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Oivyni ad monendam guerram in Wallia contra predidum
dominum Principem *. How long previously it had been
attempted to begin a war on behalf of this Owen Law-
goch one cannot say, but it so happens that at this time
there was a captain called Yeuwains, Yewains, or Yvain
de Gales or Galles, ' Owen of Wales/ fighting on the
French side against the English in Edward's Continental
wars. Froissart in his Chronicles has a great deal to say
of him, for he distinguished himself greatly on various
critical occasions. From the historian's narrative one
finds that Owen had escaped when a boy to the court of
Philip VI of France, who received him with great favour
and had him educated with his own nephews. Frois-
sart's account of him is, that the king of England,
Edward III, had slain his father and given his
lordship and principality to his own son as Prince of
Wales; and Froissart gives Owen's father's name as
Aymon, which should mean Edmond, unless the name
intended may have been rather Einion. However that
may have been, Owen was engaged in the Battle of
Poitiers in 1356, and when peace was made he went to
serve in Lombardy ; but when war between England and
France broke out again in 1369, he returned to France.
He sometimes fought on sea and sometimes on land,
but he was always entrusted by the French king, who
was now Charles V, with important commands 2 . Thus

\ Recor ff Ca ^von, p. I33 , to which attention was called by me in the
Report of the Welsh Land Commission, p. 648: see now The Welsh People,
- - -

PP- 343-4, 593-4-

Nor was Owen the only Welshman in the king of France's service :

reav IT* u^' ^ " ne Ccasion Distinguished himself

Sito h f % , " CallCd ^ Fr iSSart>S text David House, but the
-drtor has found from other documents that the name was Honvel


in 1372 he was placed at the head of a flotilla with 3,000
men, and ordered to operate against the English : he
made a descent on the Isle of Guernsey l , and while there
besieging the castle of Cornet, he was charged by the
king of France to sail to Spain to invite the king of
Castile to send his fleet again to help in the attack on
La Rochelle. Whilst staying at Santander the earl of
Pembroke was brought thither, having been taken
prisoner in the course of the destruction of the English
fleet before La Rochelle. Owen, on seeing the earl of
Pembroke, asks him with bitterness if he is come there
to do him homage for his land, of which he had taken
possession in Wales. He threatens to avenge himself
on him as soon as he can, and also on the earl of
Hereford and Edward Spencer, for it was by the
fathers of these three men, he said, his own father had
been betrayed to death. Edward III died in 1377, and
the Black Prince had died shortly before. Owen sur-
vived them both, and was actively engaged in the siege
of Mortagne sur Mer in Poitou, when he was assassi-
nated by one Lamb, who had insinuated himself into his
service and confidence, partly by pretending to bring

Flinc, which is doubtless Howel, whatever the second vocable may have
been : see Froissart, viii, pp. xxxviii, 69.

1 As to the original destination of the flotilla, see Kervyn de Lettenhove's
edition of Froissart (Brussels, 1870-7), viii. 435-7, where the editor has
brought together several notes, from which it appears that Owen tried
unsuccessfully to recruit an army in Spain, but that he readily got together
in France a considerable force. For Charles V, on May 8, 1372, ordered
the formation of an army, to be placed under Owen's command for the
reconquest of his ancestors' lands in Wales, and two days later Owen issued
a declaration as to his Welsh claims and his obligations to the French king ;
but the flotilla stopped short with Guernsey. It is not improbable, however,
that the fear in England of a descent on Wales by Owen began at least as
early as 1369. In his declaration Owen calls himself Evain de Gales, which
approaches the Welsh spelling Ewein, more frequently Yivein, modern >'.v<im,
except that all these forms tended to be supplanted by Owaiit or O.v, n.
This last is, strictly speaking, the colloquial form, just as Howel is the
colloquial form of Hywel, and bowyd of bywyd, 'life.'


him news about his native land and telling him that all
Wales was longing to have him back to be the lord of
his country*/ lui fist acroire que toute li terre de Gales
le desiroient mout a ravoir a seigneur. So Owen fell in
the year 1378, and was buried at the church of Saint-
Leger l , while Lamb returned to the English to receive his
stipulated pay. When this happened Owen's namesake,
Owen Glyndwr, was nearly thirty years of age. The
latter was eventually to assert with varying fortune on
several fields of battle in this country the claims of
his elder kinsman, who, by virtue of his memory in
France, would seem to have rendered it easy for the
later Owen to enter into friendly relations with the
French court of his day 2 .

