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3dly. The Ckaouiah, This modification of the Berber belongs to all the Kabyle tribes
who are mixed up with the Arabs, who, like them, live under tents and keep numerous
flocks. Many Arabic words have naturally insinuated themselres into this dialect, which
is greatly diffused in the province of Constandna.

4th. The Zouaouiah. This language is spoken, from the country lying between Dellys
and Hamza as far as Bona, and represents the old national idiom m its greatest purity.
A slight difference may always be traced amongst the tribes to the east of Djidjelli, arising
from their commerce with the Arabs. Hence these tribes are considered by the pure
Kabylet as degenerate Kabyles (Kabails-el-Hadera).

The Berber alphabet was long thought to, be lost, and at the present time there does
not exist a single book written in Berber character. The copies of the Koran, &c, found
among the smoking villages of the Beni- Abbess by Dawson Borrer, were all Arabic ver-
sion!.*. The Kabyle tolbas (and they are numerous) maintain that all their Mss. and
literary monuments disappeared at the capture of Bugia by the Spaniards (1510). But
this assertion cannot stand the test of criticism, though it is easier to refute it than to re-
place it by another and a sounder theory. At the present day the Berber is only written in
Arabic characters; and it is said that the Zaouia of Sidl-Ben-Ali-Cherif, of whom we have
spoken before, possesses many Mss. of this, description. f



Alexandria; that the city of Morocco at one period contained 700,000 Inhabitants; that the Ommiades
In 8pain formed a library of 600,000 vols. ; that Andalusia alone could boast of 70 public libraries; and
that Cordova, with the towns of Malaga, Murcia, and Aimer la, could boast of having produced 300
authors. Crlchton's Arabia, ii. c. 3.

• Campaign in the Kabylie, 1848.

t La Grande Kabylie, pp. 7-9 (1847).

The following are the characteristic differences of the Berber and the Arabic :

Arabic has but one article for all genders and catcs,— */; the Berbers have the masculine and



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462



APPENDIX.



Arabic is at once a rich and a poor language. It is poor, inasmuch as, being the child
of the desert, it has no words to express a great number of ideas that are only imported by



feminine. The masculine consists in the letters a, est, i, represented by the elif 1 and placed as
affixes before the word. The feminine article consists in the letter *, pronounced hxe the English tit,
placed as an affix and prefix to the word. We here present a few examples :

Berber. Arabic.

Arses Er-Radjel.

Tamettout El-Mra.

Akchieh . . Kt-TfeL

Takchicht. Et-Tofla.

AkJt .... El-Khedhn.



Man .
Woman
Male child .
Female child
Male slave .
Female slave
Young husband
Young bride .
Ox . .
Cow



Taklit K-Khldem

IsU * Bl-Artms.

Tisltt. EVAronea.

Afounes El-Bgueur.

Tfounest . . El-Begra.

Artoul El-Hemar.

rrieuH . .

Alfctn .

Talr'emt .

Iximer

Tizumert .

Irtd .

Tara't

The masculine article becomes commonly iia the plural, as, irrods-c*, men; and the feminine
usually «,— tifoun&e-en, women. The masculine ending of the plural is en, the feminine fa. There
are, however, many exceptions to this rule; e.g. akli, male slave, becomes in the plural aktdn ; tare%
plural tkretten, goats. There are also many very irregular pmrale, sueh as ew*M, plural of UkhH,



Ei-DJemcL

En-Nixa.

E-Khrout

En-N'adja.

Ed-DJedt



She-ass.
Camel .
She-camel
Lamb .
Sheep .
Kid .
Goat



Almost all words are hermaphredlte in Berber, and can reeatoo the masculine or feminine gender.
They are not, however, used indifferently, but according to natural laws. In all the animal kingdom,
save man, civilised or plucked of his feathers, the male commands the female; by his stse, beauty,
and strength, he is naturally chief and master. The Berber language always reproduces this natural
law, the feminine being a diminution of the mascnhne. Possession or dependence Is earp s eeaed by an
initial prefix to the second word. Tata Is one of the letters as and a, or the diphthong en. If applied
to persons, all three may be used ; but in the case of inanimate objects, the second * is alone used, and
determines the genitive. Example : Tala-m Bou Hat (the source of Bou Hai), Alma-n Bieri (the
meadow of BisrO, Agmin Aklan (the country of the negro). (< La Kabylie proprement dtte,' in the Ex*
pknation Seientlfique, vol. i.)

