John Parkhurst.

An Hebrew and English lexicon, without points online

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singular ffiture in NipM, firom the root rwn, $ Vll. a.i, agiveiag wkfe the fetniaine mtmm
Tt^y, with n emphatic pre6ife<l, from the roet WT.

tendiag of pbce the (to) and ,earth (land) dry the (to) Aleim the called then And

.g*od that Aleim the sMf then and soas called be waters the of

:niD o o^r6« «t> d^^ mp a^an

miJcVi, 1 <w»rf, b a particle, /o, after the rerb vnp, as In rer. 5. TTipio a no«n of pface«
§ IX. 8, from the root rvp, § X. 2, and note. CrtD^ a firotm mascoihie plural, § IV. 9,
^oia the root t3% § X. 3.



I — — ^

,seed seeding herb of bod the esrtfa the forth ifawt shaU Aldm the said then And

jnt ymo 3W wn \^nn hwm orfTH norrir.

•so was it and ,eaith the upon it ia seed it's which Jiiiid il*s foriruit bearing fruit of tree the

;p vn Y"***' 53^ ia Tjrw urn wd^ ib rwy na \y

iwrm third person feminine singular future in Kd, of the root Fttn, § X. i, a«^cmg
with the noun feminine pM. ntr^, a noun, from the root 3ts^. irntp a participle mas-
culine singelar, in Hipkii^ from the root int, § VL 1 7, and | IX. 8. no a noun mascur
line sii^ular, ( IX. 3, from the root rriB, § X. 4. ^tt^3^ a participle masculine Bmovi^
or active, ia Kal, from the root rwj?, § VI. 17, 20. IJlDb, > a particle, />r, 1 an aftix,
iu, or t/*s (masculine) § IX. 4. po a noun masculine singular, from root n^o, see § X. 4.
11, 3 a particle, m, prefixed to the pronoun suffix 1, ^/m, or t7 masculine, § V. 5, 6.^*
llirnmrM wkiek Wi med in it, mi Hebrav«i lor nhote iwi in it.

tree the and jkm4 Wn for seed seeding herb of bud the earth the forth brought then And
.goed tint Aleua the saw then and kind it's for it in seed it's whivh fruit bearing

Mnn tlurd person fenunine singular fntare in Hiphil of the root HIP, see | VII. 7, 8,

* This stroke f ■ \ oter several EnglhA and Hebmo words denotes that you must begin

fo read the BngfiA wtftAar words answerm^ to thqse Hebrew ones whiclr are placctl at the end of
the strdbe towards the left hand; as here, for instance, the Engl'uh^ to aakr sense, mutt be read, the
wknJmUuU

and



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wad 5 VI. 24, agreeing with the noun feminine pH. inyoi, poi, before explained, >rT
m pronoun suffix, hU, § V. j.

.third the Day morning was there and evening was there And

:^2^*7iercv •ipn Nnn n^y vr-i 13.

ni^htf an ordinal noun of number, § IX. j, from the root u^Vi^, § X. i.
expanse the in light of mstruments be shall there Aleim the said then And

rp^3 rr\)XO ^iv c^n'?» nosn 14.

be sliail they and ,niKht the between and da% the between division a cause to for heavens the of

.years and days for and seasons for and sii^ns tor

^rv See § VIII. 1 7, mwo a noun feminine phiral; § IV. 1 1, from the root *^», % X. .9^
with D, denoting the instrument, h IX. 8. 5>Mnn!>, hjor, prefixed bv § Vlil. 51, to
Viyn, Infiuitive tiipkii of the root m, § VI. 17. vm See § Vlll. a8. nn«i>, Vor,
riDM feminine plural of MlH, from the root inDH, § X. 4. O^l^iO a noun masculine
pinrah § IV. 9, from the root *!)>* of the form of a participle Hiphil, sec § VII. 7, 8, aud
\ IX. 8. o*D^ plural of ov, dropping the\ Corap. § IX. undern a, and § VII. 16, 17, 18.

upon light give to for beavcm the of expanse the in lighu for be shall they And

by n^NH*? c^Dtt^n j^pna niWD^ vm 15.

