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because it was so framed and ordered as to continue only for a sea-
son, Heb. ix. 10; Deut. xviii. 15-18 ; Hag. ii. 6, 7; Isa. Ixv. 17, 18;
2 Pet. iii. 13. Which part of his power and lordship we shall
afterwards abundantly prove against the Jews.

2. Of the neiu testament evangelical church-state also, he is the
only lord and ruler; yea, this is his proper kingdom, on which all
other parts of his dominion do depend: for he is given to be " head
over all things to the church," Eph. i. 22. For, — (1.) He is the
foundation of this church-state, 1 Cor. iii. 11, the whole design and^
platform of it being laid in him, and built upon him. And, (2.) He
erects this church-state upon himself, Matt. xvi. 1 8, " Upon this
Eock I will build my church;" the Spirit and word whereby it is
done being from him alone, and ordered in and by his wisdom,
power, and care. And, (3.) He gives laivs and rides of worship
and obedience unto it, when so built by himself and upon him. Matt
xxviii. 19, 20 ; Acts i. 2 ; Heb. iii. 1-6. And, (4.) He is the everlasting,
constant, abiding, head, ruler, king, and governor of it, Eph. i. 22 ;
Col. ii. 19; Heb. iii. 6; Rev. ii., iii. All which things are ordinarily
spoken unto, and the ends of this power of Christ fully declared.

III. He is Lord also oi political things. All the governments of
the world, that are set up and exercised therehi for the good of man«
kind, and the preservation of society according to the rules of equity
and righteousness, — over all these, and those who in and by them
exercise rule and authority amongst men, is he lord and king.

He alone is the absolute potentate; the highest on the earth are
in a subordination unto him. That, 1. He was designed unto, Ps.
Ixxxix. 27. And accordingly he is, 2. made Lord of lords, and
King of kings. Rev. xvii. 14, xix. 16; 1 Tim. vi. 15. And, 3. He
exerciseth dominion answerable unto his title. Rev. vi. 14—17, xvii.
14, xix. 16-20; Ps. ii. 8, 9; Isa. Ix.; Mic. v. 7-9. And, 4. Hath
hence right to send his gospel into all nations in the world, attended
with the worship by him prescribed, Matt, xxviii. 19; Ps. ii. 9-12;
Avhich none of the rulers or governors of the world have any right
to refuse or oppose ; nor can so do, but upon their utmost peril. And,
5. All kingdoms shall at length be brought into a professed subjection
to him and his gospel, and have all their rule disposed of unto the inte-
rest of his church and saints, Dan. vii. 27; Isa. Ix. 12 ; Rev. xix. 16-19.

IV. The last branch of this dominion of Christ consists in the
residue of the creation of God, — heaven and earth, sea and land,
wind, trees, and fruits of the earth, and the creatures of sense. Ab
they are all put under his feet. Ps. viii. 6-8; Eph. i. 22j 1 Cor. xv. 27;



TEH. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 69

SO the exercise of his power severally over them is known from the
story of the gospel.

And thus we have glanced at this lordship of Clirist in some of
the general parts of it. And how small a portion of his glorious
power are we able to comprehend or declare !



A/' oZ zai Tovg a/uivag s'7roir,gsv, — "By whom also he made the worlds."

The apostle in these words gives further strength to liis prt^sent
argument, from another consideration of the person of the Messiah ;
wherein he also discovers the foundation of the pre-eminence ascribed
unto him in the words last insisted on : " By him the worlds were
made;" so that they were " his own," John i. 11, and it was meet
that, in the new condition which he underwent, he should be the
Lord of them all. Moreover, if all things be made by him, all dis-
obedience unto him is certainly most unreasonable, and will be
attended with inevitable ruin ; of the truth whereof the apostle aims
to convince the Hebrews.

NoNT, whereas the assertion which presents itself at first view in
these words is such as, if we rightly apprehend the meaning of tlie
Holy Ghost in it, must needs determine the controversy that the
apostle had with the Jews, and is of great use and importance unto
the faith of the saints in all ages, I shall first free the words from
false glosses and interpretations, and then explain the truth asserted
in them, both absolutely and with relation to the present purpose
of the apostle.

That which some men design in their wresting of this place, is to
deface the illustrious testimony given in it unto the eternal deity of
the Son of God; and to this purpose they proceed variously.