The Berber language, though one of the moat ancient in the world, has never yet had a gr amm a rian .
This idiom reigns in Algeria over almost the whole of that series of high clina which border the Medi-
terranean from the gulf of Stora to the frontier of Morocco. A few hiatuses in the chain occur about
the meridians of Algiers and Oran. In the province of Constantina it is found In the high plateaux
that give birth to the Rommel and Seybouse ; and in the plains inhabited by the Harsehta, Seynia,
Telar'ina, Oulad, Abd-ea-Nour, and all that part of the country, it is called, as previously observed,
Chaouia. It occupies exclusively the whole ridge of the Aoureaa.

In the east of the Algerian Sahara, the oases of Ouad-Rir, Temacinl, and Ouaregla, are inhabited by
a twofold population, some using an idiom called lar'oua, which is the Kabyle. It is found also about
the centre of the Algerian Sahara, in the oasis of the Benl-Mtfb. In the regency of Tunis H Is almost
confined to the little island of Djerba, In front of Oabes, about the southern frontier of that stale. It
occurs again in the little town of Zouara, where the desert meets the sea, between Tunis and Tripoli,
and is there called lar'oua. Going west, it is called Chtlkiu in the desert of Figutg, and in the high
and vast chain of the Miltsin, the Atlas of the ancients. It reappears in the gorges of the Djebel-Nfbus,
between Tripoli and Egypt, and in the solitudes of the great desert, where it is spoken by the emphatic
Touaregs. All the high summits along theooast know no other language; and M. Carette observes that
there is really very little dutereaoe between the Chaouia and the Chelhla, or all other Berber Idioms.

We also learn from the same source that recent explorations of the desert and remotest Berber
tribes (Tuaricks), have brought to light Inscriptions in the ancient Berber character, which will give us
the Berber alphabet, and prove another Rosetta stone to unlock the mysteries of this venerable tongue.

We trust that the French will shortly convert their swords into geological hammers, and their bay-
onets into antiquarian pickaxes, and that the future fruit of their rassias will be Berber inscriptions
rather than barbarous atrocities. (Explorat. Solent. : La Kabylie proprement dite, by M. Carette, voL L
pp. 49, 27, 76, fto.



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LANGUAGE. 468

civilisation ; and it is Heft, because it possesses, on the other hand, many expressions to
describe the same thought, when this thought was found in the narrow circle of the primi-
tive wants of the Arab people.

When this language became diffused through the world, in consequence of the Mus-
sulman in? asions ; and when the Arabs, after the conquest of Syria, Egypt, Barbary, and
Spain, became established in these countries, and founded separate empires in them,—
it lost somewhat of the uniformity that it possessed at its cradle.

Each Arabic colony was obliged naturally to borrow from foreign and neighbouring
tongues new words to express new ideas, more or less numerous according to the intimacy
of its relations with more civilised states, They would also be led occasionally to distort
some genuine Arabic expressions from their primitive significations, in order to express
the new ideas. And since each of these distinct Arab branches led henceforward an iso-
lated and independent existence, and only held mutual intercourse at long intervals, they
would find it convenient and less irksome to adopt one or two of the words existing in the
Arabic tongue to express the primitive ideas that it admitted, dropping the rest

Now it was not probable or possible that in this selection exactly the same words should
be chosen by these related but distant branches. Their choice was often directed by
chance, and particular countries selected particular terms in the great division that took
place of the expressions common to this tongue. Thus arose various modern idioms of
the Arabic, presenting certain differences among themselves, but all derived from genuine
primitive Arabic words.

The differences that may be traced, on the one hand, between the spoken and the
written language, and, on the other hand, between the dialects spoken in Barbary, Egypt,
and Syria, result from a more or less accurate observance of the rules of the Arabic gram-
mar ; from the importation of certain words from foreign tongues ; from the more special
adoption of particular Arabic words by particular countries to express the same thought ;
and, we may add, from idioms peculiar to different regions.

These differences are, however, less considerable than is generally supposed, particu-
larly in what relates to idiomatic peculiarities ; and it must be admitted that these would,
in all probability, have been much greater, if the Koran and its language had not been a
great bond of union between all the Arab races. Nor can we avoid a feeling of surprise
when we behold a tongue that has been handed down through so many ages, and countries,
and events, presenting its original form and purity with such slight deviations.*

It is proper to remark, f that the greater part of the variations of the Arabic language?
may be traced up to a common origin in the learned language, or the idiom of Modhar,
which Mahomet employed to write the Koran. It is probable that this ancient language,
so very rich in synonyms, of which a great number, however, are mere epithets, only ac-
quired its astonishing richness in expressions by adding to its original fund, which was the
dialect of the central tribe of the Qoreichites, words borrowed from the idioms of neigh-
bouring tribes. The Arabs who invaded and settled in Africa brought there the varieties

• Grammalre Arabe (Idtome d'Algerie), by M. Alexandre Beuemare, 1850 : Introduction, p. vi.

t Berbrugger's Algerie, &c. part ill. p. 19.