•SO was it and ,earth the

fillHD, see § IX. 4. ^^nb, b/or, jotoed by § VIII. 31, to i*Hn infinitive Wpkil of
the verb 1H, § Vil. 16. Comp. § X. a.



great light tlie great light of instruments two the Aleim the made then And



e ^

.stars the and night the of rule the for little light the and ,day tlie of rule the for

OU^ a'noun masculine, from the root rt:m, § X. 4. O^Vrjin, n is emphatic, see § VIII.3.
*)i«D a noun masculine, from the root *)«, § IX. 8. nVo^oo!?, bfor, r6it»r:o a noun temi-
nhie singular in regimine, § IV. 16, from the root bwD, § iX. 8. tD^331^ a noun mascu-
'line plural, from the root 133, § IX. 4.

light give to for heavens tlie of expanse the hi Aleim the them placed then And

n^KH*? CL^Dt^rn ypi2 dm*?k d/)h ]nn 17.

.earth the upon

|n^ thud person masculine smgular friture in Kal, from the verh^n^, § VII. a6.
^ between division a cause to for and night the ui and day the in rule to for' And

V2 *?n3n^i n^bii cva bvDb^ 18.

.good that Aleim the saw then and ,darkness the between and light the

!?u;tD infinitive of tlie verb ium, with b prefixed, by § VIII. 51 .

.foiuth the Day morning was tlierc and evening was there And .

:^ran cv np2 ^nn n^^y \'ti 19.

^^5*1 an ordinal noun of nmnber, § IX. S, of the root x^Ti, § X. x.



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HEBREIF GRAMMAR. 27



i —



^livbg acreature reptile the waters the abundantly produce shall Aleim the said then And
Jieaveos the of expanse the of faces the upon earth the above flutter shall fowl and

>r)»* third person masculine plural future in Kal of the root pa^, agreeing with O^D,
§ VIII. i6. two a noun feminine singular, from the root U^23. TVn a noun adjective
femioioe singular, agreeing with trQ3, from the root nn, % X. 4. i^afliT third person
masculine singular future in Kal^ agreeing with the noun Ppy, of the reduplicate verb
^V> § VII. 30, from the root F]^, § VII. a;, and § X. 7.



r- ^ I ^ , ■ ■ ■)

Jiving creature eier}' the and ,great whales the Aleim the created then And



fowl every the and ,kind their for waters the abundantly produced which ^creeping

^y *?D n»i cni>D^ d^dh ^^-w ^v^ rwr:r\n

.good that Aleim the saw then and ,kind his for wing of

t3r:n a noun masculine plural, § IV. 9, of the reduplicate word pjn from the root
ri:n. See§'VII 28. nttnD*in, n emphatic, prefixed to rwoi, the participle feminine
Benoni in Kal, of the root wn\ § VI. 1 7. See Lexicon under n 3.

ye multiply and fruitful ye be (saying) say to Aleim the them blessed then And

.earth the in multiply shall fowl the and ,sea the in waters the ye fill and

T^* third person masculine singular future in Kal of the root "pia. noH^, ^ prefixed
to an infinitive, to, for to, see Lexicon." I'lQ second person masculine plural imperative
in Kal. of the verb mS3, soUl of nn"), § VII. 20. CD*D^3, n a particle, /;/, prefixed to
C*o^ masc plural of the noun n:». IT third person mastniline future in Kal of the root
n3*i, § VII. jto, 21, agreeing with the masculine noun ^;;.

.fifth the Day morning was there and evening was there And

r^DHDV npa VT^i nny >n>i 23.

nr>Dn an ordinal noun of number, § IX. 5, from the root WDn, § X. 1.



Jwind il*s for living creature the earth the forth bring shall Aleim the said then And

.so was it and ,kind it's for earth the of beasts wild and reptile and cattle

n:^ob, p^b above explained, rr a pronoun suffix, ^cr or it*s, feminine, § IX. 3. n»:ni
a noun fem. of the root ona. troT, 1 and, unDI a noun masculine singular of the
root tron. in^m, 1 mid, ^rvn a coUective noun singular from the root r^'^n, see § IX. 4.

cattle the and «kind it's for earth the of beast wild the Aleim the made then And

noran ii«i n^D*? v">»n nrt du a^rhik tyjn 25.

Aleim the saw th^i and ,kiod it*s for ground the of reptile evecy the and ,kind it*s for

.good that

rrn a noun feminine sFngular in regmine, § IV. i6, of the root mn, § X. 4.