1. By di' o5, " by whom," they say, 6/ Sv, " for whom," is intended.
And so the sense of the place is, that " for Christ, for his sake, God
made the world." So Enjedinus, And Grutius embraceth his
notion, adding in its confirmation that this was the opinion of the
Jews, namely, that all things were made for the Messiah; and there-
lore scoirjse he I'enders by " condiderat," as signifying the time long
since past, before the bringing forth of Christ into the world : as also
that di' oS is put for di' ov, in Rom. vi, 4, Rev. iv. 11, xiii. 14, and there-
fore may be here so used. According to this exposition of the
words, we have in them an expression of the love of God towards
the Messiah, in tliat for his sake he made the world ; but not any
thing of the excellency, power, and glory of the Messiah himself.

It is manifest that the whole strength of this interpretation lies in
this, that 6/' o5 may be taken for 5/ ov, — " by whom," instead of "for
whom." But neither is it proved that in any other place these ex-
pressions are equipollent; nor, if that could be supposed, is there any
reason offered why the one of them should in this place be put fur
the other; for, —



70 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. L

(1.) The places referred unto do no way prove that hid with a
genitive doth ever denote the final cause, but the efficient only.
■With an accusative, for the most part, it is as much as " propter,"
signifying the final cause of the thing spoken of; and rarely in the
New Testament is it otherwise used. Rev. iv. II, A/a rh '^iXriad coo,
"At thy will" or " pleasure," the efficient and disposing, not the final
cause, seems to be denoted ; and chap, xiii. 1 4, A/a ra tfjj/xE/a, " By
the signs that were given him to do," the formal cause is signified.
But that joined with a genitive case it anywhere signifies the final
cause, doth not appear. Beza, whom Grotius cites, says on Rom.
vi. 4, that di& ho^m TLarpog, " by the glory of the Father," may be
taken for dg do^rjv, " unto the glory." But the case is not the same
Avhere things as where persons are spoken of.' o£ here relates unto
a person, and yet is did, joined with it, asserted to denote the end of
the things spoken of; which is insolent. Besides, 5o^a Uarpog in
that place is indeed the glorious power of the Father, the efficient
of the resurrection of Christ treated of. So that whereas did is used
six hundred times with a genitive case in the New Testament, no
one instance can be given where it may be rendered " propter,"
"for;" and therefore cannot be so here.

(2.) On supposition that some such instance might be produced,
yet, being contrary to the constant use of the word, some cogent
reason from the text wherein it is used, or the thing treated of, must
be urged to give that sense admittance; and nothing of that nature
is or can be here pleaded.

(3.) As 5/' o5 and eig ov are distinguished, the one expressing the
efficient the other the final cause, Rom. xi. 36; so also are 8i' ou and
di' ov in this very epistle: chap. ii. 10, A/ dv ra, cra'vra, xa) di' o£ to,
'Trdvra, — " For whom are all things, and by whom are all things."
And is it likely that the apostle would put one of them for the
other, contrary to the proper use which he intended immediately to
assign severally unto them?

(4.) A;' oS, "by whom," here, is the same with bi aurou, "by
him," Jolin i. 3; which the same person interprets properly for the
efficient cause.

On these' accounts, the foundation of this gloss being removed,
the superadded translation of eto/jjcs by "condiderat" is altogether
useless; and what the Jews grant that God did with respect to the
Messiah, we shall afterwards consider.

2. The Socinians generally lay no exception against the 2^erson
making, whom they acknowledge to be Christ the Son, but unto the
worlds said to be made. These are not, say they, the things of the
old, but of the new creation; not the fabric of heaven and earth, but
the conversion of the souls of men ; not the first institution and form-
inj- of all things, but the restoration of mankind, and translation



VEK. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 71

into a new condition of life. Tiiis Schlichtingius at large insists on
in his comment on this place ; bringing, in the justification of his in-
terpretation, the sum of what is pleaded by all of them, in answer
not only to this testimony, but also to that of John i. 3, and that also
of Col. i. 16, 17.

(1.) " The old creation," he says, " is never said to be performed
by any intermediate cause, as the Father is here said to make these
worlds by the Son." But, [1.] This is "petitio principii," that this
expression doth denote any such intermediate cause as should inter-
pose between the Father and the creation of the world, by an opera-
tion of its own, diverse from that of the Father. Job xxvi. 18, God
is said to adorn the heavens in^i?, "by his Spirit," which they will
not contend to denote an intermediate cause; and did here is but
what the Hebrews express by ^. [2.] In the creation of the world,
the Father wrought in and by the Son, the same creating act being
the act of both persons, John v. 17, their will, wisdom, and power
being essentially the same.

