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^HISTORY



OF THE



STATE OF NEW YO



BY



JOHN ROMEYN BRODHEAD.



FIRST VOLUME.



REVISED EDITION.



NEW YORK:

HARPER & BROTHERS, P U B L I S H E R ^5,

FRANKLIN SQUARE.

18 74.



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1871, by

John Romeyn Brodhead,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.



PREFACE.



There are four marked periods in the history of the State of
Now York. The first, opening with its discovery by the Dutch
in 1609, and closing with its seizure by the English in 1661, com-
prises also the early history of New Jersey, Delaware, and Penn-
sylvania, and, to some extent, that of Massachusetts, Rhode Isl-
and, and Connecticut. The second begins with the ascendency
of the English in 1664, and ends with the cession of Canada to
England in 1763, by which all the Northern colonies in America
became subject to the British crown. The third reaches from the
treaty of Paris in 1763, to the inauguration of Washington as
President of the United States in 1789. The fourth embraces
the annals of the state from the organization of the Federal gov -
crnment.

This volume contains a history of the first of these periods. Li
that period many of the political, religious, and social elements
of New York had their origin. It ofTers varied themes which in-
vite attention : — the savage grandeur of nature; the early adven-
ture of discovery and settlement ; the struggle with barbarism,
and the subjugation of a rude soil ; the contrast and blending of

European with American life ; the transfer of old institutions ; the

2



ii PREFACE.

intermingling of races ; the progress of commerce ; the establish-
ment of churches and schools ; the triumph of freedom of con-
science over bigotry ; the development of principles of self-govern-
ment within, and the action of encroachment and conquest from
without.

The preparation of this book has not been without much cara
and labor. Many of its materials are now employed for the first
time ; the numerous references to others show the extended re-
sources which, under the recent impulse to American historical
investigation, have been brought within reach. It is submitted
to the judgment of the public in partial execution of a purpose
contemplated for many years ; with a desire to aid in the vindi-
cation of truth ; and with a full consciousness of the importance
of the subject and of the fidelity due to the fit performance of the
work.

John Romeyn Brodhead.

yew York, November, 1852.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.
1492—1609.



CoLDMBus' Discovery, and Papal Donation of the New World to Spain, page 1 ; Cabot
and Verazzano, 2 ; Cartier and Roberval, 3 ; Frobisher, 4 ; Gilbert and Raleigh,
5 ; Virginia, 5, 6 ; Gosnold at Cape Cod, 7; Pring on Coast of Maine, 8 ; Wey-
mouth's Voyage, 9; Virginia Charter, 10; Jamestown founded, 12; Sagadahoc
Colony, 13-15; New Charter for Virginia, 15; Pont Grave and Champlain m
Canada, 16 ; De Monts and Poutrincourt at Port Royal and Saint Croix, 16, 17,
Quebec founded, 18 ; Lake Champlain discovered, 18 ; Dutch maritime Enter-
prises, 19-22 ; Dutch East India Company, 23 ; West India Company proposed.
24 ; Hudson in Holland, 24 ; Hudson sails from Amsterdam in the Half Moon,
25 ; At Penobscot, 26 ; At Cape Cod, 26 ; At the Capes of the Chesapeake, 26 ;
In Delaware Bay, 26 ; Anchors in Sandy Hook Bay, 27 ; Death of John Colman,
28 ; Hudson ascends the " River of the Mountains," 28-31 ; Descends the River,
32, 33 ; At Hoboken, 34 ; Arrives at Dartmouth, 34 ; Reports to the Dutch East
India Company, 34, 35 ; The River of the Mountains in 1609, 35-37.

CHAPTER II.

1609—1614.

