John Robert Miller.

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Council of Planning Librarians exchange bibliography



April 1973



389



THE PHYSICAL MORPHOLOGY OF URBAN PLACES:
A Selecfed Bibliography



John Robert Miller
Executive Director
St. Cloud Metropolitan Area Planning Commission



Mrs. Mary Vance, Editor
Post Office Box 229
Monticello, Illinois 61856



THE LIBRARY OF THE

MAR 2 8 1973

AT URBANA-CHAMPAtGN



COUNCIL OF PLAi^naMG LIBi^liiRIMS Exchange Bibliography #389

TI-E PHYSICAL MORPHOLOGY OF URBAN PLACES:
A Selected Bibliography

by

John Robert Miller

Executive Director

St . Cloud Metropolitan Area

Planning Commission



Morphology is usually defined as being the study of form and
structure. The physical morphology of urban places then is the
study of those physical elements fo\md in villages and cities,
e.g. buildings, streets, parks, etc. Hox-rever, as applied to urban
places morphological study has been both spatial and tenporal and
as a result urban morphologies usually address themselves to the
problem of "change". In this regard then the physical morphology
of urban places is defined as the study of their form and function
as well as their change in form and function over time.

The actual study of the physical morphology of urban places,
though, is similar to that social condition known as Victorian
sex. Many people have an interest in the subject but no one real-
ly -wishes to expound on it. For this reason then no large biblio-
graphy compiling studies, treatises, and learned dissertations
all of which enumerate general and universal theories of urban
morphology is possible.

Philosophers who address themselves to the social sciences
\TOuld probably agree that this shortcoming is simply a reflection
of the condition of the various interested disciplines. At the
present the vast majority of studies produced are concerned xd-th



2. CPL Exchange Eibliogr^hy ifj,%9

only one or at best a fev/ of the elements V7hich when combined to-
gether are responsible for the form and structure of urban places.
In this respect the study of urban morphology has been idiographic
as it has been concerned primarily \ri.th individual phenomena. In
time, hoirever, it is probable that the urban morphology vrill \m-
dergo a metamorphosis and become what these same philosophers
would call a nomothetic study. In the future then we can e:qpect
more studies vrhich ■vd.ll address themselves to the overall problem
of ejqjlaining the general morphology of urban places. But as sug-
gested we must try at present to piece together the several stud-
ies made concerring individual elements to gain any real semblan-
ce of the form, function, and change of urban places.

In this regard studies are selected in the bibliography which
may be placed in one of five categories including 1) urban plan-
ning including specific planning studies, 2) general theories
(rare as they are) including those from human ecology', 3) speci-
fic physical entities found in the urban place h) social condi-
tions affecting perception of the environment and hence of the
urban place, and ilnally, 5) studies of all other phenomena which
play a role in determining a place's iccrphology.

In the bibliography an effort is made to present works which
are primarily concerned -with American urban places. Moreover the
great majority of the studLes cited are contenporary with the only
exceptions being the references to early human ecolcgisto and to
the early economists, a few European contributions are Included
but an effort has been made to choose only those that had a serinal



3. CPL Exchange Bibliography #389

effect on explaining the iimerican urban place. Individuals x-jish-
ing to examine city structure in other societies should begin
with a review of Sjoberg's The Pre-Industrial City which is cited
in the bibliography. Individuals Td.shing a more detailed biblio-
graphy of one of the five study areas should examine those refer-
ence found in the most contemporary works here presented.

The Selected K-bliography



Adams, John S. "Directional Eias in Intra-urban Mgration."
Economic Geography , Volume h$, 1960, 302-323.

Adams, John S. "Residential Structure of Midirester Cities."
Annals of the Association of American Geographers , Volume
60, 1970, 37-62.

Alexandersson, Gunnar. The Industrial Stnicture of American_Cit -
ies. Lincoln; University of Nebraska Pr<3ss, 1956.

