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situation is at some distance from the southern extremity of the hog-back. . . .
This town I called Cristone. The same hog-back recommences a little more
than a mile to the north, rising to a greater elevation, say 600 or 700 feet above
the valley."^

Professor Cope clearly had in mind Span, creston 'ridge'
'crest'. "Cristone." 2

This ruin is described by E. D. Cope, as stated above. A part
of Cope's report on the ruin is quoted by Hewett.^
[1:24] (1) Pipo 'turkey water' 'chicken water' {^i 'turkey' 'chicken';
po 'water"creek"river'). (Probably < Span.). =Eng. (2),^pan.
(3).

(2) Eng. Gallinas Creek. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3).

(3) Span. Eio de las Gallinas 'chicken river' 'turkey river'.
= Tewa (1), Eng. (2). " The Gallinas." *

"The branches of which the Chama is formed are the Coy-
ote in the west, the Gallinas north of west, and the Nutrias'
north. It is said that the waters of the first are red, those of the
Gallinas white, and those of the Nutrias limpid. According as
one or the other of these tributaries rises, the waters of the.
Chama assume a different hue."^ Cf. [1:19] and [1:25].
[1:25] (1) IDiHwe 'where the turkeys or chickens are' {^i 'turkey"
'chicken'; 'woe 'at' locative postfix indicating a single place).
= Eng. (2), Span. (3).

(2) Eng. Gallinas settlement. ( < Span.). = Tewa (1), Span. (3).

(3) Span. Las Gallinas 'the chickens' 'the turkeys'. =Tewa
(1), Eng. (2).

It seems probable that the Tewa name is a translation of the
Spanish. Gallinas seems to be a favorite place-name with the
Mexicans; cf. Gallinas Creek, by which the city of Las Vegas is
built. See Gallinas Creek, page 559. The Tewa word ^i was

1 E. D. Cope, Wheeler Survey Report for 1875, vii, pp. 363, 355, 1879, quoted by Hewett, Antiquities,
pp. 42, 43.

2 Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 365.
8 Antiquities, pp. 41-44.

^Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 56, note, 1892.



116 ETHSrOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth.ann. 20

originally applied to the wild turkey, but since chickens were
introduced it has been used to designate both turkeys and chickens,
turkeys being distinguished when necessary by calling them pini4
'mountain chickens' (pwy 'mountain'; 4^ 'turkey' 'chickens').
Cf. [1:19] and [1:24].
f Capulin region] (1) ^AWiwe ' where the chokecherry is ' ('aS^ 'choke-
cheriy' 'Prunus melanocarpa (A. Nelson) Rydb.'; ^iwe 'at' loca-
tive postfix indicating a single place). =Cochiti (2), Eng. (3),
Span. (4).

(2) Cochiti Apofdlco ' chokecherry corner ' {dpo ' chokecherry '
'Prunus melanocarpa (A. Nelson) Rydb.'; foho ' corner'). =Tewa
(1), Eng. (3), Span. (4).

(3) Eng. Capulin region. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Cochiti (2),
Span. (4).

(4) Span, rejion Capulin 'chokecherry region'. =Tewa (1),
Cochiti (2), Eng. (3). Cf. [1:26], [1:27], [1:28].

[1:26] (1) 'Aie'iwemakina, 'AteHwe'i'^ makina, ^Ai^iwep'epaie'i^^,
'Abe'iwe'i^^ p'epaie'i^* 'chokecherry sawmill' (^aWiwe 'where
the chokecherry is' 'Capulin', see [Capulin region], above; '^''loca-
tive and adjective-forming postfix; ma^iwa 'machine' 'mill' 'saw-
mill' <Span. maquina 'machine' 'sawmill'; pepaie'i''^ 'sawmill'
<p'e 'stick' 'timber', paie 'to cut crosswise', '»'* locative and
adjective-forming postfix). =Eng. (2), Span. (3).

(2) Eng. Capulin sawmill. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3).

(3) Span, asserradero de Capulin 'chokecherry sawmill '„
= Tewa(l), Eng. (2).