The Dutch an independent Nation when Hudson made Discoveries in their Service
38^2 ; Hudson's Voyage to the North, and Death, 42, 43 ; The Half Moon returns
to Amsterdam, 43 ; Another Ship sent to Manhattan, 44 ; Christiaensen's and
Block's Voyages, 45, 46 ; Other Ships sent, 47 ; Yacht built at Manhattan, 48 -.
Virginia Affairs, 49 ; Lord Delawarr, 50 ; Never in Delaware Bay, 51 ; Argall on
the Coast of Maine, 52 ; His alleged Visit to Manhattan, 54 ; Fort Nassau built
on Castle Island, 55 ; Block explores Long Island Sound in the Yacht " Restless,"
55 ; Discovers the Housatonic and Connecticut, 56 ; Block Island, 57 ; Rhode
Island, 58 ; Pye Bay and Boston Harbor, 58 ; Returns to Holland, 59 ; Amster-
dam Trading Company formed, 60 ; Deputies sent to the Hague, 61 ; New Neth-
erland Charter of the 11th of October, 1614, 62; Its Provisions, and the Views
of the Stales General, 63, 64 ; Block in the Arctic Ocean, 65.

CHAPTER III.

1615—1620.

New Netherland Company, 66 ; Death of Christiaensen, 66, 67 ; Champlain discov-
ers Lake Huron and Lake Ontario, 68 ; At Onondaga Lake, 69 ; Onondaga Fort



. CONTENTS.

attacked, 69-71 ; Indian Tribes along the Cahohatatea, or North River, TS-*;? ;
Hendricksen explores the South or Delaware River, 78, 79 ; Returns to Holland,
79 ; New Charter for South River applied for and refused, 80 ; Fort Nassau de-
stroyed, 80 ; New Post on the Tawasentha, 81 ; The Konoshioni, or Iroquois, 82-
87; Treaty of the Tawasentha, 88; Expiration of the New Netherland Charter.
89 ; Its Renewal refused, 90 ; Smith in New England, 91 ; Dermer passes through
Long Island Sound to Virginia, 92 ; Dermer at Manhattan, 93 ; Patent for New
England, 94-96 ; Progress of Dutcli Explorations, 97.

CHAPTER IV.

1620.

Prosperity of Holland, 98 ; The Reformation in the Netherlands, 99 ; First Preach-
ins of "the Reformed," 100 ; Establishment of the Reformed Religion, 101 ; Tol-
eration of other Religions, 102 ; Calvinism of the Dutch Clergy, 103 ; The Gom-
arist and Armenian Controversy, 104, 105 ; The Remonstrants, 106 ; Maurice
and Barneveldt, 107, 108; The Synod of Dordrecht, 109, 110; Death of Bame-
veldt, 111; The Church of England, 112; The Puritans, 113, 114; Puritans
emigrate to Holland, 115; The Reformed Dutch Church, and the Church of
England, 116-119; The Puritans dissatisfied in Holland, 120; Wish to emi-
grate to America, 121 ; Their Patent from the Virginia Company, 122 ; Their
Condition in Holland, 123; They propose to go to New Netherland, 124; Memo-
rial to the Dutch Government, 125; Its Prayer refused by the States General,
126; Tlie Puritans leave Leyden, 127; Sail from Plymouth, 128; Their Desti-
nation, 129 ; The Mayflower at Cape Cod, 130 ; Compact on board the Mayflower,
131, 132; The Landing of the Pilgrims, 133.

CHAPTER V.

1621—1625.

The Dutch West India Company incorporated, 134 ; Its Powers and Duties, 135,
136 ; Its Organization delayed, 137; Private Ships sent to New Netherland, 137,
138 ; Parliament jealous of the New England Patent, 139 ; Plymouth Company
complains of the Dutch, 140 ; James claims New Netherland, and sends Instruc-
tions to Carleton at the Hague, 141 ; Carleton's Memorial to the States General,
142 ; Dutch and English Titles considered, 143, 144 ; Dutch Traders in Long Isl-
and Sound, 145; Walloons in Holland, 146, 147; The West India Company or-
ganized, 148 ; Takes Possession of New Netherland as a Province, 149 ; First
permanent agricultural Colonization, 150; Fort Orange built, 151 ; Fort Wilhel-
mus, 152; Fort Nassau, on the South River, 153; Walloons at the Waal-bogt,
154; C. J. May first Director of New Netherland, 154; Ship of D. P. de Vriea
seized at Hoorn, 155 ; Dutch Ship arrested at Plymouth, 156 ; Publications of
Wassenaar, De Laet, and Purchas, 157 ; More Colonists sent to New Nether-
land, 158 ; Cattle at Nutten Island and Manhattan, 159 ; William Verhulst suc-
ceeds May as Director, 159 ; Death of Maurice, 160 ; Of James I., 161 ; Tieaty of
Southampton, 161 ; Peter Minuit appointei' Director General of New Nether-
land, 162.