(2.) He adds, " There is an allusion only in the words unto the
first creation, as in John i. 1-3, where the apostle sets out the be-
ginning of the Gospel in the terms whereby Moses reports the crea-
tion of the world ; and therefore mentions light in particular, because
of an allusion to the light at first created by God, when of all other
things, whereto there is no such allusion, he maketh no mention."
A71S. [1.] The new creation granted by the men of this persuasion
being only a moral suasion of the minds of men by the outward doc-
trine of the gospel, I know not what allusion can be fancied in it
unto the creation of the world out of nothing. [2.] It is granted
that the apostle speaks here of the same creation that John treats of
in the beginning of his Gospel; Imt that that is the creation of the
whole world, and all things contained in it, hath been elsewhere
proved, and must be granted, or we may well despair of ever under-
standing one line in the Scripture, or what we ordinarily speak one
to another. [3.] John doth not mention any particular of the old
creation, affirming only in general that by the Word all things were
made ; whereof he afterwards affirms that he was "the light of men,"
— not assigning unto him in particular the creation of light, as is
pretended.

(3.) He tells us, " The article proposed, rovg alc^jvag, intimates that
it is not the old creation that is intended, but some new especial
thing, distinct from it and preferred above it. Ans. [1.] As the
same article doth, used by the same apostle to the same purpo.se in
another place: Acts xiv. 15, "Os Jffo/Tjffg rhv ovpavhv xal t-jjk /Sjv xul
rriv '^d}.aaaav — "Who made the heaven, the earth, and sea;" wiiich
were certainly those created of old. [2.] The same article is used
with the same word again in this epistle, chap. xi. 3, n/ffri-/ vooO,'j.ii



72 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. L

xarriprjgSai roOg aioJvag' — "By faith we understand that the worlds
were made ;" where this author acknowledgeth the old creation to
be intended.

(4.) He adds, " That the author of this epistle seems to allude to
the Greek translation of Isa. ix. 5, wherein 'li'"^?^, 'The Father of
eternity,' or ' Eternal Father/ is rendered 'The Father of the world
to come/'' Ans. [1.] There is no manner of relation between Uarrip
(iiXXcvTog alojvog, " The Father of the world to come," and A/' oS roug
aiumg s'xoiridiv, " By whom he made the worlds," unless it be that one
word is used in both places in very distinct senses; which if it be
sufficient to evince a cognation between various places, very strange
and uncouth interpretations would quickly ensue. Nor, [2.] Doth
that which the aj^ostle here treats of any way respect that which the
prophet in that place insists upon; his name and nature being only
declared by the prophet, and his works by the apostle. And, [8.]
It is a presumption to suppose the apostle to allude to a corrupt
translation, as that of the LXX. in that place is, there being no
ground for it in the original; for '^J^"''?^ is not Uarrip fiiXXovrog aiuvog,
but Uarrip aJuivtog, " The eternal Father." And what the Jews and
LXX. intentl by " the world to come," we shall afterwards consider.

(5.) His last refuge is in Isa. li. 16, " Where the work of God," as
he observes, " in the reduction of the people of the Jews from the
captivity of Babylon is called his planting the heavens, and laying
the foundations of the earth. And the Vulgar Latin translation,"
as he further observes, " renders the word, ' ut coelum plantes, ut
terram fundes,' ascribing that to the prophet which he did but de-
clare. And in this sense he contends that God the Father is said to
make the worlds by his Son." Ans. [L] The work mentioned is
not that which God would do in the reduction of the people from
Babylon, but that which he had done in their delivery from Fgypt,
recorded to strengthen the faith of believers in what for the future
he would yet do for them. [2.] The expressions, of planting the
heavens and laying the foundations of the earth, are in this place of
the prophet plainly allegorical, and are in the very same place de-
clared so to be: — 1st. In the circumstance of time when this work
is said to be wrought, namely, at the coming of the Israelites out of
Egypt, when the heavens and the earth, properly so called, could
not be made, planted, founded, or created. 2dly. By an adjoined
exposition of the allegory : " I have put my words in thy mouth,

and say unto Zion, Thou art my people." This was his

planting of the heavens and laying the foundations of the earth, even
the erection of a church and political state amongst the Israelites.
[3.] It is not to the prof)het, but to the church, that the words are
spoken; and V^^? and "J^V are not "ut plantes" and " ut fundes,"
but " ad plautandum," " to j^lant," and "ad fundandum/' " to lay