Now as to Yvain de Galles, the Rev. Thomas Price
(Carnhuanawc) in his Hanes Cymru, ' History of Wales,'
devotes a couple of pages, 735-7, to Froissart's ac-
count of him, and he points out that Angharad ILwyd,
in her edition of Sir John Wynne's History of the Gwydir
Family 3 , had found Owen Lawgoch to have been Owen

1 For the account of Owen's life see the Chroniques de J. Froissart publiees
pour la Societe de I'Histoire de France, edited with abstracts and notes by
Simeon Luce, more especially vols. viii. pp. 44-9, 64, 66-71, 84, 122,
190, and ix. pp. 74-9, where a summary is given of his life and a com-
plete account of his death. In Lord Berners' translation, published in
Henry VIII's time, Owen is called Yuan of Wales, as if anybody could even
glance at the romances without finding that Owen ab Urien, for instance,
became in French Ywains or Ivains le fits Urien in the nominative, and Ywain
or Ivain in regime. Thomas Johnes of Hafod, whose translation was
published in 1803-6, betrays still greater ignorance by giving him the modern
name Evan ; but he had the excuse of being himself a Welshman.

- For copies of some of the documents in point see Rymer's Fcedera, viii.
356, 365, 3 8 2.

3 I have not been able to find a copy of this work, and for drawing my
attention to the passage in Hanes Cymru I have again to thank Mr. Fisher.
The pedigree in question will be found printed in Table I in Askew Roberts'
edition of Sir John Wynne's History of the Gwydir Family (Oswestry, 1878) ;
and a note, apparently copied from Miss ILwyd, states that it was in a
Hengwrt MS. she found the identification of Owen Lawgoch. The editor
surmises that to refer to p. 865 of Hengwrt MS. 351, which he represents as


ab Thomas ab Rhodri, brother to ILewelyn, the last
native prince of Wales. One of the names, however,
among other things, forms a difficulty: why did Froissart
call Yvain's father Aymon? So it is clear that a more
searching study of Welsh pedigrees and other documents,
including those at the Record Office l , has to be made
before Owen can be satisfactorily placed in point of
succession. For that he was in the right line to succeed
the native princes of Wales is suggested both by the
eagerness with which all Wales was represented as
looking to his return to be the lord of the country, and
by the opening words of Froissart in describing what
he had been robbed of by Edward III, as being both
lordship and principality la signourie et princete. Be
that as it may, there is, it seems to me, little doubt that
Yvain de Galles was no other than the Owen Lawgoch,
whose adherent Gruffyo! Says was deprived of his land
and property in the latter part of Edward's reign. In
the next place, there is hardly room for doubt that the
Owen Lawgoch here referred to was the same man
whom the baledwyr in their jumble of prophecies in-
tended to be Henry the Ninth, that is to say the Welsh
successor to the last Tudor king, Henry VIII, and that
he was at the same time the hero of the cave legends of

being a copy of Hengwrt MS. 96 in the handwriting of Robert Vaughan the

1 This has already been undertaken : on Feb. 7, 1900, a summary of this
chapter was read to a meeting of the Hon. Society of Cymmrodorion, and
six weeks later Mr. Edward Owen, of Gray's Inn, read an elaborate paper
in which he essayed to fix more exactly Yvain de Galles' place in the history
of Wales. It would be impossible here to do justice to his reasoning,
based as it was on a careful study of the records in point. Let it suffice for
the present, however, that the paper will in due course appear in the
Society's Transactions. Mr. J. H. Davies also informs me that he is
bringing together items of evidence, which tend, as he thinks, to show that
Miss ILwyd's information was practically correct. Before, however, the ques-
tion can be considered satisfactorily answered, some explanation will have
to be offered of Froissart's statement, that Yvain's father's name was Aymon.


divers parts of the Principality, especially South Wales,
as already indicated.