CONTENTS V

CHAPTERVI.

1626—1629.

Provincial Government under Minuit, 163; Purchase of Manhattan Island, 164;
Fort Amsterdam begun, 165 ; Murder of an Indian near the Kolck, 166 ; Descrip-
tion of Manhattan, 167; Affairs at Fort Orange, 168 ; Krieckebeeck and Barent-
sen, 169 ; Colonists removed from Fort Orange and the South River to Manhat-
tan, 170; The Puritans at New Plymouth annoyed at the commercial Superior-
ity of the Dutch, 171 ; Long Island, or Sewan-hacky, the chief Manufactory of
Wampum, 172; Correspondence between New Netherland and New Plymouth,
173-175 ; Isaac de Rasieres sent as Ambassador, 176 ; At New Plymouth, 177 ;
Describes the Puritan Settlement, 178, 179; Mutual Trade, 180; The English
Objections to the Dutch Title, 181 ; Minuit asks for Soldiers from Holland, 181 ;
Charles I. favors the Dutch Company, 182 ; The first Clergyman in New Neth-
erland, 183 ; Population of Manhattan, 183 ; Heyn captures the Spanish Silver
Fleet, 184 ; Infatuating Effect upon the West India Company, 185 ; Cost of New
Netherland, 186 ; Charter for Patroons proposed, 187 ; Progress of the Coloniza-
tion of New England, 188; Royal Charter for Massachusetts Bay, 189; Church
organized at Salem, and religious Intolerance established, 190.

CHAPTER VII.
1630—1632.
The Golden Fleece, 191 ; Dutch Towns, and the feudal System in Holland, 192,
193 ; Charter for Patroons in New Netherland, 194-197 ; Its Effects, 198 ; Char-
ter published, 199 ; Godyn and Blommaert purchase on the South River, 200 ;
Van Rensselaer buys on the North River, and begins to colonize Rensselaers-
wyck, 201 ; Pauw purchases Pavonia and Staten Island, 202 ; Jealousies among
the Directors at Amsterdam, 203 ; Patroonships shared, 204 ; Heyes sent to the
South River, 205 ; Colony established at Swaanendael, 206 ; No Dutch Colonies
on the Connecticut, 207 ; Winthrop founds Boston, 208 ; Extent of the New En-
gland Settlements, 209; Connecticut Sachem at Boston, and Winslow, of New
Plymouth, visits the Connecticut, 210 ; Lord Warwick's Grant of Connecticut,
211 ; Great Ship "New Netherland" built at Manhattan, 212; Minuit recalled,
213 ; His Ship arrested at Plymouth, and Negotiation in consequence with the
British Government, 214-216; Ship released, 217; Difficulties between the Di-
rectors of the West India Company and the Patroons, 218 ; Destruction.of Swaan-
endael by the Savages, 219 ; De Vries sails for the South River, visits the Ruins,
and makes a Peace, 219-221.

CHAPTER VIII.

1633—1637.

Woutcr van Twiller appointed Director General in Place of Minuit, 222 ; Arrives
at Manhattan, 223 ; Clergyman and Schoolmaster, and provincial Officers, 223 ;
Revenue and Expenditures, 224 ; De Vries at Fort Nassau, 225 ; Visits Govern-
or Harvey in Virginia, 226 ; Pleasant Intercourse opened, 227 ; De Vries at Man-
hattan, 228 ; En^'lish Ship sails up to Fort Orange, 229 ; Forced to return, 229 ;



yi CONTENTS.

