conquer fallen angels was promised from
the foundation of the world, Gen. iii. 15. " The seed of the woman,"
the Messiah, was to " break the serpent's head," — despoil him of his
power, and bring him into subjection; which he performed accord-
ingly: Col. ii. 15, " He spoiled principalities and powers," — divested
fallen angels of all that title they had got to the world, by the sin of
man; " triumphing over them," as captives to be disposed of at his
pleasure. He "stilled,"or made to cease as to his power, this "enemy,"
Djpjnpi^ and " self-avenger," Ps. viii 2 ; "leading captivity captive," Ps.
Ixviii. 18; "breaking in pieces the head over the large earth," Ps. ex. (i ;
" binding the strong man armed, and spoiling his goods." And the
bcripture of the New Testament is full of instances as to his execut-
ing his power and authority over evil angels; they take up a good
part of the historical books of it.

Man having sinned by the instigation of Satan, he was, by the
just judgment of God, delivered up unto his power, Heb. ii. 14. The
Lord Christ undertaking to recover lost man from under his power
by destroying his works, 1 John iii. 8, and to bring them again into



VER. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 65

favour with God, Satan with all his might sets himself to oppose him
in his work; and failing in his enterprise, being utterly conquered,
he became absolutely subjected unto him, trodden under his feet,
and the prey he had taken was delivered from him.

This is the next foundation of the authority of Christ over the
evil angels. He had a great contest and war with them, and that
about the glory of God, his own kingdom, and the eternal salvation
of the elect. Prevailing absolutely against them, he made a con-
quest over them, and they are put into subjection unto him for ever.
They are subjected unto him as to their present actings and future
condition. He now rules them, and will hereafter finally judge
them. Wherein he suffers them, in his holiness and wisdom, to act
in temptations, seductions, persecutions, he bounds and limits their
rage, malice, actings ; orders and disposes the events of them to his own
holy and righteous ends; and keeps them under chains for the judg-
ment of the last day, when, for the full manifestation of his dominion
over them, he will cause the meanest of his servants to set their feet
on the necks of these conquered kings, and to join with himself in
sentencing them unto eternal ruin, 1 Cor. vi. 3; which they shall be
cast into by him, Rev. xix. 20.

3. The ends of this lordship of Christ are various; as, — (1.) His
own glory, Ps. ex. 1. (2.) The church's safety, Matt. xvi. 1 8 ; Rev. xii.
7-9. And, (3.) Exercise for their good, — [1.] By temptation, 1 Pet.
v. 8-10; and, [2.] Persecution, Rev, ii. 10, xii. 10; both which he
directs, regulates, and bounds, unto their eternal advantage. (4.)
The exercising of his wrath and vengeance upon his stubborn ene-
mies, whom these slaves and vassals to his righteous power seduce,
blind, harden, provoke, ruin and destroy, Rev. xii. 1.5, xvi. 13, 14;
Ps. cvi. And how much of the peace, safety, and consolation of be-
lievers, lies wrapped up in this part of the dominion of Christ were
easy to demonstrate ; as also, that faith's improvement of it, in every
condition, is the greatest part of our wisdom in our pilgrimage.

II. All mankind (the second sort of intellectual creatures or ra-
tional subsistences) belong to the lordship and dominion of Christ.
All mankind was in the power of God as one (p-jpa,u,a, " one mass,"
or " lump," out of which all individuals are made and framed, Rom.
ix. 21, some to honour, some to dishonour; the to uvrh (p-jpa/ia not
denoting the same substance, but one common condition. And the
making of the individuals is not by temporal creation, but eternal
designation. So that all mankind, made out of nothmg and out of
the same condition, destined to several ends, for the glory of God,
are branched into two sorts; — elect, or vessels from the common mass
unto honour; said reprobates, or vessels from the common mass unto
dishonour As such they were typed by Jacob and Esau, Rom. ix.
11-13; and are expressed under that distribution, 1 Thess. v. 9-



66 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. L

Some KT apxTJg, " from the beginning," being "chosen to salvation,"
2 Thess. ii. 13; vph xaraCoXJJs xos/mov, Eph. i. 4, "before the founda-
tion of the world;" Rom. viii. 29, xi. 5; Matt. xx. 16; 2 Tim. ii. 10;
Rev. xxi. 27; — others are appointed to the day of evil, Prov. xvi. 4;
iraXai '7:poyiypa[i[MUot, "of old ordained to condemnation," Jude 4; ilg
ciiMGiv Kai (pOopdv, "for to be destroyed," 2 Pet. ii. 12. See Rom.
ix. 22, xi. 7; Rev. xx. 15.

Both these sorts, or all mankind, is the lordship of Christ extended
to, and to each of them respectively: —

He is Lord over all flesh, John xvii. 2; both living and dead,
Rom. xiv. 9; Phil. ii. 9, 10.