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dS A Methodical HEBRFJV GRAMMAR. -

Jikeness our according to image our in man make will we Aleim the said then And •

cattle the over and betrens the of fowl the over and sea the offish the overrule shall they and

.earlh the ufiDn creeping repiile the t\try over and earth the all over and

:y-^Krr bv vr^^n ttroin bzy\ y^rxn ^mi

mif)!) first person [^ral future in Kal^ from the root nu^. tTJ» a noun masculine
kiogular, from tberoot non, § X. 4. 1io'?y2, 3 t/r, \) a pronoun suffix, our, § V. 5. tDinf
a noon masculine stitgular, iron the root dW. 1^niD"i2, :3 a particle a», according to,
•W a pronoun suffix our, nioi a noun feminine singular, see § IV. 6, from root ncn,
§ X 4, see Lexicon. "iTjn, 1 and, nT third person masculine plural future in Kdl, of
the roo( rm, § X. 4. r;in3, ^ wi, run a collective noun feminine singular in reghaUe
I IV. 16, from the root ii, § X. 3.

Aleim the of Image the in jimage his in man the Aleim the created then And

a^n^ o^»2 iD^M D-wnnn c^n*?^ »*>nn ^y.

^ .them created he female and male ,him created he

ink* from the particle nkt, and ^, kirn, n^t a noun masculine from the root ")^\. M^i?^
a noun feminine from the root 2p3. onki from HM and O /i&o/t. See § Vill. 7.

^uitfol ye be Aleim the them to said then and Aleim the them hlessed then And
tea the ef fish the over j-e rule and ^it sul>dne and earth the ye fiU and yc multiply and
.earth the upon moving t>ea8t eveiy over and heavens the of fowl the over aud

tDlih, b a particle ^a, § IX. ;, prefixed to Csn /^on. rTtt^:3D, rr t/ feminine. See
i Vill. at^,

r -I

seed seeding herb every the you to given have I bdiold Aleim the said then And

ynr yiT 2m bD tk dd^ ^nna n^n o^n^j^ •JOHn 29.

tree a of fruit the it in which tree every the and ,earth the all of faces the upon which

yy ^•^D n ^^^^ xvn ' bn msc\ ^^^n bi *iD bv '^h

•food for be shall it you to ,seed seeding

\ryi2^b xvTV^ u^b y>? y->T

n'^Tt a particle from the root n^rr. .^nni first person pretcr of the verb fn3, § VII. a5.
ti3rV h to^ prefixed to tD3 you, § V. 5. ii'r^M a noun feminine, § IV. 6, from the
root h'^e^, § X. I.
creeping (.tiling) every to aini heavens theof fowl c venr to and earththeof beast every to And

ron ^^D^i ci^Dtt^n «)iy 7D*?i pNn. n^n !?2*?) 30.

.so was it and ,food for herb green every the ,lire of breath the it in which earth the upon

: p ^nn r\b2\id 2m p"»' b2 n^ n^n u^eu 12 "»tcf« y'^i^n Vy

p^ a noun from the root i?1\
very good behold and made had he which whole the Aleim the saw then And

n^eoaio n:i-n nw '^vr^ b^ n« anbt^ vn^ 31.

.sixth the Day morning was there and evening was tliere aud

ptt^it^rr cv npn ^n^-^ n^y mv,

•?HD a particle from the root 1HD. "^U^Ufl, n emphatic prefixed to ntM2^ an ordmal noun
of number, \ IX. 5.



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Grai^



29



\ resembliog ^^ in some Forms use i instead of tlte last
".^20 ; and in Hith, and sometimes in other Conju^tions,
Radical, as in punn from pn, in fp^:J'^ from ^t^.



f verbs J



VI. OF SYNTAX.



'"alfy ag^rees with it's Substantive in gender and number^
an, rr\m ry\::D great strokes.

f' ees with it's Noun in gender, number, and person, as
was.
uff. futJ^^'^^ '** ^^^ Future, denotes succession.
-eter. i^i'^s, oAen supplies the signs of the grammatical In-
mg.fut/'^ ««/6(/ii« {ye) it. Gen. i. 28.

m gjugje sometimes the particles 1, 5, 7, D, prefixed, of which
j2> 6, 7, 8, and Lexicon.