This sawmill is frequently moved from one part to another
of the wild region in which it is situated. Tewa Indians have
been frequently employed at this sawmill. Cf. [Capulin region],
above, also [1:27] and [1:28].
[1:27] (1) 'AUfo 'chokecherry creek' ('aS^, as under [Capulin region],
above, 'chokecherry' 'Capulin'; po 'water' 'creek' 'river')'
= Eng. (2), Span. (3).

(2) Eng. Capulin Creek. «Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3).

(3) Span. Rito Capulin 'chokecherry creek'. =Tewa (Vs
Eng. (2). ^ ^'

This creek is tributary to Gallinas Creek [1:24], Cf. [Capulin
region], above, also [1:26] and [1:28].
[1:28] (1) 'AUpivf 'chokecherry mountain' ('aft^, as under [Capulin
region], above, 'chokecherry' 'Capulin'; pwj- 'mountain')
= Eng. (2), Span. (3).

(2) Eng. Capulin mountain. ( < Span.). = Tewa (1), Span. (3).

(3) Span. Cerro Capulin ' chokecherry mountain '. = Tewa (^ \
Eng. (2). • ^ ''

This mountain is said to be high.



HAKEINGTON] PLACE-lsTAMES 117

[1:29] (1) l^efo 'coyote water' {^e 'coyote'; po 'water ' 'creek'
'river'). =Cochiti (3), Eng. (4), Span. (7).

(2) JSFq/Potapo ' adobe river' ' mud river ' {n0oh ' adobe ' ' clayey
mud'; po 'water' 'creek' 'river'). =Eng. (5), Span. (8).

(3) Cochiti fStsonatsena 'coyote river' {j'otsona 'coyote';
tsina 'river'). =Tewa (1), Eng. (4), Span. (7).

(4) Eng. Coyote Creek. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Cochiti (3),
Span. (7).

(5) Eng. Puerco Creek, Muddy Creek, Dirty Creek. (<Span.).
= Tewa (2), Span. (8).

(6) Salinas Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (9).

(7) Span. Eio Coyote 'coyote river'. =Tewa (1), Cochiti (3),
Eng. (4). "The Coyote." »

(8) Span, Rio Puerco 'muddy river' ' dirty river'. =Eng. (5).
Cf. Tewa (2).

(9) Span. Eio Salinas 'creek of the alkali flats'. =Eng. (6).
"Salinas Creek. "2

After much questioning at San Juan it seems clear that these
names refer to one stream, the name Coyote Creek coming per-
haps from Coyote settlement, which is situated on the creek. ' ' The
branches of which the Chama is formed are the Coyote in the
west, the Gallinas north of west, and the Nutrias north. It is said
that the waters of the first are red, those of the Gallinas white,
and those of the Nutrias limpid. According as one or the other of
these tributaries rises, the waters of the Chama assume a differ-
ent hue." ^ Cf. [I:3i3] and [29:120].
[1:30] (1) pe'-iwe ' coyote place' (^e 'coyote'; 'Moe'at' locative post-
fix referring to a single place. ) (Probably < Span. ) . = Eng. (2),
Span. (3). This name refers of course to the whole region as
well as to the Mexican settlement itself.

(2) Eng. Coyote settlement and region. . ( < Span. ). = Tewa (1),
Span. (3).

(3) Span. Coyote 'coyote'. =Tewa (1), Eng. (2). Cf. [1:29].
[1 :31] (1) HiAaku^u ' dry arroyo arroyo ' (hv!u ' arroyo ' ' large groove' ;

to 'dryness' 'dry'; Am'm 'large groove' 'arroyo'). =Eng. (3),
Span. (5). This name is applied especially to the lower part of
the stream, as far up as the white mineral deposit or farther, this
portion of the bed being usually dry. This is perhaps a transla-
tion of Span. Arroyo Seco.

(2) Ps^s^nfhu'u,P^^mpo 'deer horn arroyo' 'deer horn water'
{ps^s^yf 'deer horn' Kpsg. 'deer', s^yf 'horn'; Am'm 'large

1 Bandelier, iFinal Report, pt. n, p. 56, note, 1892.

2 U. S. GeograpMoal Surveys West of the lOOtli Meridian, Parts of Southern Colorado and North-
em New Mexico, atlas sheet No. 69.