Now without being able to say why Owen and his
analogues should become the heroes of cave legends
contemplating a second advent, it is easy to point to
circumstances which facilitated their doing so. It is
useless to try to discuss the question of Arthur's dis-
appearance ; but take Garry Geerlaug, for instance,
a roving Norseman, as we may suppose from his name,
who may have suddenly disappeared with his followers,
never more to be heard of in the east of Ireland. In the
absence of certain news of his death, it was all the
easier to imagine that he was dozing quietly away in
an enchanted fortress. Then as to King Cadwaladr,
who was also, perhaps, to have returned to this world,
so little is known concerning his end that historians
have no certainty to this day when or where he died.
So much the readier therefore would the story gain
currency that he was somewhere biding his time to
come back to retrieve his lost fortunes. Lastly, there
is Owen Lawgoch, the magic of whose name has only
been dissipated in our own day : he died in France in
the course of a protracted war with the kings of England.
It is not likely, then, that the peasantry of Wales could
have heard anything definite about his fate. So here
also the circumstances were favourable to the cave
legend and the dream that he was, whether at home or
abroad, only biding his time. Moreover, in all these
cases the hope-inspiring delusion gained currency
among a discontented people, probably, who felt the
sore need of a deliverer to save them from oppression
or other grievous hardships of their destiny.

he question can no longer be prevented from pre-

entmg itself as to the origin of this idea of a second

advent of a hero of the past ; but in that form it is too


large for discussion here, and it would involve a review,
for instance, of one of the cardinal beliefs of the Latter-
day Saints as to the coming of Christ to reign on earth,
and other doctrines supposed to be derived from the
New Testament. On the other hand, there is no logical
necessity why the expected deliverer should have been
in the world before: witness the Jews, who are looking
forward not to the return but to the birth and first
coming of their Messiah. So the question here may be
confined more or less strictly to its cave-legend form ; and
though I cannot answer it, some advance in the direc-
tion whence the answer should come may perhaps be
made. In the first place, one will have noticed that
Arthur and Owen Lawgoch come more or less in one
another's way ; and the presumption is that Owen Law-
goch has been to a certain extent ousting Arthur, who
may be regarded as having the prior claim, not to men-
tion that in the case of the Gwr Blew cave, p. 481, Owen
is made by an apparently recent version of the story to
evict from his lair a commonplace robber of no special
interest. In other words, the Owen Lawgoch legend
is, so to say, detected spreading itself 1 . That is very
possibly just what had happened at a remoter period in
the case of the Arthur legend itself. In other words,
Arthur has taken the place of some ancient divinity,
such as that dimly brought within our ken by Plutarch
in the words placed at the head of this chapter. He
reproduces the report of a certain Demetrius, sent by
the emperor of Rome to reconnoitre and inspect the
coasts of Britain. It was to the effect that around

1 We seem also to have an instance in point in Carmarthenshire, where
legend represents Owen and his men sleeping in Ogof Myntin, the name of
which means Merlin's Cave, and seems to concede priority of tenancy to
the great magician : see the extinct periodical Golnd yr Ocs(for 1863), i. 253,
which I find to have been probably drawing on Eliezer Williams' English
Works (London, 1840), p. 156.


Britain lay many uninhabited islands, some of which
are named after deities and some after heroes ; and of
the islands inhabited, he visited the one nearest to the
uninhabited ones. Of this the dwellers were few, but
the people of Britain treated them as sacrosanct and
inviolable in their persons. Among other things, they
related to him how terrible storms, diseases, and por-
tents happened on the occasion of any one of the mighty
leaving this life. He adds : ' Moreover there is, they
said, an island in which Cronus is imprisoned, with
Briareus keeping guard over him as he sleeps ; for, as
they put it, sleep is the bond forged for Cronus. They
add that around him are many divinities, his henchmen
and attendants 1 .'

What divinity, Celtic or pre-Celtic, this may have
been who recalled Cronus or Saturn to the mind of
the Roman officer, it is impossible to say. It is to be
noticed that he sleeps and that his henchmen are with
him, but no allusion is made to treasure. No more is
there, however, in Mr. Fisher's version of the story of
Ogo'r Dinas, which, according to him, says that Arthur
and his warriors there lie sleeping with their right hands
clasping the hilts of their drawn swords, ready to en-
counter any one who may venture to disturb their
repose. On the other hand, legends about cave treasure
are probably very ancient, and in some at least of our
stories the safe keeping of such treasure must be re-
garded as the original object of the presence of the
armed host.

The permission supposed to be allowed an intruder
to take away a reasonable quantity of the cave gold,

1 For the Greek text of the entire passage see the Didot edition of
Plutarch, vol. iii. p. 51 1 (De Defectu Oraculorum, xviii) ; also my Arthurian
Legend, pp. 367-8. It is curious to note that storms have, in a way, been
associated in England with the death of her great men as recently as that
of the celebrated Duke of Wellington ; see Choice Notes, p. 270.