VER. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 73

the foundation." And our author prejudicates his cause by iiiakinf*
use of a translation to uphold it which himself knows to be corrupt.
[4.] There is not, then, any similitude between that place of the
prophet, wherein words are used allegorically (the allegory in them
being instantly explained), and this of the apostle, whose discourse
is didiictical, and the words used in it proper and suited to the thin<TS
intended by him to be expressed. And this is the substance of what
is pleaded to wrest Irom believers this illustrious testimony given to
the eternal deity of the Son of God. We may yet further consider
the reasons that offer themselves from the context for the removal
of the interpretation suggested : —

1. It sinks under its own weakness and absurdity. The apostle,
intending to set out the excellency of the Son of God, affirms that
"by hin ' -; worlds were made;" that is, say they, "Christ preach-
ing the gospel converted some to the faith of it, and many more
were converted by the apostles' preaching the same doctrine; where-
upon blessed times of light and salvation ensued." Who not
overpowered with prejudice could once imagine any such sense in
these words, especially considering that it is as contrary to the design
of the apostle as it is to the importance of the words themselves?
This is that which Peter calls men's "wresting the Scripture" to
their own perdition.

2. The apostle, as we observed, writes didactically, plainly express-
ing the matter whereof he treats in words usual and proper. To
what end, then, should he use so strained an allegory in a point of
doctrine, yea, a fundamental article of the religion he taught, and
that to express what he had immediately in the words foregoing
properly expressed ; for, "By whom he made the worlds" is no more,
in these men's apprehensions, than, "In him hath he spoken in these
latter days?" Nor is this expression anywhere used, no, not in the
most allegorical prophecies of the Old Testament, to denote that
which here they would wrest it unto. But making of the world
signifies making of the world in the whole Scripture throughout,
and nothing else.

3. Tlie makino^ of the worlds here intended was a thing then
past: 'ETo/jjfTg, "He made them;" that is, he did so of old. And
the same word is used by the LXX. to express the old creation.
But now that which the Jews called "The world to come," or the
blessed state of the church under the Messiah, the apostle speaks of
as of that which was not yet come, the present worldly state of the
Juuaical church yet continuing.

4. The words aiuv and aiwvsg, or o?]} and ^''^^'V, which are so
rendered, taken absolutely, as they are here used, do never in any
one place of the Scripture, in the Old or New Testament, signify the
new creation, or state of the church under the gospel ; but the whole



74j ■ AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. L

world, and all things therein contained, they do in this very epistle,
chap. xi. 3.

5, Wherever the apostle in this epistle speaks in the Judaical
idiom of the church-state under the lilessiah, he never calls it by
the name of o/xou/xn'Tj or atw, but still with the limitation of, "to
come," as chap. ii. 5, vi. 5. And where the word is used absolutely,
as in this place and chap. xi. S, it is the whole world that is in-
tended.

6. The context utterly refuseth this gloss. The Son in the pre-
cedino- words is said to be made heir or lord of all ; that is, of all
things absolutely and universally, as we have evinced and is con-
fessed. Unto that assertion he subjoins a reason of the equity of
that transcendent grant made unto him, namely, because "by him
all things were made;" whereunto he adds his upholding, ruling,
and disposing of them, being so made by him: "He upholdeth all
things by the word of his power." That between the "all things"
whereof he is Lord and the "all things" that he upholds there should
be an interposition of words of the same importance with them,
expressing the reason of them that go afore and the fomidation of
that which follows, knitting both parts together, and yet indeed
having a signification in them of things utterly heterogeneous to
them, is most unreasonable to imagine.

We have now obtained liberty, by removing the entanglements
cast in our way, to proceed to the opening of the genuine sense and
importance of these words.

Af oZ, "by whom;" not as an instrument, or an inferior, inter-
mediate, created cause: for then also must he be created by himself,
seeing all things that were made were made by him, John i. 3, but as
God's own eternal Word, Wisdom, and Power, Prov. viii. 22—24, John
i. 1, — the same individual creatine: act beinsr the work of Father and
Son, whose powder and wisdom being one and the same undivided, so
also are the works which outwardly proceed from them. And as
the joint working of Father and Son doth not infer any other
subordination but that of subsistence and order, so the preposition
bia doth not of itself intimate the subjection of an instrumental
cause, being used sometimes to express the work of the Father
himself, Gal. i. 1.

'ETo/'jjffg, ^1?, "created." So the apostle expresseth that word,
Acts xvii. 24, 26 ; and the LXX. most commonly, as Gen. i. 1, though
sometimes they use xr/^w, as our apostle also doth, chap. x. [Ool,
i. 16?] He made, created, produced out of nothing, by the things
not seen, chap. xi. 3.