% A ipecimen of tbe operation of external causes In modifying the Arabic dialects is presented in
the idioms of Algeria, Throughout the province of Oran, at Algiers Itself, and in Western Barbary,
the pronunciation of the Arabic tongue is much harsher and more guttural than in the proTtece of
Constantina, and there is erery reason to believe that this harshness increases at present in north-west
Africa in an inverse ratio to the distance and separation of the tribes from the districts of Tunis and
Constantina, It may even be remarked that the idiom of the province of Constantina has attained the
maximum of loftness of all the Arab dialects ; a circumstance that may be attributed to the softening
Influence of Roman civilisation in Humidia and Tunis.

Strong aspirations and guttural articulations, so frequent in Arab speech, are uttered with less
Toughness at Constantina. Some letters have even a different phonic value in the different provinces:
thus the word for mountain, pronounced djebel at Algiers, is sounded like /see/ at Corstsntina, though
written the same way in both cases. The variations of idiom sometimes go still further, and entirely
different expressions are used in different districts.



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464 APPENDIX.

that distinguished the mother-tongue of their, fatherland, and have made greater or lea*
alterations in it in proportion as their connection with the Berber race has been more or
less intimate. Mahomet, by establishing a unity of faith among the Arabs, laid at the
same time the foundations for the unity of language, by the adoption of the idiom of
Modhar, with which every well-educated Mussulman is partially, if not perfectly, ac-
quainted : but this applies only to the language of religion and science, for in the ordi-
nary intercourse of life every one employs the peculiar dialect of the Mahometan country
that he inhabits.*



SECTION IIL
Commerce airtJ flfgrirulhtre.

According to Dr. Shaw, the annual taxes of the regency under the Turks btuugfct in
1,647,000 fir. about a century ago; and Shaler, the United States consul in 1822, esti-
mates the revenue at 2,360,964 fir. (94,438/. 11a. ML)

It appears that, since 1830, Algeria had swallowed up in 1846, 100,000,000 fir.
(4,000,000/.),+ of French- money ; and. tbe. whole amount of the tribute squeezed out of
the extreme poverty of the Arab tribes in 1846 was, in rough numbers, 5,000,000 fr.
(200,000/.). But Mr. Borrer shows the extreme impolicy of imposing heavy taxes on the
Arab tribes, and of seizing their lands, hereditarily transmitted, without remuneration, in
order to found a European settlement on it J

The total amount of the revenue derived from the colony during the six years of Mar-
shal Bugeaud's administration amounted to 105,000,000 fr. (4,200,000/.).

Since 1835, a portion of the. produce of the domaine of the douanes, and of divers con-
tributions, was- appropriated to the expenses of the towns and corporations.

Count St Marie informs us that 5,000,000 fr. (200,000/.) are spent every, year over
and above the ordinary pay the troops would reoeive if in France ; 2,000,000 (80,000/.)
for the navy ; 2,000,000 fr. (80,000/.) for persons employed in the different departments
of the civil service, viz. the administration of the interior, of finance,, of the police, of
rivers and forests, and of the clergy ; finally, 1,000,000 forming a secret fund for presents

• Bee A. Gorgoos' Cours d'Arabe Vulgatre, t vols. 1849; Bled de Bratne, Clef de la PrononeiarJoa
des Idiomes de l'Algerie, 1848; Ventura's French and Berber Dictionary ; Hodgson's Account of the
Berber Language, in the Transactions of the American Philosophic tl Society, toI. Iv. 1834.