I should look at in the light of a sort of protest on the
part of the story-teller against the niggardliness of the
cave powers. I cannot help suspecting in the same
way that the presence of a host of armed warriors to
guard some piles of gold and silver for unnumbered
ages must have struck the fancy of the story-tellers as
disproportionate, and that this began long ago to cause
a modification in the form of the legends. That is to
say, the treasure sank into a mere accessory of the
presence of the armed men, who are not guarding any
such thing so much as waiting for the destined hour
when they are to sally forth to make lost causes win.
Originally the armed warriors were in some instances
presumably the henchmen of a sleeping divinity, as in
the story told to Demetrius ; but perhaps oftener they
were the guardians of treasure, just as much as the
invisible agencies are, which bring on thunder and
lightning and portents when any one begins to dig at
Dinas Emrys or other spots where ancient treasure
lies hidden. There is, it must be admitted, no objec-
tion to regarding the attendants of a divinity as at the
same time the guardians of his treasure. In none,
however, of these cave stories probably may we sup-
pose the principal figure to have originally been that of
the hero expected to return among men : he, when
found in them, is presumably to be regarded as a com-
paratively late interloper. But it is, as already hinted,
not to be understood that the notion of a returning hero
is itself a late one. Quite the contrary ; and the ques-
tion then to be answered is, Where was that kind of
hero supposed to pass his time till his return ? There
is only one answer to which Welsh folklore points, and
that is, In fairyland. This is also the teaching of the
ancient legend about Arthur, who goes away to the Isle
of Avallon to be healed of his wounds by the fairy


maiden Morgen ; and, according to an anonymous
poet l , it is in her charms that one should look for the
reason why Arthur tarries so long :

hnmodice l&sus Arlhurns tendit ad anlain
Regis Avallonis, itbi virgo regia, vulnus
Illius tractans, sanati membra reservat
Ipsa sibi: vivuntque simul, si credere fas est.

Avallon's court see suffering Arthur reach :
His wounds are healed, a royal maid the leech ;
His pains assuaged, he now with her must dwell,
If we hold true what ancient legends tell.

Here may be cited by way of comparison Walter
Mapes' statement as to the Trinio, concerning whom he
was quoted in the first chapter, p. 72 above. He says,
that as Trinio was never seen after the losing battle,
in which he and his friends had engaged with a neigh-
bouring chieftain, it was believed in the district around
ILyn Syfad"on, that Trinio's fairy mother had rescued
him from the enemy and taken him away with her to
her home in the lake. In the case of Arthur it is, as
we have seen, a fairy also or a lake lady that intervenes ;
and there cannot be much room for doubt, that the
story representing him going to fairyland to be healed
is far older than any which pictures him sleeping in a
cave with his warriors and his gold all around him. As
for the gold, however, it is abundantly represented as
nowhere more common than in the home of the fairies:
so this metal treated as a test cannot greatly help us in
essaying the distinction here suggested. With regard
to Owen Lawgoch, however, one is not forced to sup-
pose that he was ever believed to have sojourned in
Faery: the legendary precedent of Arthur as a cave
sleeper would probably suffice to open the door for
him to enter the recesses of Craig y Dinas, as soon as

r renldLlf r** ^^ P ' 335 ' ' am ln
endenng the hexameters into English verse.




the country folk began to grow weary of waiting for his
return. In other words, most of our cave legends have
combined together two sets of popular belief originally
distinct, the one referring to a hero gone to the world
of the fairies and expected some day to return, and the
other to a hero or god enjoying an enchanted sleep
with his retinue all around him. In some of our
legends, however, such as that of ILanciau Eryri, the
process of combining the two sets of story has been
left to this day incomplete.






The Dindsenchas is a collection of stories (senchasa\ in Middle-Irish prose
and verse, about the names of noteworthy places (dinct) in Ireland plains,
mountains, ridges, cairns, lakes, rivers, fords, estuaries, islands, and so
forth. . . . But its value to students of Irish folklore, romance (sometimes
called history), and topography has long been recognized by competent
authorities, such as Petrie, O'Donovan, and Mr. Alfred Nutt.