Alonso, TAiilliam. "The Historic and the Structural Theories of
Urban Form: Their Iiriplications for Urban Renewal." Land
Economics , Volume 1^0, 196U, 227-231.

Altshuler, Alan A. The City Planning Process; A Political Ana-
lysis . Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1966.

Anderson, Theordore. "Social and Economic Factors Affecting the
Location of Residential Neighborhoods." Papers and Proceed-
ings of the Regional Science Association , Volume 9t 1962,
162-170.

Applebaum, IitLlliam. Store Location Strategy Cases . Reading:
Addison Wesley Publishing Corpany, I966.

Applebaum, Willamd and others. Guide to Store Location Research;
lath Emphasis on Super Markets. Reading: Addison Wesley
Publishing Company, 1968.

Bahl, R.\i, "A Land Speculation Model: Urban Sprawl." Journal of
Regional Science , Volume 8, I968, 199-208.

Banz, George, Element of Urban Form . New York: McGraw Hill Book
Company, 1970.



li. CFL ^change Bibliography #389

Bartholomew, Harland. Land Uses In /jnerican Cities. Cairibridge:
Harvard University Press, 155^.

Berkman, Herman G. "The Game Theory of Land Use Determination,"
Land Sconomics , Volume hi, 1965, 11-20.

Berkman, Herman G. "The New Town and Urban Change Fom." Land
Economics , Volume U8, 1972, 93-103.

Berry, Brian J.L. Commercial Structure and Comercial ELight:

Retail Pattem's"and Processes in the City of Chicago . Chic-
ago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.

Berry, Brian J.L. "Ribbon Developments in the Urban Business Pat-
tern." /jinals of the Association of /jnerican Geographers,
Volume U9, 1959, 1U5-155.

Berry, Brian J.L. and Franlc E. Horton. Geographic Perspectives
on Urban System vd.th Integrated Readings . Znglevood Cliffs,
New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1970,

Blizzard, Samnuel H. "Research on the Rural-Urban Fringe: A

Case Study." Sociology and Social Research , Volume 38* 195U,
Ili3-lli9.

Blumenfeld, Hans. "Correlation Between Value of Dwellings and
Altitude." Land Economics , Volume 2k, 19U8, 39U-U02.

Blumenfeld, Hans. The Modern Metropolis: Its Origins. C-roTth.
Characteristics, and Planning . Cambridge: The iilT Press,

Blumenfeld, Hans. "The Tidal V.'ave of Metropolitan Expansion."
Journal of the American Institute of Planners , Volume 20,
1951;, 3-li;.

Borchert, John R. "The Tidn Cities Urbanized Area: Past, Pres-
ent, Future." Geographical Review , Volume 51, 1961, U7-70.

Bourne, Larry S. "Physical Adjustment Processes and Land Use

Succession: A Conceptual Review and Central City Example,"
Economic Geography , Volume U7, 1971, l-l5.

Bourne, Larry S. "Spatial Allocation: Land Use Model of Urban
Growth." Journal of Regional Science , Volume 9, 1969, 261-
272.

Bowden, Martyn J. "Downtov.-n Through Time: Delimitation, Expan-
sion, and Internal Growth." Economic Geography , Volume k7,
1971, 121-135.



5. CEL Exchange Bibliography #389

Boyce, David E., Norman D. Day and Chris McDonald. Metropolitan
Plan Making; An Anglysis of Experience ;idth the Preparation
and Evaluation of Alternative Land Use and Transportation
Plans . Philadelphia: Regional Science Research Institute,
1970.

Branch, Melville C. CoTnprehensive Urban Planning; A Selective
Annotated Bibliography with Related Materials . Beverly
Hills: Sage Publication, 1970.

Browi, IJilliam H. Jr. "Access to Housing; The Role of the Real
Estate Industry," Economic Geography , Volume h^, 1972, 66-
78.