> I ■'

lur.futj »

. mascj THE USE OF THE SERVILES.



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•^««u ctse i/p^^TOoming was thistf and evening; was I

a particle from the root 1«D. '>w\lf^, n emphatic prefixed to ^uny an ordi
ibcr, § IX. 5.



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A SHORT

CHALDEE GRAMMAR,

WITHOUT POINTS.

OEfilCN£D FOR THE USE OF THOSE WHO ALREADY UNDERSTAND HEBREW.



THE FOURTH EDITION^ CORRECTED AND IMPROVED.



SdJu Chaldaram out Syriacam Linguam etiam mnu exffrmur omnium minimi «! HebneJt Lili|ul
£f€rrt, ita «f DUlectttt /o/itf / U^ variata Elocutio, quam, ab Hebraea diverta, haienda tit,

" In truth we even now find that of «// Languages the CbaUet or ^nan difFert the Zm## from the
fMrexa, to that it is rather to be et teemed a Dialect or varied Prmitndatitft than a different
Inogoa^**

C. ViTEiNGAfObiervat. Sacr. Kb. L cap. 5. $ ▼. •dit. 4tjr.



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PREFACE.



1 FIE want of a Chaldce Grammar, in the first Edition of this Work, seemed •
real deficiency. This I have now endeavoured to supply in the following pages;
with ^bich however I would by no means advise the Leanier to concern himself,
(ill in hb course of reading the Origuial Scriptures he comes to such parts of them
ns are written in ChaldfCy or, at soonest, till he has well mastered the Hebrew ; and
then he may be assured that the ensuing Grammar will be found, tiiough coBcise,
yet extremely easy, and sufficiently copious to instruct liim in tlie Grmimetical In-
^^exions of the Chaldce, as extant in the sacred writings, and even (speakinij generally)
in the earliest Targums or Chaldce Paraphrases; I mean those of Otihelifs and
Jonathan. For the Bibhcai and more ancient Chaldce f^as to it's external form)
differs not more from the Hebrevj than ()he modem Spanish from the Latin, or even
than the Doric from tlie Attic or Ionic Dialect in Greek,

In composmg thb little Tract, I liave been chiefly indebted to Masclcf*s Gram^
niatica ChaldsHi ; but as upon a close inspection that work appeared not to ha\e
been drawn up with the accuracy that might have been wished, such mistakes and
ovjersights as were observed ib it have been carefully corrected.

Besides some Chaldce Words occasionally inserted in the historical and prophetical
Books, after the Israelites became acquainted with the Assyrians and Babylonians, the
following Parts of Scripture are written ip the Chaldce Dialect: namely,

Jeremiah^ ehap. x. ver. 1 1 .

Daniel, from ver. 4 of the second to the end of the seventh chapter.

£va, chap. iv. from ver. 8 to chap. vi. ver. 19, and chap. vii. from ver. 12 to
ter. 27.



CON-

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C O N T E N T S.



Sect.

I. Of the Letters and Redding
WOftheirordsinCkaldee .....

III. Of the Division of Words, and first of Nouns

IV. Of Pronouns ♦ . . . .
V. Of Verbs, awl first of the Conjugation Ktil , .

VI. Of the Conjugation Aphel • ...

\ll. Of theCorijugationlthpehaly Saphel, and Lhthapal
\UL Of defective and Reduplicate Verbs
IX. Of the Changes niade in Verbs on account ef PronouM Si^xcs •

X. Of Syntax, of the Use of the Scrviks^ and of ^finding the Root
XI. A^hort Grammatical Praxis on the Chaldee of Jeraniah and Daniel



Page.

35

35
36

^.

37
39
40

41

44



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A SHORT

CHALDEE GRAMMAR.



SECT. I.
Of the LETTERS and READING,

I . The Lctten and Manner of Reading are the lame as in Hebrew.

3. There is the same Distinction of the ChaUte Letters as of the Hdrm, nfe» Ba»
dkalt and Serdtei.

3. Bat observe that 1. which in Heinw is radicat, is in ChaUtt lertik; and, vice
versa, w, which is in Hdirew-itnUe, is in Chaidee radieaL



SECT. IL
Of the WORDS in CHALDEE.