First, Particularly, he is Lord over all the elect. And besides the
general foundation of the equity of his authority and power in his
divine nature and creation of all things, the grant of the Father unto
him, as mediator, to be their Lord is founded in other especial acts
both of Father and Son; lor, —

1. They were given iinto him from eternity, in design and by
compact, that they should be his peculiar portion, and he their Sa-
viour, John xvii. 2. Of the Tccffjjg gapxo;, " all flesh," over whicli he
hath authority, there is a tSv o d'sBuyis, a universality of them whom
the Father gave him, in an especial manner; of whom he says,
"Thine they were, and thou gavest them me," verse 6; Acts xviii.
10. They are a portion given him to save, John vi. 39; of which he
takes the care, as Jacob did of the sheep of Laban, when he served
him for a wife, Gen. xxxi. 36-40. See Prov. viii. 31. This was an
act of the will of the Father in the eternal covenant of the media-
tor; whereof elsewhere.

2. His grant is strengthened by redemption, purchase, and ac-
quisition. This was the condition of the former grant, Isa. liii. 10-12,
which was made good by him; so that his lordship is frequently
asserted on this very account, 1 Cor. vi. 20; 1 Pet. i. 18, 19; 1 Tim.
ii. 6 ; John x. 15 ; Eph. v. 25-27; Rev. v. 9 ; John xi. 51, 52. And this
purchase of Christ is peculiar to them so given him of the Father
in the covenant of the mediator; as, — (1.) Proceeding from his
especial and greatest love, John xv. 13; Rom. v. 8; 1 John iii. 16,
iv. 9, 10; Acts xx. 28; Rom. viii. 32: and, — (2.) Being accom-
panied with a purchase for them which they slmll certainly enjoy,
and that of grace and glory. Acts xx. 28; Eph. i. 14; Phil. i. 28;
Heb. ix. 12, 15. And, indeed, the controversy about the death of
Christ is not primarily about its extent, but its efficacy and fruits in
respect of them for whom he died.

3. Those thus given him of the Father and redeemed by him
are of two sorts: — (1.) Such as are actually called to faith in him
and union with him. These are further become liis upon many
other especial accounts. They are his in all relations of subjection,



VER. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 67

■ — his children, servants, brethren, disciples, subjects, his house, his
sjwuse. He stands towards them in all relations of authority : is
their father, master, elder brother, teacher, king, lord, ruler, judge,
husband; ruling in them by his Spirit and grace, over them by his
laws in his word, preserving them by his power, chastening them in
his care and love, feeding them out of his stores, trying them and
delivering them in his wisdom, bearing with their miscarriages in
his patience, and taking them for his portion, lot, and inheritance, in
his providence; raising them at the last day, taking them to himself
in glory, and every way avouching them to be his, and himself to
be their Lord and Master. (2.) Some of them are always uncalled,
and shall be so until the whole number of them be completed and
filled. But before, they belong on the former accounts unto his lot,
care, and rule, John x. 16. They are already his sheep l)y grant and
purchase, though not yet really so by grace and holiness. They are
not yet his by present obediential subjection, but they are his by
eternal designation and real acquisition.

Now, the power that the Lord Jesus hath over this sort of man-
kind is universal, unlimited, absolute, and exclusive of all other
power over them, as unto the things peculiarly belonging unto his
kingdom. He is their king, judge, lawgiver; and in things of God
purely spiritual and evangelical other they have none. It is true,
he takes them not out of the world, and therefore as unto ra j3i(u7i-/.d,
" the things of this life," things of the world, they are subject to the
laws and rulers of the world; but as unto the things of God he is
the only lawgiver, who is able to kill and make alive. But the
nature and ends of the lordship of Christ over the elect are too
large and comprehensive to be here spoken unto, in this brief deli-
neation of his kingdom, which we undertook in this digression.

Secondly, His lordship and dominion extends to the other sort of
men also, namely, ^'eprobates, or men finally impenitent. They are
not exempted from that "all flesh" which he hath power over, John
xvii. 2; nor from those "dead and living" over whom he is Lord,
Rom. xiv. 9; nor from that "world" which he shall judge, Acts
xvii. SI. And there are two especial grounds, that are peculiar to
them, of this grant of power and authority over them : —

1. His interposition, upon the entrance of sin, against the imme-
diate execution of the curse due unto it; as befell the angels. This
fixed the world under a disj^ensation of, — (1.) Forbearance and
patience, Rom. ii. 4, 5 ; Acts xvii. SO; Rom. ix. 22; Ps. Ixxv. 3:
(2.) Goodness and mercy, Acts xiv. 16, 17.