Burgess, Ernest 17. "Growth of the City." in Robert E. Park,

llrnest W. Burgess and Roderick D. McKenzle, eds. The City .
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1925j 1+7-62.

Burgess, Ernest \J. "The Determination of Gradients in the Groxdih
of the City." American Sociological Society Publications ,
Volume 21, 1922, 178-18U. ~

Burgess, Ernest W. "Urban Areas" in T.V. Smith and L.D. XJhite,
eds. Chicago; An Experiment in Social Science Research .
Chicago! The University of Chicago Press, 1929, 113-138.

Casetti, Emilio. "Equilibrium, Land Values and Pop\ilation Den-
sities in an Urban Setting. " Economic Geography , Volume kit
1971, 16-20.

Chapin, F.S. "A Model for Simulating Residential Development in
Urban Development Models; New Tools in Planning." Journal
of the imerican Institute of Planners , Volume 32, 1965, 120-

Chapin, F.S. "i^cti-vity System and Urban Structure." Journal of
the American Institute of Planners , Volume 3h, 1968, 11-18.

Ch^in, F.S. and S.F. Xjeiss, eds. Urban Grotfbh Dynamics in a

Regional Cluster of Cities. Nev7 York: John l-iley and Sons,
1952:

Clark, W.A.V. "Consumer Travel Patterns and the Concept of Range."
Annals of the Association of AjierLcan Geographers , Volvune 58,
1968, 386-396.

Clark, IJ.A.V, "Markov Chain Analysis in Geography; An Applica-
tion to the Movement of Rential Housing Areas." Annals of
the Association of American Geographers , Volume 55, 1965,
351-359.

Clark, IJ.A.V, "Slpacing Models in Intra-City Studies," Geograph-
ical Analysis , Volume 1, 1969, 391-398.



6. CPL :]xchange ELbliogrsphy //389

Ca.aus, R. James. SpatisJ- D?/ncjTdca of GaGolinc Sor^/icg Staticns .
Vane ouver : Tantalus Research Ltd, 1965.

Claus, R. James, D.C. Rothnrell and J. Eottenly. "iieasuring the
Quality of a Low-Order Retail Site." Sconotrlc Geography ,
Volume U8, 1972, 168-178.

Clawson, llarion. "Urban Sprawl and Speculation in Suburban Land."
Land Economics , Volume 38, 1962, 95-111.

Clai-json, Marion R., Burnell Held and Charles H. Stoddard, Land
For the Future . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1560.

Colby, Charles C. "Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces in Urban
Geography." /jrnals of the Association of American Geogrqjh -
ers. Volume 23, 1933, 1-20.

Davie, Maurice R. "The Pattern of Urban Grovrth." in G.P. M\irdock,
ed. Studies in the Science of oocJBty . New Haven: Tale
University Press, 1937, 131-161.

Davies, Shane and Gary L. Fowler, "The Disadvantaged Urban ligrant
in Indianapolis." Scononic Geography , Volume U8, 1972, 153-
167.

Dean, Robert D., William H. Leahy and David L. McKee, eds. Spat-
ial Economic Theory . New York: The Free Press, 1970.

Department of Planning, the District of Puraby B.C. Canada. Ur-
ban Structure: A Study of Long Range Policies VJhich i.ffect
the Physical Structure of an Urbait Area . Bumaby: TPDDB,
1971.

Deskins, Donald R. Jr. "Race, Residence and V/orkplace, 1880 to
1965." S cononac Geography , Volume Ii8, 1972, 79-9U.

Eichenbaum, Jack and Stephen Gale. "Form, Function, and Process:
A Methodological Inquiry." Economic Geography , Volume U7,
1971, 525-5l|i*.

Federal Housing Adminifstration. Structure and Grovth of Residen -
tial Neighborhoods in jlmerican Cities . Wasliington, D.C:
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1939.

FLrey, VJalter. "Ecological Considerations in Planning for Urtsxi
Frings." jjnerican Sociological Re\'iew , Volume 11, 191:6,
I4II-U23.