\'au T\viller"s S-exatious Conduct, 331 ; Corssen's Purchase on the Schuylkill
232 ; Affairs on the Connecticut, 233 ; The West India Company purchases Lands
of the Savages there, 234; Commissary Van Curler completes Fort Good Hope,
235 ; Van Twillcr's Conduct toward De Vries on his Return to Holland, 236 ;
Virginia Ship and New Plymouth Pinnace at Manhattan, 237 ; Massachusetts
retuses to join New Plymouth in occupying Connecticut, 238 ; John Oldham's
overland Journey, 239 ; Winthrop claims Connecticut, and Van Twiller replies,
239, 240 ; New Plymouth Expedition to the Connecticut, 240 ; Dutch Protest
asainst the Settlers at Windsor, 241 ; Treaty between Massachusetts and the
Pequods, 242 ; Affairs at Manhattan, 243 ; Pavonia, Fort Nassau, Fort Orange,
and Renssclaerswyck, 244 ; Van Twiller and Domine Bogardus, 245 ; English
Complaints against the West India Company, and their Answer, 245, 246;
Lubbertus van Dincklagen appointed Schout of New Netherland, 247 ; Difficul-
ties between the Patroons and the Directors, 247, 248 ; Sun-ender of Swaanen-
dael to the Company, 249 ; Clayborne's Explorations, 250 ; Motives for the Em-
icration of Roman Catholics from England, 251 ; Lord Baltimore's Patent for
Maryland, 252 ; Saint Mary's founded, 253 ; Harvey deposed and sent to En-
gland, 254 ; Fort Nassau seized by a Virginian Party, 254 ; Retaken by the
Dutch, and the English Prisoners sent back to Virginia, 255 ; Emigration from
Massachusetts to Connecticut, 256 ; English Plantation Board, 257 ; Its Jealousy
of the New England Colonists, 258 ; Long Island conveyed to Lord Stirling, 259 ;
The New England Patent surrendered, and the younger Winthrop appointed
Governor of Connecticut, 259, 260 ; The Dutch Arms torn down at the Kievit's
Hook, 260 ; Lion Gardiner at Saybrook, 261 ; William Pynchon at Springfield,
261 ; True European Title to Long Island and Connecticut, 262 ; Domestic Af-
fairs at Manhattan and Pavonia, 263, 264 ; Lands taken up on Staten Island and
Long Island, 265 ; Van Dincklagen sent back to Holland, 266 ; Beverwyck and
Renssclaerswyck, 266, 267 ; Van Twiller's private Purchases, 267 ; Bronck's
Purchase in West Chester, 268 ; Quotenis, in Narragansett Bay, and Dutchman's
Island at the Pequod River, 268 ; Traffic with New England, 269 ; The Pequod
War, 269-272 ; Complaints in Holland against Van Twiller and Bogardus, 273 ;
William Kieft appointed Director General in Place of Van Twiller, 274.

CHAPTER IX.

1638—1641.

Arrival of Kieft at Manhattan, 275 ; Condition of Affairs there, 276 ; New Regula-
tions, 277 ; Domine Bogardus retained, 278 ; Rensselaerswyck, Pavonia, and
Long Island, 279 ; Jansen Commissary on the South River, 279 ; Swedish West
India Company, 280 ; Minuit sails from Sweden, and anchors at Jamestown, 281 ;
Arrives in the South River, and purchases Land, 282; Kieft protests against
him, 283 ; Minuit builds Fort Christina, 284 ; Swedish Ship seized in Holland,
284 ; The States General inquire into the Condition of New Netherland, 285 ;
New Articles proposed by the Company, 286 ; By the Patroons, 287 ; Proclama-
tion of freer Trade, 288; Its Effects, 288, 289; De Vries, Kuyter, and Melyn.
289 ; Strangers attracted from New England and Virginia, 290 ; Captain John
Underbill, 291 ; Obligations and Privileges of foreign Settlors in New Netherland,
201 ; Grants of Land near Coney Island, Breuckelen, and Deutel Bay, 292; Do