IN the previous chapters some folklore has been
produced in which we have swine figuring : see more
especially that concerned with the Hwch Du Gwta,
pp. 224-6 above. Now I wish to bring before the
reader certain other groups of swine legends not
vouched for by oral tradition so much as found in
manuscripts more or less ancient. The first three to
be mentioned occur in one of the Triads l . I give the
substance of it in the three best known versions, pre-

1 They are produced here in their order as printed at the beginning
of the second volume of the Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales, and the
series or versions are indicated as i, ii, iii. Version ii will be found printed
in the third volume of the Cymmrodor, pp. 52-61, also in the Oxford
Mabinogion, pp. 297-308, from the Red Book of Hergest of the fourteenth
century. The letter (a, b, c) added is intended to indicate the order of the
three parts of the Triad, for it is not the same in all the series. Let me
here remark in a general way that the former fondness of the Welsh for
Triads was not peculiar to them. The Irish also must have been at one
time addicted to this grouping. Witness the Triad of Cleverest Count-
ings, in the Book of the Dun Cow, fol. 58", and the Triad of the Blemishes
of the Women of Ulster, ib. 43"'.


mising that the Triad is entitled that of the Three Stout
Swineherds of the Isle of Prydain:

i. 3o a : Drystan 1 son of Taftwch who guarded the
swine of March son of Meirchion while the swineherd
went to bid Essyttt come to meet him : at the same
time Arthur sought to have one sow by fraud or force,
and failed.

ii. 56 b : Drystan son of Taftwch with the swine of
March ab Meirchion while the swineherd went on a
message to Essyftt. Arthur and March and Cai and
Bedwyr came all four to him, but obtained from Drystan
not even as much as a single porker, whether by force,
by fraud, or by theft.

iii. ioi c : The third was Trystan son of Taftwch,
who guarded the swine of March son of Meirchion
while the swineherd had gone on a message to Essyttt
to bid her appoint a meeting with Trystan. Now
Arthur and Marchelt and Cai and Bedwyr undertook
to go and make an attempt on him, but they proved
unable to get possession of as much as one porker
either as a gift or as a purchase, whether by fraud, by
force, or by theft.

In this story the well-known love of Drystan and
Essyftt is taken for granted ; but the whole setting is so
peculiar and so unlike that of the story of Tristan and
Iselt or Iseut in the romances, that there is no reason
to suppose it in any way derived from the latter.
The next portion of the Triad runs thus :-
i. 30 b : And Pryderi son of Pwytt of Annwvyn who
guarded the swine of Pendaran of Dyfed in the Glen of
the Cuch in Emlyn.

ii. 5 6 a : Pryderi son of Pwytt Head of Annwn with
the swine of Pendaran of Dyfed his foster father. The

1 As to the names Drystan (also Trystan} and Essyttt, see the footnote on
p. 480 above.

K k 2


swine were the seven brought away by Pwyft Head of
Annwn and given by him to Pendaran of Dyfed his
foster father ; and the Glen of the Cuch was the place
where they were kept. The reason why Pryderi is
called a mighty swineherd is that no one could prevail
over him either by fraud or by force l .

in. ioi a : The first was Pryderi son of Pwytt of
Pendaran in Dyfed 2 , who guarded his father's swine
while he was in Annwn, and it was in the Glen of the
Cuch that he guarded them.

The history of the pigs is given, so to say, in the
Mabinogion. Pwytt had been able to strike up a friend-
ship and even an alliance with Arawn king of Annwvyn 3
or Annwn, which now means Hades or the other world ;
and they kept up their friendship partly by exchanging
presents of horses, greyhounds, falcons, and any other
things calculated to give gratification to the receiver of
them. Among other gifts which Pryderi appears to
have received from the king of Annwn were hobeu or
moch, ' pigs, swine,' which had never before been heard
of in the island of Prydain. The news about this new
race of animals, and that they formed sweeter food than
oxen, was not long before it reached Gwyned"; and we
shall presently see that there was another story which

1 This was meant to explain the unusual term g6rdneichyat, also written
gtrdueichat, g6nteichyat, and gwrddfeichiad. This last comes in the modern
spelling of iii. 101, where this clause is not put in the middle of the Triad
but at the end.

! The editor of this version seems to have supposed Pendaran to have
been a place in Dyfed ! But his ignorance leaves us no evidence that he
had a different story before him.

1 This word is found written in Mod. Welsh Annwfn, but it has been
mostly superseded by the curtailed form Annwn, which appears twice in the

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