Firey, Walter. Land Use in Central Boston . Cambridge, Massachu-
setts: Harvard University Press, 19U7.

Flrey, \'altor. "Residential Sectors Re-Exandned. " Appraisal
Journal . Volume 18, 1950, U51-U53.



7. CPL Exchange Bibliography ,-r'389

Fogelson, Robert M. The Fragmented Metropolis; Los iingeles,
1650-1930. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967.

Foster, Gerald J. and Howard J. Nelson, Ventura Boulevard; A
Stringtype Shopping Street . Los /mgeles, California: Real
Estate Research Program, Bureau of Business and Economic Re-
search, University of California, 1958.

Freeman, T.IJ. The Conurbaticns of Great Britain. Manchester,
England: Manchester University Press, 1959.

Fuchs, Roland J. "Intraurban Variations of Residential Quality."
Economic G e ography , Volume 36, I960, 313-325.

Garrison, William L. and Marion E. Marts. Influence of Highway
Improvement on Urban Land: A Grapliic Summary . Seattle;
University of Washington, 1958.

Garrison, William L. et al. Studies of Highuay Development and
Geographic Change . Seattle: University of Washington Press,

Gerson, Wolfgang. Patterns of Urban Living . Toronto: University
of Toronto Press, 1970.

Getis, A. "Temporal Land Use Pattern Analysis With the Use of

Nearest Neighbor and Q/uadrant Methods." Annals of the Asso-
ciation of Ariierican Geographers , Volume 5lir'l9SII7391-399T~

Goheen, Peter G. Victoiigji Toronto, 1850 to 1900; Pattern and
Process of Growth . Chicago: University of Chicago Prcos,
Research Paper Number 127, 1970.

Gold, Robert H. Manufacturing Structure and Pattern of the South-
bend - Mishawaka Area . Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, Research Paper Number Z^^ 195U.

Goldberg, Michael A. "An Evaluation of the Interaction Between
Urban Trajisport and Land Use Systems." Land Economics , Vol-
ume li8, 1972, 338-3i;6.

Gottmann, Jean. Megalopolis; The Urbanized Northeastern Sea-
board of the United States . NeiJ York: The T^rentieth Cent-
ury Fund, 1961.

Greenberg, Michael R. and Thomas D. Bosirell. "Neighborhood Det-
erioration as a Factor in Intraurban Migration: A Case
Study in New York City." Professional Geographer , Volume
2ii, 1972, 11-16.

Guest, Avery M, "Urban History, Population Densities, and Higlier
Status Residential Location." Economic Geography , Volume 1;8,
1972, 375-387.



8. CPL Exchange Bibliography #385

Guttenburg, A.Z. "Urban Structure and Urban Groirth," Journal of
the /jrerican Institute of Planners , Volune 26, I96O, ICU-HO.

Hansen, Niles II. IntermGdiate - Size Cities as Gro'>rth Centers;
Applications for Kentucky, The ?iedr.cnt Crescent, The Ozgrks
and Tezas . Ilevr York: Praeger, 1971.

Hansen, IJ.G. "How Accessibility Shapes Land Use." Journal of the
American Institute of Planners , Volume 15, 195>, 73-76.

Harris, Chauncey D. "Suburbs." American Joumsl of Sociology ,
Volume h9y 19U3, 1-13.

Harris, Chaiincey D. and EA/ard L. UUman. "The Ilature of Cities."
/innals of the Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol-
ume 2U2, 19U5, 7-17.

Hartman, George V'. "The Central Business lUstilct: A Study in
Urban Geography." Economic Geography , Volume 26, 1950, 237-
2hh.

Hartman, George W. and John C. Hook. "Substandard Urban Housing
In the United States; A Quantitative Analysis." Sconomie
Geography , Volume 32, 1956, 95-llIi.