CONTE^TS. yjj

mestic Administration, 292 ; Tribute proposed to be exacted from the Savages.
293; New Haven, Stratford, Greenwich, and Hartford, 294; Aggressions of the
Hartford People, 295 ; The Dutch purchase West Chester Lands, 296 ; James
Farrett, Lord Stirling's Agent for Long Island, 297 ; Lion Gardiner at Gardiner's
Island, 298 ; English Intruders at Schout's Bay dislodged, 299 ; Southamptor
and Southold settled, 300 ; De Vries goes up to Fort Orange, 301, 302 ; Affairs
at Beverwyck and Ilensselaerswyck, 303-305 ; The Cohooes, 306 ; De Vries'
Opinion of the North River, 307 ; Difficulties with the Savages, 307-309 ; The
Dutch ordered to arm, 309 ; Expedition against the Raritans, 310 ; The Tappans
refuse to pay Tribute, 310; New Charter for Patroons, 311; The Refonned
Dutch Church established in New Netherland, 312 ; Vriesendael, Hackinsack
and Staten Island, 313 ; Provincial Currency regulated, and Fairs established,
314 ; The Raritans attack Staten Island, 315 ; Smits murdered at Deutel Bay,
316 ; The " Twelve Men" appointed, 317 ; Kieft urges War, 318 ; The Twelve
Men oppose and avert Hostilities, 319; Swedes on the South River, 319; De
Bogaerdt, Powelson, and Hollaendare, 320 ; Death of Minuit, 321 ; Lamberton
and Cogswell's Expedition from New Haven to the Varken's Kill and the Schuyl-
kill, 321, 322 ; Vexatious Conduct of the Hartford People, 322 ; Delegates sent
to England from Massachusetts and Connecticut, 323 ; Hugh Peters commission-
ed to treat with the West India Company, 324 ; Sir William Boswell's Advice to
crowd out the Dutch, 324.

CHAPTER X.

1642—1643.

The Twelve Men again convoked, 325 ; They demand Reforms, 326, 327 ; KieJt ^
Concessions, 328 ; Dissolves the Board of Twelve Men, 329 ; Expedition against
the Weckquaesgeeks, and Treaty at the Bronx River, 330 ; Greenwich submits to
the Dutch, 331 ; Roger Williams founds Rhode Island, 332 ; Emigrations from
Massachusetts to New Netherland, 333 ; Doughty 's Patent for Mespath, 333 ,
Throgmorton at Vredeland, 334 ; Anne Hutchinson at " Annie's Hoeck," 334 ;
Strangers at Manhattan, 335 ; City Hotel for Travellers, 335 ; New Church at
Manhattan, 336, 337 ; George Baxter appointed English Secretary, 337 ; Neu
Haven Settlements on the South River broken up, 338 ; The Hartford Peopk-
and the Dutch, 339 ; Threats in England against the Dutch, 340 ; Beginning of
the Civil War in England, 341 ; Van der Donck, Schout Fiscal of Rensselacrs-
wyck, 341 ; Domine Megapolensis, 342 ; Church at Beverwyck, 343 ; The Jes-
uits in Canada, 344; Father Jogues captured by the Mohawks, 345 ; Benevolent
Efforts of Van Curler, 346 ; Van Voorst murdered by an Indian at Hackinsack
347 ; The Savages offer an Atonement, 348 ; Kieft demands the Murderer, 348 ;
The Mohawks attack the River Indians, 349 ; Public Opinion at Manhattan, 349
Kieft resolves on War, 350 ; Warned in vain against his Rashness, 351 ; Mas.
sacres at Pavonia and Corlaer's Hook, 352 ; The Long Island Indians attaokeo,
353 ; The Savages aroused to Vengeance, 354 ; Vriesendael invested, 355 ; Pop-
ular Indignation against Kieft, and Proclamation of a Day of fasting, 356 ; Prop-
osition to depose Kieft, 356 ; Adriaensen and the Director, 357 ; De Vries anci
Olfertsen at Rockaway, 358; Treaty with the Savagos, 359; The Indians stili
discontented, 360.



Viii CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XI.

1643—1644.