t A report addressed to the. Emperor of Frauce r and dated August 11th, 1868, states that the law
relating to customs of Jan. 1 1th, 1851, has been a great benefit to^Algeria, by uniting more closely the
interests of France and its colony. But this law, moreover, contained provisions whose gradual de-
velopment was destined to procure new advantages to both countries. The application of one of these
provisions is urgently demanded at the present time, namely, the establishment of douamet on the
frontiers of Morocco and Tunis r in order to favour the opening of a land-trade with those countries,
hitherto closed. It has alio appeared desirable to lower 50 per oont the duties at present levied on cer-
tain produce of Morocco and Tunis when brought Into Algeria by land. St. Arnaud, minister of war,
proceeds in his report to submit to the sanction of the emperor a project of a decree concerning the
land-trade of Algeria. This decree, which has become law, contains 18 articles, which, among other
enactments, remove the prohibition made in 1848 on -the produce of Morocco .and Tunis, though it is
continued on the produoe of a different origin. The produce of Morocco and Tunis must pass to the
east through Soukara and Guelma, through Tebessa and Ain-Beida, and through Biakara; to the
west, through Lalla Maghnia, Tlemsen, and Kedrouma. Douane offices and bureaux to be established
at or near Boos, Guelma, Constantina, Ain-Beida, and Biskara ta the east ; at Rashgoun, Tlemsen,
and Days to the west. The Saharian frontier will be closed to all produce not the growth of Algeria, ox
the offspring of Algerian industry. We refer t<* this important decree for further particulars.

X Dawson Borrer, p. 88.



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COMMERCE AND AGRICULTURE. 465

tod losses, fhis makes a grand total of 10,000,000 fr. (400,0001.) annually, or 200,000,000
fr. ( 8,000, 000A) in 20 years. Yet this does not represent one-fourth of the real amount,
for the 647,500 deaths must be considered that occurred in the army from 1830 to 1845.
Each of these soldiers cannot have cost less thau 274 fr. (10/. 3s. 4rf.) at the hospital, for
clothing, transport, &c. The custom-house duties in 1845 brought in about 400,000 £r.
(16,000/.) per annum. Out of that sum the salaries of the persons employed in the cus.
toms* service must be paid. There is no tax on fixed property or on persons; and the
contributions from cattle, levied by the troops on the Arab tribes cannot be considered as
receipts, for the sale of the cattle produces very little, and the money thus raised is usually
distributed among the soldiers, not much to their advantage. Specimens of this are given
by St Marie.*

The intricate web of employes is condemned as a serious evil by St Marie and
Borrer, under Louis Philippe ; and this host of locusts is still flourishing under the em-
pire. In the year 1845, 24,000 dispatches were received from Paris by the administration
chile, and 28,000 were sent to Paris by this branch in Algeria. The number of function-
aries is immense, as we have seen; and the pay of the corps in 1846 about 600,000 fr.
(24,000/.), and since 1880, 5,000,000 fr. (200,000/.); whilst the European population
over whom they acted only amounted to 100,000 persons. The pay of the native troops
in 1845 amounted to 7,000,000 or 8,000,000 fr. (320,000/.)f

As foretold by the visitors in 1844 and 1845, there was a financial crisis in Algeria in
1846-7, recorded by Mr. Borrer, when the interest on capital rose to an extravagant pitch.
This distress diminished many sources of revenue, save the Arab impdt, whose produce
has steadily increased.

The financial legislation of Algeria has undergone great changes, especially since
1839. In September 1st, 1847, the director of finances and the directors of the interior
and of public works were suppressed. Directors of civil affairs were appointed in each
province, uniting the functions of the suppressed directions ; and this movement decen-
tralised the administration of finances, which is now in the hands of the prefects.

The Arab impots of all kinds, minus one-tenth, have passed from the colonial bud-
get to the budget of the state ; and the colonial budget has taken the name of local
and municipal budget ; and both budgets have been centralised in the hands of the min-
ister of war, who is the only manager (ordonnaieur) of the local and municipal diet, and
the final paymaster of all expenses. J

The occupation of Algeria by the French appears to have injured French trade to
Barbary up to 1838, but since that period matters have gone on improving.

• P. 257.

t Borrer. St Marie Informs us that a certain officer bought a house for 300 francs (121.), which six
months after he let for government service at an annual rent of 4000 francs (160/.). Usury in 1845
destroyed the trade of Algeria, by banishing all confidence, ruining the unfortunate borrowers. Not
a day passes without six bills being stuck up, headed with bankruptcy. If persons in the employ of
government could purchase real property ostensibly, there would be more regard to decorum. They
would not go boldly to the public notaries, and sign deeds devoid of authenticity, forms for lending
money at 20 or 25 per cent interest. The Jews manage better; they make up the rate of usury by bills
of exchange ; this at least Is more modest (p. 265). Other embarrassments tend to depress commerce.
For instance, whatever Is required for the army, the shipping under the government, has to be accepted
by a commission, to which the merchants invariably offer a gratuity to prevent articles of the best
quality being rejected as bad. The following fact is an illustration of this abuse. Six vessels laden
with coin for the army were in the port. A commissioner went on board to examine the cargoes, which
were of the first quality ; but the consignee not having paid the required fee, they were rejected. The
government, it was understood, would have taken them at 17 francs (14*. 2d.) per measure. But on
change next day, they were purchased all at 30 francs (1/. 4«.) per measure ; and within a fortnight the
government was negotiating for that same corn at 32 francs (l/. 5s. 10d.), the new owner having taken
care to get it inspected by the right persons. In this case the transaction was good for trade, because
the article was in great demand ; but it must often be very ruinous.

t Tableau, p. 400.