Hartshorn, Truman A. "Inner City Residential Structure and De-
cline." Annals of the Association of American Geographers ,
Volume 61, 1971, 72-96.

Hawley, Am.os H. The Changing Shape of Metropolitan America .
New York: Free Press, 1956.

Haworth, Lai-rrcnce. The Good City. ELoomington, Indiana: India-
na University Press, 1963.

Hoover, Edgar M. The Location of Economic Activity . New York:
McGraw Hill Book Corpany, Inc., 19UB.

Hoover, Edgar M. An Introduction to Regional Econonics . Nevr
York; Random House, 1971.

Horton, Frank S. "Location Factors as Determinants of Consumer
Attraction to Retail Firms." Annals of the Association of
American Geographers , Voliime 58, 196b, 787-bll.

Horton, Frank E. and David R. Reynolds. "Effects of Urban Spat-
ial Structure on Individual Behavior." Economic G-^ograph^'' ,
Volume U7, 1971, 36-1^6.

Hotchkiss, 'Jesley A. Aroal .Pattern of Religiov.s Instituticns in
Cincinnati . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Research
Paper Number 13, 1950.



9. CEL Exchange Bibliography #389

Hoyt, Homer. One Hundred Years of Land Values in ChicaRo. Chic-
ago: University of Chicago Press, 1933.

Hoyt, Homer, "Recent Distoritions of Classical liodels of Urban
Structure." Land Bconomics , Volume i|0, 196U, 19l;-212.

Hurst, Sliot M.E. "An Approach to the Use of Non-?.esidential

Land Use Traffic Generation." Annals of the Association of
American Geographers , Volume 60, 1970, 153-173.

Jakle, John A. and James 0. VTieeler, "The Changing Residential
Structure of the Dutch Population in Kalamazoo, Michigan."
/jmals of the Association of American Geographers , Volume
59, 1969, Uijl-ii60.

James, Franklin J. and James U. Hughes. Economic Grox^th and Res-
idential Patterns; A Methodological Investigation . New
Brunsid-cks Center for Urban Policy Research, 1971.

Johnston, R.J. "Activity Spaces and Residential Preferences:
Some Tests of the Hypothesis of Sectoral Mental Maps."
Economic Geography , Volume ^8, 1972, 199-211.

Jones, Emrys. "Delimitation of Some Urban Landscape Features in
Belfast." Scottish Geographical Magazine , Volume Iht 1958,
150-162.

Kasl, Stanislav V. and Ernest Harburg. "Perceptions of the Nei-
ghborhood and the Desire to Move Out." Journal of the Amer -
ican Institute of Planners , Volume 38, 1972, 318-32U.

Kelley, Eugene J. "Retail Structure of the Urban EconoiTQr."
Traffic Quarterly . Volume 9, 1955, ia.l-it30.

Kenyon, James B. "Land Use Admixture in the Built-Up Urban Water
Front; Extent and Implications." Economic Geography , Volume
hk, 1968, 152-177.

Kilbridge, Maurice D. and Robert P. 'Block and Paul V, Teplitz.
Urban Analysis . Boston: Harvard University Press, 1970.

icing, Leslie. "Discriminatory Analysis of Urban Groirth Patterns
in Ontailo and Quebec, 1951-1961." Annals of the Association
of American Geographers , Volume 57, 1967, 566-578.

KitagoTia, Evelyn and Donald J. Bogue. Suburbanization of Manu-
factiiring Activity 1\1 thin Standard Metropolitan Areas .
Mairi, Ohio: Scripps, 1955.

ICLove, Robert C. "Metropolitan Areas: A Review of Three Recent
Publications." Economic Geography , Volume 37, 1961, 267-275.



10. CPL Zxchange ELblicgraphy ;-^389

Lansing, John B., C.Vj. Clifton and J.N. Horgcn. llev Hcr.ec arA
Poor People; A Stud:/ of Chains of Moves . Ann yirbor: Ins-
tituto for Social Research, l^o;/ .