The United Colonies of New England, 361 ; Kieft addresses the Commissioners,
362 ; Their Reply, 363 ; Murder of Miantonomoh, 364 ; The North River Sav-
ages attack a Dutch Boat, 364 ; The Commonalty convoked, 364 ; " Eight Men"
chosen, 365 ; Warlike Measures authorized, 365 ; English enrolled, and Under-
hill taken into the Dutch Service, 366 ; Annie's Hook and Vredeland destroyed,
366 ; Lady Moody's Settlement at Gravesend attacked, 367 ; Settlers driven
away from Mespath, 367 ; Hackinsack attacked, and Pavonia surprised, 368 ;
Alarm at Manhattan, 369 ; The Eight Men again convoked, 370 ; Application to
New Haven for Aid, and its Result, 370 ; De Vries' parting Prophecy, 371 ; Let-
ter of the Eight Men to the West India Company, 371 ; To the States General,
372 ; Father Jogues at Manhattan, 373 ; Describes its Condition, 374 ; Sails for
Europe, 374 ; Church at Beverwyck, 374 ; Missionary zeal of Megapolensis, 375 ;
Mercantile Policy of Patroon of Rensselaerswyck, 376 ; Van der Donck's Con-
duct, 377 ; Attempts to form a Settlement at Katskill, and is prevented, 378 ;
John Printz appointed Governor of New Sweden, 378 ; Arrives at Fort Christina,
and builds Fort New Gottenburg, 379 ; De Vries at the South River, 380 ; Plow-
den's Claim to New Albion disregarded by Printz and Kieft, 381 ; Lamberton ar-
rested by Printz, 382 ; Exploring Expedition from Boston to the South River,
383 ; Failure of the Boston Enterprises; 384 ; The Dutch and the Swedes oppose
the English on the South River, 385 ; Expeditions sent to Staten Island and
Greenwich, 386 ; Captain Patrick murdered, 387 ; Expedition against the Weck-
quaesgeeks, 387 ; Stamford People settle at Heemstede, 387 ; Patent for Heem-
stede, 388 ; Hostility of the Indians, and Expedition sent to Heemstede, 389 ;
Atrocities at Manhattan, 389 ; Soldiers supplied from private Ship at Manhattan,

390 ; Underhill's Expedition to Stamford, 390, 391 ; Thanksgiving at Manhattan,

391 ; Peace with West Chester and Long Island Tribes, 392 ; Fence built at
Manhattan, 392 ; Hostility of the River Tribes, 393 ; Bankruptcy of the West
India Company, 393 ; The Eight Men oppose an Excise, 393 ; Kieft's arbitrary
Imposition, 394 ; Excise enforced, and the Brewers refuse to pay, 395 ; The Peo-
ple side with the Brewers, 396 ; Kieft's Misconduct, 396 ; Expedition to the North,
397 ; Memorial of the Eight Men to the West India Company, 398-400 ; Staple
Right claimed for Rensselaer's Stein, 400 ; Koorn and Loockermans, 401 ; Koorn
summoned to Manhattan, fined, and protests, 401 ; Father Bressani captured by
the Mohawks, and ransomed by the Dutch, 402 ; Affairs of New Netherland con-
sidered in Holland, 403 ; Provisional Appointment of Van Dincklagen to succeed
Kieft, 404 ; Report of the Company's Bureau of Accounts, 404-406.

CHAPTER XII.
1645—1647.
End of the Indian War, 407 ; Treaty at Fort Orange, 408 ; General Treaty at Fort
Amsterdam, 409 ; Condition of New Netherland, 410 ; Lands purchased on Long
Island, 410; Settlement of Vlissingen, or Flushing, 410 ; Doughty at Mespath,
411 ; Lady Moody's Patent for Gravesande, or Gravesend, 411 ; Mineral Discov-
eries near Fort Orange and among the Raritans, 412 ; Arendt Corssen sent tc