1. Many of tbe Words io Chaidee are exactly the same as m Hebrew.

t. Many others are formed either by adding some letter at the begiimkig of a Hebrew

wofdy as

p^„ f ^^- tan Btood, ChaW. tanw,
rrom | ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^

er at the end, as

p / ^^^' ^^ ^ another, Ch. HDI»>
rfom j^ jj^j^ ^^ /«op/e, Ch. HOj^;

or even in the middle, as

{Heb. Tjrm thorn, Ch. ?imn,
Heb. HDD a tknme, Ch. MO'iD,
Hcb. p:s /o f/etfgil/, Ch. p3n&,
Heb» m^m a sceptre, Ch. ID^Ittf ;

or both in the middle and at the end> as

«^^ f Heb. T a hand, Ch. MW,

3« Some Gbldiw words are formed by drtfppwg a letter (soul the JBir^rop, as
ut^^ / Hcb. ViK one, Ch. Vl,
™™ t Heb. tt^^ a man, Ch. »i.

d 4. Some



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34 ^ Short

*4. Some by irmupoitng a letter, a»

From Heb, fhn aportiotiy as of land, Cb. bpM aJiM,

5* Many by changing some letter: thus

D in Heb. is in Chald. changed into ft: as
fHeb. Via iron, Ch. ^HD.
From < Heb. rpa /o break, Cb. ypB

l^Heb. nrpn a volky. Qk. *«r»pfi;

y into V, as
rHeb. p« the tarfh, Ch. ir)«,
Prom < Heb. I«V «Af«p, Cb. fw,

LHeb. nn im e^, Ch. H^O;

tt^ mto D, as
fHeb. nott^ *o i«'<7>. Ch. *^D0,
From < Htb. ^m^Jieth CJi. *^D3,
LHcb. ^tt^)^ ten, Ch, •ip;^.

6. BvttbeitoostiMqtientcbMiResof Inters ^rt of the Heb. #i6ttoiU or /^
into the Chaldee DentaU or Teeth* tetters: thus

t is often changed luto \ as
fHeb. :3m ^o/rf, Ch. :im.
From < Heb. n^t /o sacrifice, Ch. nni,
LHeb. 1DI ^0 remcmtfer, Ch. ^D*T ;

y into D, as
fHeb. f p sumtntr, Ch, to^p,
From -{ Heb. X)^ to consult^ Ch. ID))*,

LHeb. OV flii antelitpcy Ch. «>!»;

tt^ into n, as
fHeb. yym to return, Ch. iin,
From < Heb. •OU^ /o 6reaXr, Ch. inn,
LHeb. •la^ fo fre ricA, Cii. ^iny.

7. There are some other, but less usual, changes of the Contfmants in ChaUk^ Words
derived from the fiebreip, as of :i into d, *i into tD» 5 into p, i into *1| 1^.

8. Of tlie Fovjels, M is often changed into >, as

r Heb. mnrt a head, Ch. UT), .
From ] Heb. infc|*i^ /At ^mre, Ch. Vw,
L Heb. *10HD a icori/, Ch. *1D*0 ;

rr into m, as
in fbnping noons feipinine anc) the ^fAc/ (QJpW) and lUpehd (Hitkpaei), CoiyogatioDS
of Verbs;

rr into » or K, as
in Chaldee Terbs derived from Hebreir^oes ending in Ti, ihm firom Heb. rT:Hl io be
wiiiifig,Qbf^MtiDdHlH;

1 into M, as
From ffeb. yp good, Ch. :tMt9» Aot
1 into \ as
fpi the ^f |2/ or partkiple passire of feii»s«

^ T)itt w«rd apraoifer ^pt the y,

SECT.



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CHALDEE GRAMMAR. 35

SECT. in.
Of the DIVISION of fWRDS, and first of NOUNS.

I. Words in ChaldeCt as in Htbrew, may be divided into Nowii or Names, Verbs and
Particles.

a. Cialdee Nouns are likewise disttn^isbed into Substantivfs and Adjectives; and
bi¥e two Genders^ masculine 2ud feminine; and two Numbers, sngular and plum!.

3. The Gender of Chaldee Nouns is koown eitlier bythcir sigRf^calion, as in Hebrew
and other Languages; or by their Termination.

4. * Ckaldce nouns ending in K, 1 and > servile zxe feminine ; most others are masculine.