118 BTHNOGEOGEAPHy OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 20

groove' 'arroyo'; po 'water' 'creek' 'river'.) Cf. Eng. (4),
Span. (6). This name is applied most frequently perhaps to the
upper course of the waterway, near Cangilon Mountain [1:35].
Since this is not an exact equivalent of the Span: name, Ps^spy
may be an old Tewa name applied originally to either Cangilon
Mountain or Cangilon Creek.

(3) Eng. Cangilon Creek. (< Span.). = Span. (4). Cf. Tewa(2).

(4) Span. Rito Cangilon 'horn river'. =Eng. (3). Cf.Tewa(2).
This creek rises at Cangilon Moimtain. Cf. [1:33], [1:34],

[1:35], and [22:unlocated].
[1:32] (1) SaUpo ' Athabascan water ' (Sate ' Athabascan '; po ' water '
'spring'). Cf. Tewa (2), Eng. (3), Span. (4).

(2) ^wansaUpo ' Navaho water ' {Ifw^nsaie ' Navaho' < IS wily f-
' Jemez', SaU 'Athabascan'; po 'water' 'spring'). =Eng. (3),
Span. (4). Cf. Tewa (1).

(3) Eng. Navaho spring. (<Span.). = Tewa (2), Span. (4). Cf.

Tewa (1).

(4) Span. Ojo Navajo 'Navaho spring'. =Tewa (2), Eng. (3).

Cf. Tewa (1).

This spring, said to be perennial, is situated on the west side
of Cangilon Creek, as shown on the map. See Navaho Canyon
[l:unlocated].
[1:33] (1) Eng. Lower Cangilon settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2).
(2) Span. Cangilon el Ritoabajo ' horn settlement down creek'.
= Eng. (1). Prof. H. E. Bolton states that the name Cangilon
was given by Father Escalante in 1776. "Cangillon" is dis-
tinguished from "Upper Caflgillon".^ " Canjilon.''^

No Tewa name was obtained. Cf. [1:31], [1:34], and [1:35].
[1:34] (1) Eng. Upper Cangilon settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2).
(2) Span. Cangilon el rito arriba ' horn (settlement) up creek'.
= Eng. (1). "Upper Cangillon".!
[1:35] Ps^s^mpiyf ' deer-horn mountains ' {ps^.s^yf 'deer-horn' <^^
'deer', s^yf 'horn'; pivf 'mountain'). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3).
Since this is not an exact equivalent of the Span, name, Ps^s^yf
may be an old Tewa name applied originally to either Cangilon
Mountain or Cangilon Creek. Cf. [1:31].

The main road from El Rito to Tierra Amarilla is said to pass
through Upper Cangilon. No Tewa name was obtained. Cf .
[1:31] and [1:35].

' U. S. GeograpMoal Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, Parts of Southern Colorado and Northern
New Mexico, atlas sheet No. 69, 1873-1877.

' Map accompanying Hewett, Antiquities, 1906; also Topographic Map of New Mexico, U. B.
Geological Survey, Professional Papers 68, pi. i, 1903-1908.



HABEINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 119

[1:36] (1) San Juan T'ihuhu'u ^T'i danca large low roundish place'
' arroyo ' ( 7"i ' a kind of dance held in winter at San Juan Pueblo ' ;
bu^u 'large low roundish place'; hu^u 'large groove' 'arroyo').
At anytime those wishing to dance the T'i dance get permission
from the War Captain; a man and a woman are the principal
dancers and property is thrown to the crowd at the close of the
dance; 4if\'d'° 'they are dancing this kind of dance' {di 'they
,3 +'; 'o'" progressive postfix). The etymology given above has
been confirmed by four San Juan Indians, from whom, however,
no information could be obtained as to the real meaning of t'i.
The f of t'i is clearly aspirated. A Santa Clara informant stated
that the tifa^e (unaspirated t ! ; /cue ' dance') is a San Juan dance
and described it as it had been desctibed to the writer by San
Juan Indians. The Santa Clara informant stated that ti is the
name of a kind of headdress, made of skin and sticks, which pro-
jects upward and forward from the forehead of the wearer, and
that this headdress is worn in the San Juan tifcuie. There has
been no opportunity to have this information discussed by San
Juan Indians. The place-name is not known to Santa Clara, San
Ildefonso, or Namb^ Indians so far as could be ascertained. The
verbs fif'i 'to sparkle' and t'iJc'eJ.i 'to stumble' were suggested
by a San Ildefonso Indian as possibly throwing light on the
etymology.