That God, who spared not the angels when they sinned, but im-
mediately cast them into chains of darkness, should place sinners of
the race of Adam under a dispensation of forbearance and goodness,
— that he should spare them with much long-suffering durmg their



58 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. I.

pilgrimage on the earth, and fill their hearts with food and gladness,
with all those fruits of kindness wliich the womb of his providence
is still bringing forth for their benefit and advantage, — is thus fal
on the account of the Lord Christ, that though these things, as
relating unto reprobates, are no part of his esj)ecial purchase as
mediator of the everlasting covenant of grace, yet they are a neces-
sary consequent of his interposition against the immediate execution
of the whole curse upon the first entrance of sin, and of his under-
taking for his elect.

2. He makes a conquest over them. It was promised that he
should do so. Gen. iii. 15; and though the work itself prove long
and irksome, though the ways of accomplishing it be unto us obscure
and oftentimes invisible, yet he hath undertaken it, and will not
give it over until they are every one brought to be his footstool,
i s. ex. 1 ; 1 Cor. xv. 25. And the dominion granted him on these
grounds is, —

(1.) Sovereign and absolute. His enemies are his footstool, Ps.
ex. 1 ; Matt. xxii. 44; Mark xii. 36; Luke xx. 42; Acts ii. 34; 1 Cor.
XV. 25; Heb. i. 13. They are in his hand, as the Egyptians were
in Joseph's when he had purchased both their persons and their
estates to be at arbitrary disposal; and he deals with them as Joseph
did with those, so far as any of the ends of his rule and lordship are
concernecJ in them. And, —

(2.) Judiciary, John v. 22, 23. As lie hath power over their
persons, so he hath regard unto their sins, Kom. xiv. 9 ; Acts xvii. 31 ;
Matt. XXV. 81. And this power he variously exerciseth over them,
even in this world, before he gloriously exerts it in their eternal
ruin. For, — [1.] He enlightens them by those heavenly sparks of
tiiitli and reason which he leaves unextinguished in their own
minds, John i. .9. [2.] Strives with them by his Spirit, Gen. vi. 3 ;
secretly exciting their consciences to rebuke, bridle, yoke, afflict, and
cruciate them, Rom. ii. 14, 15. And, [3.] On some of them he
acts by the power and authority of his word; whereby he quickens
their consciences, galls their minds and affections, restrains their
lusts, bounds their conversations, aggravates their sins, hardens their
hearts, and judges their souls, Ps. xlv. ; Isa. vi. [4.] He exerciseth
rule and dominion over them in providential dispensations, Ptev.
vi. 15, 16; Isa. Ixiii. 1-4; Rev. xix. 13. By all which he makes
way for the glory of his final judgment of them, Acts xvii. 31 ; Matt.
XXV. 31 ; Rev. xix. 20, xx. 10-1 5. And all this will he do, unto the
ends, — \st. Of his own glory; 2dly. His church's good, exercise, and
safety.

And this is the second instance of the first head of the dominion
of Christ in this world. He is Lord over persons, angels and
men.



VER. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 59

The SECOND part of the hen-ship and dominion of Christ con-
sisteth in his lordship over all things besides; which added to tho
former comprise the whole creation of God. I. In the distribution
of these premised, the first that occur are spiritual things, which
also are of two sorts: — First, Temporal, or such as in this life we
are made partakers of; and, Secondly, Eternal, the things that are
reserved for them tliat believe in the state of glory. The former
may be reduced unto two heads; for they are all of them either
grace or gifts, and Christ is Lord of them all.

First, All that which comes under the name oi grace in Scripture,
wdiich, flowing from the free and special love of God, tends directly
to the spiritual and eternal good of them on whom it is bestowed,
may be referred unto four heads; for as the fountain of all these
(or the gracious free purpose of the will of God, from whence they
all do flow), being antecedent to the mission of Christ the mediator,
and immanent in God, it can be no otherwise granted unto him
but in respect of its effects; which we shall show that it is. Now,
these are: —

1. Pardon of sin, and the free acceptation of the persons of sin-
ners in a way of mercy. This is grace, Eph. ii. 8; Tit. iii. 5-7; and
a saving effect and fruit of the covenant, Jer. xxxi. 31-34; Heb.
viii. 8-12.

2. The regenerating of the person of a dead sinner, with the
purifying and sanctifying of his nature, in a way of spiritual power.
This also is grace, and promised in the covenant. And there are
three parts of it: — (1.) The infusion of a quickening 'principle into
the soul of a dead sinner, Rom. viii. 2; Tit. iii. 5; John iii. 6; Eph.
ii. 1-6. (2.) The habitual furiiishment of the spiritually-quickened
soul with abiding, radical principles of light, love, and power, fitting
it for spiritual obedience. Gal. v. 17. (3.) Actual assistance, in a
communication of supplies of strength for every duty and W'Ork,
Phil. iv. 13; John xv. 5.

3. Preservation in a condition of acceptation with God, and holy
obedience unto him unto the end, is also of especial grace. It is the
grace of perseverance, and eminently included in the covenant, as
we have elsewhere showed at large.

4. Adoption, as a privilege, with all the privileges that flow from



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