Levis, David, ed. The Grovth of Cities . New York: John V.'iley
and Sons, 1971.

Levd-s, Pierce F. "Small Tovn in Pennsylvania." Ijmals of the
Association of A merican Geo<rraphers, Volume 62, 1572, 323-

Loeben, /Arthur F. "Philadelphia VJaterfront Industry." Geograph -
ical Review , Volume hi, 1957, 272-273.

Losch, August. The Economics of Location . Hew York: John Viloy
and Sons, 1967 .

Lubove, Richard. "Urbanization Process." Journal of the American
Institute of Planners , Volume 33, 1967, 33-30 .

Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City . Cambridge: The MT Press,
196U.

Lynch, Kevin and Lloyd Rodian. "j. Theory of Urban Form." Journal
of the ;jnerican Institute of Planners , Volume 2k, 1958.

MacFadgen, Dugald. Sir Ebenezer Horrard and the To\m Planning
Movement . Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1971.

Marble, Duane F. "Transport Inputs at Urban Residential Sites."
Papers and Proceedings of the Regional Science Association ,
Voluiac 5, I960, 253-266.

Marcuse, Peter. "Homeownership for Lox^ Income Families: Finan-
cial Implications." Land Economics , Volume li8, 1972, 13U-
lii3.

Marshrll, John U. The Location of Service Tottis: An Approach to
the Analysis of Central Place Systems . Toronto: University
of Toronto Press, 1969.

Mattingly, Paul F. "Intensity of Agricultural Land Use Near Cit-
ieu: A Case Study." Professional Geonrapher , Volume 2U,
1972, 7-10.

Mayer, Harold M. "Localization of Railway Ffcilities in iletro-
politcn Centers as Typified by Chicago." Journal of Land
and Public Utility Economic , Volume 20, 19Uk, 299-315.

Mayer, Harold li. "Patterns and recent Trends of Chicagos Cutlj'-
ing Business Centers," Journal of Land and Public Utility
Economics , Volume 18, 19 U2, U-16.

Mayer, Harold H. and Richard C. Wade. Chicago; Groi-rth of a V.st -
ropolis . Chicago; University of Chicago Press, 1969.



11. GPL Exchange ELblLography §3^9

McKenzie, Roderick D. "Spatial Disturbance and Commuraty Organi-
zation Pattern." Social Forcos ^ Volume ^, 1927, 623-627.

McKenzie, Roderick D. "The Neighborhood: A Study of Local Life
in the City of Coluinbus, Ohio." American Journal of Socio-
logy, Volume 27, 1921-1922, ll;5-16a, 3UU-363, UB6-509, Stib-
SIo7 780-799.

Meier, R.L. A Coinmunication Theory of Urban Growth . Cambridge:
The MIT Press, 1962.

Meier, R.L. "The Metropolis as a Transaction - MaxLnazing System,"
Daedalus , Volume 97, 1968, 1209-1313.

Meyer, Dou^as D. "Spatiotemproal Trends of Racial Residential
Change." Land Economics , Volume li8, 1972, 62-61;.

Miller, Broim, Neil J. Pinney and William S. Saslow. Innovation
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Mobile City Planning Commission. The Neighborhoods of Mobile:
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Moline, Norman T. Mobility and the Small Toxni, 1900-1930^ Tran -
sportation Change in Oregon, Illinois. Chicago; University
of Chicago Press, 1971.

Moore, Eric G. "Comments on the Use of Ecological Models in the
Study of Residential Mobility in the City." Economic Geo -
graphy, Volume kl, 1971, 73-85.

Morrill, Richard L, "Expansion of the Urban Fringe: A Simulation
Experiment . " Papers and Proceedings of the Regional Science
Association , Voliune 15, 1965, 186-202. '

Moynihan, Daniel P., ed. Toward a National Urban Policy . New
York: Basic Books, 1970.