CONTENTS. ix

IloUanil, and lost on the Way, 412, 413 ; Action of the West India Company re-
specting New Netherland, 413; Peter Stuyvesant — His early Life, 413; Ap-
pointed Director in Place of Kieft, and Van Dincklagen Vice Director, 414 ; In-
structions for the Provincial Council, 414, 415 ; New Arrangements, and Stuy-
vesant's Departure postponed, 416 ; Kieft denies the Right of Appeal to Holland,
417; Denounced by the People, and reproved by Bogardus, 417; Quarrel be-
tween the Director and the Domine, 418 ; Restoration of Anne Hutchinson's
Grand-daughter, 419 ; Van Curler and Van der Donck, 419 ; Death of Kiliaen
Van Rensselaer, and Appointment of Van Slechtenhorst as Director of Rensse-
laerswyck, 420 ; Van der Donck's Patent for Colendonck or Yonkers, 421 ; Van
Slyck's Patent for Katskill, 421 ; Breuckelen incorporated, 422 ; Father Jogues
visits Andiatarocte, and names it " Lac du Saint Sacrement," 422 ; Murder of
Jogues by the Mohawks, 423 ; Hudde Commissary on the South River, 424 ;
Negotiates with Printz, 425 ; Purchases the Site of Philadelphia, 426 ; Discourt-
eous Conduct of Printz, 427 ; New Haven Trading-post on the Paugussett, 428 ;
Kieft protests, and negotiates with Eaton, 428 ; With the Commissioners, 429,
430 ; Instructions of the West India Company, 431 ; Stu3rvesant commissioned as
Director, and sworn, 432 ; Sails from the Texel, 433 ; Arrives at Manhattan, 433.

CHAPTER XIII.

1647—1648.

Death of Frederick Henry the Stadtholder, 434 ; Treaty of Munster, and General
Peace of Westphalia, 435 ; The House of Burgundy, 436 ; Great Charter of Hol-
land, 437 ; Charles V. and Philip II., 437, 438 ; The Reformation in Friesland
and Holland, 438 ; Action of the Spanish Government, 439 ; Alliance of the No-
bles, and Origin of the " Gueux," 440 ; Iconoclasts, 441 ; Alva in the Nether-
lands, 441 ; Council of Blood, and Execution of Egmont and Hoorn, 441 ; Cap-
ture of the Brielle, 442 ; The People refuse to pay Alva's Taxes, 442 ; Haerlem
and Alckmaer besieged, 442 ; Defense of Leyden, and Foundation of its Univers-
ity, 443; Pacification of Ghent, 444; The Union of Utrecht, 445; Dutch Decla-
ration of Independence, 446 ; The Dutch a self-governing People, 447 ; Their re-
publican System of Administration, 448 ; The States General, 449 ; Council of
State, Chamber of Accounts, Stadtholder, and Admiralty, 450 ; The Province of
Holland, 451 ; Industrial and democratic Spirit of the Dutch, 452 ; Municipal
Governments of Holland, 453 ; Effects of the Dutch System, 454 ; Doctrine of
State Rights, 455 ; Social and political Results, 455, 456 ; Prosperity of the
Dutch, 456 ; Extensive Commerce, 457 ; Free Trade ; Universal Toleration, 458 ;
Foreigners attracted ; Freedom of the Dutch Press, 469 ; Illustrious Men and
Artists of the Netherlands, 460 ; Party Spirit ; the Hoeks and Kabbeljaus, 461 ;
Economy and Frugality ; Hospitality and Benevolence, 462 ; Establishment of
free Schools, 462 ; Influence of Women, 463 ; Honesty of the Dutch, 463 ; Their
Firmness and Patriotism, 464.

CHAPTER XIV.

1647—1648.

C nimrnccment of Stuyvcsant's Administration, 465 ; Organization of his Coin -
cil. 466 ; Police and Revenue Regulations, 466, 467 ; Church in Fort Amstrr-



X CONTENTS.

dam, 467 ; Domine Backerus succeeds Bogardus, 468 ; Complaints against Kieft,
468 , Dismissed by Stuyvesant, 469 ; Kujter and Melyn accused by Kieft, 470 ;
Convicted and sentenced, 471 ; Right of Appeal again denied, 472 ; Shipwreck
of the Princess, and Death of Kieft, Bogardus, and others, 472 ; Escape of Kuy-
ter and Melyn, 473 ; Stuj-vesant's Concessions to the People, 474 ; The " Nine
Men," 474 ; Their Duties and Oath of Office, 475 ; Their Action on Stuyvesant's
Arst Communication, 476 ; Forrester, Lady Stirling's Agent, arrested and ban-
ished, 477 ; Correspondence with New England, 478 ; Stuyvesant seizes a Ship



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