(2) Span. Arroyo Silvestre 'Silvestre Arroyo'- The Span,
name of the arroyo is from the name of the Mexican settlement
Silvestre [l:unlocated].

Unlocatbd

(1) ^uwalcukq 'breadstuff stone barranca' (buwaku 'guayave stone'
'Klutva 'breadstuff' 'any kind of bread', %u 'stone'; ^g' bar-
ranca'). = Span. (2).

This is one of the localities at which the kind of stone used
for baking paper-bread is obtained. See under Mistebals,
where the preparation of these stones is described. This
place is probably known to a number of people at each of
the Tewa pueblos, but informants differ widely as to its location.
They agree in placing the locality east or north of the upper
Chama River. One informant places it above [1:20], another
below [1:31].

(2) Span. Arroyo Comal ' arroyo of the' stone or pan for cook-
ing tortillas, guayave, and the like'. =Tewa (1).
(1) Jin4iim 'where the willows' {jq,Vf 'willow'; Hwe 'at' locative
postfix). =Span. (2).

(2) Span. La Jara 'the willow'. =Tewa (1).



120 BTHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29

This is the name of some locality on the Jicarilla Apache Reser-
vation. The form J^n^we is in use in Tewa.

(3) Eng. " Navaho Canyon ". Given by Hewett ' as a northern
tributary of Cangilon Creek.
(1) PobelcQ 'water-jar barranca' {poie 'water jar' 'olla' <fo 'water',
he referring to roundish shape; hq barranca). Cf. Span. (2).

(2) Span. Arroyo Tinaja ' large storage-jar arroyo '. Cf . Tewa
(1). Tinaja is n4ty,he in Tewa; Tewa fobe signifies 'olla' in Span.

This locality is said to be east or north of the upper Chama
River.
(1) Eng. Sierra Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (2).

(2) Span. Rito Sierra 'mountain range creek', =Eng. (1).

This creek is either a tributary of Coyote Creek [1:29] or
somewhere in the vicinity of Coyote Creek. None of the Indian
informants had heard of this creek.

(1) Span. Silvestre ' wild ' ' sylvan '. This is a hamlet on Silves-
tre Creek [1:36]. =Eng. 2.

(2) Eng. Silvestre town. (<Span.). =Span. (1).
Sqmfiyf 'porcupine mountain' {sqyf 'porcupine'; fiyj" 'moun-
tain').

A high mountain somewhere near [1 : 23].

Tss^gilcuH'''' 'where the white mineral' {is^gihu 'a kind of white min-
eral used for whitewashing the walls of rooms of pueblo houses,
perhaps gypsum' <iss^g.i unexplained, ^m ' stone ' 'mineral'; '^'^
locative and adjective-forming postfix, used here since mere
tss^gilcu would not indicate the place but the mineral itself).

This mineral is burned and then mixed with water and used for
whitening interior walls. See under Minerals. The location
of this deposit is somewhere east or north of the upper Chama
River. The informants' estimates of the number of miles from
Abiquiu to this deposit vary widely. Since this substance is
called yeso in Span, the deposit may be on or by the Rito Yeso.
See below.

Span. " Rito Yeso".^ This is given as an eastern tributary of Can-
gilon Creek entering the latter near its junction with the Chama
River. The name means 'gypsum or chalk creek', yeso being
the Span, equivalent of Tewa iss^gilcu. See the preceding item.

[2] PEDERNAL MOUNTAIN SHEET

The country shown on this sheet (map 2) includes some of the
Chama River valley and part of the Tsi'nvpij^i''^ fiyf ' western moun-

' Hewett, Antiquities, pi. XTii.