To-jg aiojvag: aidJv, Q^iV. So that Avord is constantly rendered by
the Greeks. Cir'V is "to hide," or to be hid, kept secret, close, undis-
covered. W^hence a virgin is called '^'^f'^j oi^e not yet come into the



VER. 1, 2.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 75

public state of matrimony; as by the Greeks, on the same account,
xaruTiXiigrog, "one shut up," or a recluse; as the Targumists call a
harlot sn np23, "a goer abroad," froni that description of her, Prov.

vii. 11, 12; nhmn ays ^nii Dya n\i?:n ^ac'^-K'S nri\32; "Her feet

dwell not in her own house: one while she is in the street, another
while abroad;" as the mother of the family is called ^1'? ^)^, "the
dweller at home," Ps. Ixviii. 13. Hence ^^iV signifies the ages of
the world in their succession and duration, which are things secret
and hidden. What is past is forgotten, wdiat is to come is unknown,
artd what is present is passing away without much observation. See
Eccles. i. 11.

The world, then, that is visible and a spectacle in itself, in respect
of its continuance and duration is ^3^^^, — "a thing hidden." So that
the word denotes the fabric of the world by a metonymy of the
adjunct. When the Hebrews would express the world in respect of
the substance and matter of the universe, they do it commonly by a
distribution of the whole into its most general and comprehensive
parts, as " The heavens, earth, and sea," subjoining, " all things con-
tained in them." This the Greeks and Latins, from its order, frame,
and ornaments, call xogfios and "mundus;" which principally respect
that CPy' n^air'j that beauty and ornament of the heavens which
God made by his Spirit, Job xxvi. 13. And as it is inhabited by
the st)ns of men, they call it -'r?^, that is, oixov/ji^hri; that is, P^ ''?D,
Prov. viii. 31, "The world of the earth," — principally, the habitable
parts of the earth. As quickly passing away, they call it "'.^i"!'. And
in respect of its successive duration ^f^^; that is, uiuiv, the word here
used.

Aiuvsg, in the plural number, "the worlds," so called, chap. xi.
S, by a mere euallage of number, as some suppose, or with respect to
the many ages of the world's duration. But, moreover, the apostle
accommodates his expression to the received opinion of the Jews,
and their way of expressing themselves about the world, ti^i^ de-
notes the world as to the subsistence of it and as to its duration.
In both these respects the Jews distributed the world into several
parts, calling them so many worlds. K D. Kimchi on Isa. vi.
distributes these worlds into three ; on the account of which he says,
:^'^p, "holy," Avas three times repeated by the seraphim. There
are, saith he, moijiy nc6'J^, — "three worlds:" D^y i<ini ]V^V^ Qb)V
nral^'3^1 D''35<^Dn, — "the upper world, which is the world of angels and
spirits;" n''33'i:3ni D^^J^jn D^iy, — "the world ofthe heavens and stars:"
and ^Di^'n D^y, — "this world below." But in the first respect they
generally assign these four: — (1.) ^2t^•^ oijiyn, — "the lower world,"
the depressed world, the earth and air in the several regions of it :
(2.) D^DS/Cn D^iyn, — "the world of angels," or ministering spirits,
whom tliey suppose to inhabit in high places, where they may super-



76 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. L

vise the affairs of the earth: (3.) wbhn D^iy,— "the world of
spheres:" and, (4.) JV^yn ob'iV, — "the highest world;" called by Paul
"the third heaven" 2 Cor. xii. 2; and by Solomon n'Jpll^nyJ^ "the
heaven of heavens," 1 Kings viii. 27; and n"lDt^'J^ D^jy, "olam
hanneshamoth," — "the world of spirits," or souls departed. In respect
of duration, they assign a fivefold world : — (1.) "lay D^iy; called by-
Peter "the old world," or the world before the flood, the world that
perished: (2.) nm D^y, — "the present world," or the state of things
under the Judaical church: (3.) n^^r^ nns"'nn nhy, — "the world of the
coming of the Messiah ;" or "the world to come," as the apostle calls
it, chap. ii. 5: (4.) DTlton riTin D^iy, — "the world of the resurrection
of the dead:" and, (5.) ^-iN D^y, — "the prolonged world," or life
eternal. Principally with respect to the first distribution, as also
unto the duration of the whole world unto the last dispensation,
mentioned in the second, doth the apostle here call it, roug aloovag,
"the worlds."

Thus the apostle having declared the honour of the Son as medi-
ator, in that he was made heir of all, adds thereunto his excellency
in himself from his eternal power and Godhead; Avhich he not only
asserts, but gives evidence unto by an argument from the works of
creation. And to avoid all straitening thoughts of this work, he



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