5. Chaldee nouns feminine ending in M, are plainly formed by imitation of Hebrew
ones ending in n, as Ch. ^OiM wiiflom, of Heb. nom.

6. Those in 1 or * are formed from the Hebrew ones by dropping a final servile n,
9s^^bD a kingdom^ from nD:>D; ^HH another (fern ), from nnn«.

7. The plural of mascnline nouns is formed by adding p to the singular, as "^^o a king,
phir. fdho kings.

8. The plural o£ feminine nouns is formed by adding } to the singular, as r'M a landy
plur XiTM lands; or by changing M final into ], as «.>au^ fern, beautiful ^ plur. n^QU?;
or w\, into \Ay as «moo a wa/cA, plur. fW*itOO watches.

9. The above are the most usual forms of plured noons both masculine said feminine;
but there are also others which may be better learned by use and obtiervation in reading,
than by having the memory loaded with a multiplicity of rules*

Of NOUNS in REGTMINE or CONSTRUCTION.

10. Nouns masculine singul|r in regimine suffer no change, but nouns masculine
plural in regimine drop their final ], as p:D sons; Ht2^^H ^^n sons of many Dan. ii. 38.
Coop. hetf. Grammar^ § IV. 1 5.

I I . Nouns feminine singular in regimine change their final K into n, as iv^ MT^)>
tieworkof tkekjuse, for H^^nv* Ezra vi. 7; those ending in »n drop the «, as tho
ici^ the -word of the king, for «n!?D; comp. Hcb. Gram. % IV. 16.

11. Feminines plural in f, do when in regimine change their final } into n, as TOiV^H
im*) the toes of the feet, for piYM, Dan. ii. 43.

13. Thus far may be observed a great resemblance between the Chaldee and Hebrew
Boons; we must now take notice of a circumstance wherein they differ, namely,

Of the EMPHATIC Form of Chaldee Nouns.

14. Ai n prefixed to a Hebrew noun often denotes the emphatic or definitive article.
The, so does K posffixed to a Chaldee noun, as ibo a king, iCho The king; but in Dan*
and Ezra rr is often postfixed instead of M, as nsVo The king, Dan. ii. 11. Comp.
Etat V. I, a. •

IK. N0UQ8 masculine singular emphatic only postfix M ; but nouns masculjpe plural
empkatic moreover drop their \, as pD^o kings^ emphat. M^3^0 The kings.

• 1 consider xhe/eminimt nouns in Daniel and Ezra, which end in rr, it Behrevt onet.

d 2 i<$. Noons



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36 A Shof^e

1 6. NooM femiiiine siofalar ending in H do in the emphatic form change M into MJn;
at MDSn viidom^ emphat MUD^n The xoisdam (or in Dan. into rrn) ; but nouns femi*
nine singular ro hh suffer no change when emphatic.

17. Tn nouns feminine plural the emphatic form is made from the absolute by changing
f uto M, as from p^m toet, emphat. HrQ;iVM The ioe$, Dan. ii. 41/



SECT. IV,
Of PRONOUNS,

t\ The prmitioe Fromoim in Chaldee are*
Of the First Person, m:m« and r\m singular, J; kom», and kum, and sometimes n^n^M

and ru"t^. and sometimes evoi pM and prr plural^ /Fe;
Of the Second, nM, n^M, and nn^H singular, 7Aaii; priM and pn^H (masc.) and priM

^nd rn^M (fern.) plural, f^e;
Of the Third, kTin ^e, and H'n 5^e, singular ; p^M, and sometimes p^^, p>n, Csn* Oin

and port plural masc. They\ p^M and sometimes p3*M and psn plural tem. They.

3. The Pronoun Siiffixe$ to nouns and verbs in Chaldee are very like those in Hebrew,
diiis we have,

Of the First Person /*T«^1"'' '^ ""^ postfaed to a verb, > niy, to a noun,

fsingular, f thee and /^y, generally masc. V and ^^^ /A«e and fh$^
Of the Second < generally fern.

t plural, p^ you and vour^ masc. p vou and yotir, fem.

Of the Third / ^"8^**^ ^ **^ •"^ ^*> *^ *^ *"*■ ^^'**-

I plural^ p3 them, masc. and fem. pn /Atir, masc jr? MrtV, fem.