MAP 2
PEDERNAL MOUNTAIN REGION



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY




PEDERNAL MOi



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 2




REGION



MAP 2
PEDERNAL MOUNTAIN REGION



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 2




(Photograph by J. A. Jeanpon)
A. ANCIENT TRAIL LEADING UP THE MESA TO TSIPiNlf'QNIWl. RUIN




B. TSlPiNjJ''QN|Wl. RUIN



(Photograph by J. A. Jeanpon)



HAEEINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 121

tains' [Large Features: 8] of the Tewa. This portion of the western
range of mountains, situated near Abiquiu, is referred to by Bande-
lieri as the range of "Abiquiu", and as " Sierra de Abiquiu ".^

Pedernal Mountain [2:9], plate 1, B, 7,580 feet in altitude, is per-
haps the most conspicuous feature of the area, and the sheet has been
called Pedernal Mountain sheet.

This region is as little known as that included in the Tierra Ama-
rilla sheet. Here also the site of only one ruin is shown, although
several doubtless exist. See Pueblo Ruin nearer to Pedernal Peak
than [2:7], [2:unlocated].

[2:1] See [1:29].

[2;2] See Chama River [Large Features: 2].

[2:3] See [1:36].

[2:4] (1) Eng. Canones Creek. (<SpanO. = Span. (2).

(2) Span. Rito Canones ' the creek by Canones settlement'. See
[2:5], [2:6], and [2:7].

[2:5] This is the upper part of Canones Creek [2:4] according to Mr.
J. A. Jeanpon. See [2:4], [2:6], and [2:7].

[2:6] (1) Eng. Polvadera Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (2).

(2) New Mexican Span. Rito Polvadera 'dust-storm creek'.
= Eng. (1). See [2:4], [2:5], and [2:7].

[2:7] (1) Tsipvof^oywiJceji ' flaking-stone mountain pueblo ruin' 'Ped-
ernal Mountain pueblo ruin' (I5*^i?;y ' Pedernal Mountain ', see
[2:9]; ^oywilceji 'pueblo ruin' <^Qywi 'pueblo', Jceji postpound
' ruin '). (PI. 2, B.) " Chipiinuinge (Tewa, 'house at the pointed
peak') ".^ = TsipirfyQywige (g.e ' down at' ' over at ' locative postfix
indicating position not above the speaker). "Chipiinuinge"^
"Chipiinuinge (maison du pic pointu)".^ " Tziipinguinge (Tewa,
the place of the pointed mountain, from tzii, meaning point, pin^
jneaning mountain, and uinge the place or village"." = Tsipiyf-
^qywige 'down at or over at the pueblo by Pedernal Mountain'
(ge locative post-fix 'down at' 'over at'). "Tziipinguinge".' In
aletter to the author, October- 27, 1911, Mr. Jeanfon states: "Re-
garding the name. The Cerro Pedernal undoubtedly has given the
ruin its name. The translation as given to me is: The Place or
Village of the Pointed Mountain . . . Although Suaso^ says
there is another place nearer the Pedernal by that name and
that this is not the true Tziipinguinge". In the same com-

1 Final Report, pt. II, p. 11, 1892.

2 Ibid., p. 72, note.

« Hewett, Antiquities, p. 36, 1906.

< Ibid., pi. XVII.

6 Hewett, Cominunaut&, p. 42, 1908.

'J. A. Jeancon, Explorations in Chama Basin, New Mexico, Xecords of the Past, x, p. 101, 1911.

' J. A. Jeangon, Kuins at Pesedeuinge, ibid., xi, p. 30, 1912.

8 Aniceto Suaso, & Santa Clara Indian.



122 BTHNOGBOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29

munication Mr. Jeanpon locates the ruin as follows: "The ruin
is located between two creeks. The Canones Creek joins the
Polvadera just a short distance north of the ruin and the com-
panion mesas are situated in the crotch formed by this juncture.
Canones runs southwest from the junction, the Polvadera almost
due south . . . The ruin is in the PiedraLumbre grant." The
following remarks by Bandelier^ have some bearing on this ruin:
" The ruins above Abiquiu, and on the three branches by which
the Chama is formed, I have not visited. Some of them have
been noticed in the publications of the U. S. Geographical Survey
and of the Bureau of Ethnology, to which I refer the student."'
"While at the Rito [4:5], Don Pedro Jaramillo told me of a
pueblo lying west of it [i. e., of the Chama River], and north-
northwest of Abiquiu".^ No information has been obtained as to
what tribe built or occupied this pueblo. The name is merely a
descriptive one and would be applied to any ruin near Pedernal
Mountain. Cf. [2:4], [2:6], [2:6], [2:8], and [2:9]; see pi. 2, B. _