GG



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466 APPENDIX,

On the 7th December, 1835, the legal interest was made 10 per cent, in the hope of
calling in competition, and cheapness in capitals; and from good information Baron
Baude learnt that loans gratuitous in appearance varied in interest from 25 to (0 per
cent*

But passing to the middle ages, we are strongly reminded of the glorious union of an
enlightened freedom and a humanising commerce in the annals of unhappy Italy. Before
foreigners had trodden her spirit in the dust, and the church had crushed the elements
of her national greatness, the republics of Italy sent forth their active commercial fleets,
manned by hardy mariners of the Columbus and Gioja stamp, who bravely ploughed the
Mediterranean, and enriched their native land with the produce of the East and South ;
while they enlightened Europe with the remnants of the Greek fire smouldering at Byzan-
tium. In those palmy days, Pisa and Siene reckoned above MX),O0U happy citizens
within their walls, who, thanks to the wholesome agitation of democratic forms, were
saved from the stagnation of ' order? Industry and science marched in the road of pro-
gress ; and Italy, in the dark ages, pioneered the road of Europe to the light But impe-
rial France had not then strangled liberty at its birth : imperial Austria and the Roman
Pontiff had not conspired* in emasculating the progeny of the Gracchi.

Baron Baude, speaking of Algeria, says this coast once flourished commercially. The
greatness of Carthage had no other basis than commerce : at each page of the ancient his-
torians you find traces of the riches of towns which have afterwards fallen into the last
state of misery. Such were, in the neighbourhood of Algeria, Bedja (whose markets at-
tracted a crowd of Italian merchants), and Adrumetus, Thapsus, besides Utica, on which
Caesar could impose in passing a contribution of 13,000,000 sesterces (2,665,000 fr.
or 106,600/.).f

The history of the treaties of commerce with Africa is very interesting. At the end
of the tenth century the navigators of Pisa bad treaties of commerce with the sultans
of Egypt and Damascus: in 1167, being driven from the Levant and 'Sicily, they sent as
their first consul the famous Cocco Griffi to the Emir of Bugia, and to Abdallah Boc-
coras, sultan- of Tunis. From that period dates their establishment on the coast of North-
western Africa. The archives of Florence possess the treaty in-Italian and Arabic that
was concluded on the 14th of the month Hreval, in the year 662 of the Hegira, between
the Pisans and the Khalifa. Ultramontane barbarism and bigotry, however, eventually

* Baron Baude, iuVp. 7.

The history of the commerce of north-western Africa is a matter of deep interest, and to treat tt
in detail would trespass too much on our space. We have-alluded to the trade of Carthage in the
chapter on history; and it will suffice us here to refer the reader to Heeren's valuable work, Reflec-
tion* on Vie Potitict, Intercourte, and Trade of the Ancient Nation* of Africa; only remarking that
this favoured region was once a garden, the granary of Europe, and the centre of a vast and organised
system of esoteric and exoteric commerce. Caravans have for ages ploughed the desert, bringing
gold, ivory, and slaves to the north coast ; whilst vessels freighted with the luxuries of India,
spices of Araby, the fruits of the Levant, and the amber of Persia, have crowded the ports of Carthage
and Hippo in the most remote ages.

In ancient times, observes Baron Baude, Carthage carried on commerce with the whole known
world ; and Dr. Hussel asserts that at the time Carthage was most flourishing, she traded northwards
directly to Britain, and indirectly to the Baltic; southwards to the Gambia by sea, and by caravans
far into the interior of Africa; whilst eastwards she carried on an extensive commerce with all parts
of the Mediterranean, and through the mother-city, Tyre, obtained the produce of India. She may
have purchased slaves too from the Grecian slave-dealers. Her commercial relations would thus have
extended over nearly the whole known world, and would only have been surpassed by those of modem
Europe since the discovery Of America, andufthe passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good



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