Muncy, Dorothy A. "Land for Industry: A Neglected Problem."
Harvard Business Review , Volume 32, 195)1, 51-63.

Miiraco, William A. "Intraurban Accessibility." Economic Geo -
graph y, Volume U8, 1972, 388-U05.

Murphy, Raymond E. "Johnstown and York: A Comparative Study of
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can Geographers , Volume 25, 1935, 175-196.

Murphy, Raymond E. "Toim Structure and Urban Concepts in New

England." The Professional Geographer , Volume l6, 196U, 1-6.



12. CPL Jbcchange Eibliogr^hy f'/385

Murphy, Raymond E. and James E. Vance Jr. "A Corparative Study of
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Murphy, Raymond E., J.S. Vance Jr. and Bart J. Epstein. "Inter-
nal structure of the CBD." EconoiAc Geography , Volur^ 31,
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I'iyers, Richard P.. and J.A. Beegee. "Delineation and Analysis of
the Rur^l-Urban Fringe." Applied yvnthropologr/". Volume 6,
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Natoli, Salvatore J. "Zoning and the Development of Urban Land

Use Patterns." Economic Geography, Volume U7, 1971, 171-18U.

Omati, Oscar A. Transportation Heeds and the Poor: A C^se Study
of New York Cit y. Hew York; Praeger, 1969.

Park, R.E., E.W. Burgess and R.D. ilcKenzie. The City . Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1925.

Parkins, A.E. "Profiles of the Retail Business Section of Nash-
ville, Tennessee, and their Interpretation." Annals of the
Association of /jnerican Geographers , Volume 20, 1930, 161^-

TtF^

Pattison, Uilliam D. "The Cemeteries of Chicago: A Phase of
Land Utilization." Annals of the Association of i^jierican
Geographers , Volume U5, 1955, 2U5-257.

Philbrick, ii.ll en K. The Geography of Education in the 'Innetka
and Bridgeport Communities . Chicago: Uiu.versity of Chicago
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Rillsbury, Richard. "The Urban Street Pattern as a Culture Indi-
cator: Pennsylvania, 1862-1915. " Annals of the Association
of ianerican Geographers , Vol\ime 60, 1970, h2'6-hh(^>

Pred, Allan R. "Urban Systems Development and the Long-Distance
Flovr of Information Tlirough Pre-Slectronic U.S. Newspapers. "
Economic Geography , Volume hi, 1971, U98-52U.

Preston, Richard E. "Detailed Conparison of Land Use in Three
Transition Zones." Annals of the Association of .American
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Procos, Dimitri. ^iixed Land Uso, Past Record and Future Pros -
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Scotia Teclinical College, 1970.

Proudfoot, Malcolm J. "City Retail Structure." EcononLc Geo -
graphy , Volume 13, 1937, U25-l;28.



13. CPL Sscchange K.bliogi-aphy j"389

Proudfoot, Malcolm J. "Outlying Business Centers of Chicago,"
Journal of Land and Public Utility JilconomicS j Volume 13,
1937, 57-70.

Putnam, Robert G., Frank J. Taylor and Philip G. Kettle, eds.
A Geography of Urban Places; Selected Readings. Ontario:
llethuen, 1970.

Quinn, James A. "The Burgess Zonal Hypothesis and Its Critics,"
American Sociolofical Review , Volume 5, 19t|0, 210-218.

Rannels, John. The Core of the City . New York: Columbia Univ-
ersity Press, 1956.

Ratcliff, Richard U. Urban Land Economics . Hew York: McGraw
Hill, 19h9,

Ratcliff, Pi-chard U. The Madison Central Business Area: A Case
Study of Functional Change . IJisconsin: Ijisconsin Univer-
sity Press, 1953.

Reinemann, Martin W, "The Pattern and Distribution of Manufactur-
ing in the Chicago Area." Economic Geography , Volume 36,


1

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