[2:8] Smaller mesa southeast of the mesa on which Tsipiv / QV^i
stands. The end of the arrow marks the situation of a peculiar
neck of land or causeway which connects this small mesa with the
large and high mesa southeast of it.*

[2:9] (1) Tsifivf 'flaking stone mountain' {tsi''i 'flaking stone' 'obsi-
dian' 'flint'; ^li^y 'mountain'). =Cochiti (2), Eng. (4), Span. (5),
Fr. (6). Cf. Cochiti (3).

(2) Cochiti Eifte''j(mfek6t''e 'flaking stone mountain' 'obsidian
mountain' {hefyjanfe 'flaking stone' 'obsidian'; Tcot'e 'moun-
tain'). =TeWa (1), Eng. (4), Span. (5), Fr. (6). Cf. Cochiti (3).

(3) Cochiti Heft^janfemo^nakalcdt'e ' black obsidian mountain'
• {hefte'janfe 'flaking stone'; mo'naka 'black'; %6t'e 'mountain').

Cf. Tewa (1), Cochiti (2), Eng. (4), Span. (5), Fr. (6).

(4) Eng. Pedernal Mountain, Pedernal Peak. (<Span.). =Tewa
(1), Cochiti (2), Span. (5), Fr. (6). Cf. Cochiti (3).

(6) Span. Cerro Pedernal 'flaking stone mountain'. =Tewa (1),
Cochiti (2), Eng. (4), Fr. (6). Cf. Cochiti (3).

"The truncated cone of the Pedernal".^ "Cerro Pedernal".^

J Pinal Report, pt. ii, pp. 55-56, 1892.

2 Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1876, Appendix LL (App. J, i). Part ii, p. 1086, copied
into Report upon United States Geographical Surveys West of the Hundredth Meridian (vol. vii.
Special Report by Prof. E. D. Cope, pp. 851 to 360 inclusive). It is also Interesting to note that ruins
on the Chama were also noticed in 1776 by that remarkable monk, Pray Silvestre Velez de Escalante,
during his trip to the Moqui Indians by way of the San Juan country. See his Biario of that jour-
ney, and the Carta al P. Morfi, April 2, 1778 (Par. 11).

3 Bandelier, op. cit., p. 53, note.

4 See Jeangon, Explorations in Chama Basin, New Mexico, Records of the Past, x, pp. 102-lOS,
1911.

^Bandelier, op. cit., p. 32.
"Hewett, Antiquities, pi. XVII.



HARRINGTON] PLACB-KAMES 123

(6) Fr. "Pic Pedernal"!. (< Span.). =Tewa (1), Cochiti (2),
Eng. (4), Span. (5). Cf. Cochiti (3).

A number of Tewa Indians have stated that there is no more
obsidian about Pedernal Mountain than elsewhere in mountains
west of the Tewa villages.

The top of the peak is flat and its whole appearance is peculiar.
It appears to be the highest mountain (7,580 feet) within 20 miles
northwest of [2:13]. It can be seen from most of the surrounding
country, and names for it will probably be found in a number of
Indian languages. Florentin Martinez, of San Ildefonso, has
Tsipiyf as his Tewa name. Mr. J. A. Jeanpon states that when
he excavated at Tsipiyj'^oywi [2:7] very little obsidian was found,
but quantities of calcedony and other varieties of flaking stone.
See [2:7], [2:10], and Tsq^m.jpije'i''^ piyj" [Large Features:8]; also,
pi. 1, B.
[2:10] (l)/"!i^i??y 'cicada mountain' (Jy, 'cicada'; ^jj^y 'mountain').
Cf. [5:19], [22:30].

(2) Eng. Abiquiu Mountain. (<Span.). = Span. (3).