J. The above are the most usual Pronqun Sujffixes; but observe, that for > my, is some*
times n»ed H» as Targ. Josh. ii. 13, HDM r^^ MDH rAny father and mv mother; for H^
oirr, oAen p and f; for p3 sometimes D13 and'rsS; for p of^en p3; n>r rr verv often
rr* ^» ^> <^d ^; fof n soipetimes Mil; for pn often Dirr and on, and sometunea p,
and f.

4. The Personal Affisa to verbs have a great resemblance to those in Hebrew, as will
be evident from the Example of a Regular Verb in the ensuing Section.



SECT, y,

Of VERBS, andfrst of the Conjugation KAL.

1. Verbs in Chaldee have three Corrugations, iCa/, HiphU or Aphel, and Hithpad or
Jtkpehfl.

2. Kal denotes sun|>ly to do, as ip& he visitedf pho he went up*

3. 4phel generally si^iifies to cause tq do, or to cause to be done, like Hiphil ip Heb.
as np&M he caused to visiii but sDmetin|es Jphel wta^i^s only the simple significatioa
of the Verb.

4. Ail|»^b passive, of sonifies to be doncy as np&DM he was visited; but Ithpekai
•ometimes denotes r^/Ucted actum as in Hel^rew. Here follows,

5. An



Digitized by VjOOQIC



CHJLDEE GRAMMAR.



37



5. An Examj^ of a Regi^ar CkMee Veri m Kal, wiA iht PertomU 4fi9t$ aud
ctier ier*Ue$ printed in hoUow letters.

KAL.

INDICATIVE MOOD.

Preter or Past Tense.



She

Thou (fem.)



mps



Ye (fem.) riT!i?D



Sing.

Tps He ^
«mp3 Thou \msited.
rrrpsl )

Ptur.

nps They )
Ti/nj® Ye >«7Mi/c<f.



Thou (feiii.)



They (fem.)
Ye (fem.)



Thou (fem.)
Ye (fem.)



TpBH

npsn






fem. sing,
fem. plur.



fem. sing,
fem. plur.

CMip.iVII. 9.



«rTps We )
Future Tense.

Sing.

npsr» He ")
ipsn Thou WAo/^ or wttf visit.

•Tp9«I 3

TnpB'' They )

TlpBD Ye V^Aotf or mil tisit.
Tp®3We 3

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

np9 TpB fTtnV Thou
«rTp9 npg Ye

INFINITIVE MOOD.

TJSD
Participle active, or Benoni.
>n^ TpS masc. sing. Visiting.

ppD v^ masc. plur.

Participle passive, or Pehil.
MT9D Tpg masc. sing. Visited,
HT© rTTS masc. plur.



OBSER-



Digitized by VjOOQIC



38 A Short

OBSERVATIONS or\ the above Exarnpk of ^ Regular Vcrh in Kal,
and first on the Pretcr Tense.

6. In the third Person masc. sing. ^ is often inserted before the last radical, as Tpfi
fornpa.

7. The third person fern. sing, sometimes postfixes r\\ frequently H, and m Dan. and
£rra the Heb. n, instead of M.

8. The second person sing. masc. in Dan. and Ezra often postfixes rrn and n instead
of«n.

9. The second person sing. fem. sometimes postfixes n^ for n«

10. The first person stus. fem. often postfixes only n for n% particularly m Dan. and
Ezra J and sometimes *n after the Hebrew form.

1 1. The third person pluf. often assumes i paragogic after 1, and sometimes droppmg
1 retams only the f; and in Dan. often ends m p*.

12. The third person plur. fem. sometimes postfixes M instead of 1.

15. The second person plur. masc. as also all others regularly ending in ), drop that
letter before a Pronoun Svffix,

14. The second person plur. fiem. sometimes ends in pn or \n instead of pn.

15. The first person plural sometimes postfixes p (from pM) instead of feO, and before
pronoun affixes drops it's M, or changes it into 1 or \

OBSERVATIONS ou the Future Tense.

16. In the future tense of verbs, 1 is often inserted before the last radical, as in
Hebrew,

17. The third person plur. fem. in^ead of the affix ^ sometimes assumes n.

r€. The second person fem. sing, often end« in p, and sometimes dropping the * in f.



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