(3) Span. Cerro Abiquiu 'Abiquiu [3:36] mountain'. =Eng.
(2). "Abiquiu Peak".^ "The pyramid of the extinct volcano
of Abiquiu".^ The high peak of Abiquiu".* "The former vol-
cano of Abiquiu".' "The base of Abiquiu Peak, and of its south-
ern neighbor, the Pelado".* For the Pelade see [2:13]. The
writer has not found a Tewa Indian who knows this mountain by
the name of Abiquiu Peak.

Bandelier^ states that this peak is 11,240 feet high according to
Wheeler's measurements. This mountain does not look to be as
high as [2:9] and not nearly so high as [2:13]. Its top is quite
pointed. A distant view of the peak is shown in plate 2, B. See
[2:11], [2:12], Abiquiu Mountains [2:unlocated], and Ts^mpijeH'^-
piyj' [Large Features:8].
[3:11] (1) /"iipimpa^yge ' beyond cicada mountaiji' {fiipiyj', see [2:10];
ps^yge 'beyond').

On the other side, i. e., the western side of Abiquiu Mountain,
there are no trees, it is said; but it is a beautiful place, with
much grass, waist high. One kind of grass which grows there
is used for making brooms. See ^imp^??^g [Large Features :1].

iHewett, Coiimiunaut&„p. 42.

' U. S. Geographical Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, Parts of Southern Colorado and Northern
New Mexico, atlas sheet No. 69, 1873-1877.

3 Baudelier, Final Report, pt. if, p. 32, 1892.

4 Ibid., p. 63.
6 Ibid., p. 63.
6 Ibid., p. 33.

' Ibid., p. 63, note.



124 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TBWA INDIANS [uth. ANN. 29

[2:12] {!) fy,pinnuge 'at the base of cicada mountain' {fiipivfi see
[2:10]; nuQe 'at the base of Knu^u 'at the base of, ge 'down
at' 'over at').

(2) Eng. Vallecito. (<Span.). = Span. (3).

(3) Span. Vallecito 'little valley'. =Eng. (2).

The Vallecito is a large, comparatively level, area where con-
siderable dry-farming is practised by Mexicans. This locality is
reached from Abiquiu by driving up the canyon, which is also
known as the Vallecito. This canyon the Tewa might call
flipijinugepotsiH {fy,pinnuge, as above; pofsi'i ' canyon with
water in it' <po 'water', fsPi 'canyon'), but they usually call the
whole canyon and vicinity /"fiPinnuge. See [2:10] and [2:11].
[2:13] (1) Tsiku'mupiyj', probably abbreviated either from tsiii-
nq/cu'my, piy.f 'mountain covered with flaking stone or obsidian',
or tsin&u^iny. pivf ' flaking stone is covered mountain * ' mountain
where the flaking stone or obsidian is covered ' {tsi''i ' flaking stone ',
here referring almost certainly to obsidian, which abounds in the
range of mountains of which this is a peak; .«*' ' from ' ' by ' ' with '
postfix showing separation or instrumentality; n4 'it'; ku'iny, 'to
be covered'; piyj' 'mountain'). The writer has discussed this
etymology with a considerable number of Indians. The first
etymology mentioned above was suggested by an old man at San
Juan, a very trustworthy old man at San Ildefonso, the old cacique
of Namb6, and several other reliable informants. One often
hears such an expression as hiud n&u'my, 'it is covered with
stones', said of the ground (^w 'stone'; ud 'from' 'by' 'with';n4
' it ' ; Jcu'my, ' to be covered '). The verb hu'my, may also be used of
eyes covered by a hand, face covered by a blanket, etc.

(2) Tsq.mpijeHinpi'Of 'mountain of the west' {ts^mpije 'west'
< fe5777» unexplained, J9^}■e 'toward'; ''iyf locative and adjective-
forming postfix ; piyj- ' mountain '). This is the ceremonial name,
the mountain being the Tewa sacred peak of the west. See Car-
dinal Mountains.

(3) P'opipiyf 'bald mountain' {p^opi 'bald' <p'o 'hair',
pi negative; piyf ' mountain'). =Cochiti (4), Eng. (5), Span. (7).
This is a mere translation of the Span, name of the mountain,



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