John S. C. (John Stevens Cabot) Abbott.

An address to the Christian public, especially to the ministers and members of the Presbyterian, Reformed Dutch, and Congregational churches, throughout the United States : on the subject of the proposed union between the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions and the United Foreign Mi online

. (page 19 of 31)
Online LibraryJohn S. C. (John Stevens Cabot) AbbottAn address to the Christian public, especially to the ministers and members of the Presbyterian, Reformed Dutch, and Congregational churches, throughout the United States : on the subject of the proposed union between the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions and the United Foreign Mi → online text (page 19 of 31)
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North German Missionary Society, .



Total of European Societies,
Grand total, ,



173
65

3

6

3?
15
13

5
13
48
30
40
40.>

4

3

3



186
122
198
68?

8

8?
28
82?

4?

3?
28?

3?

4

6
164?
51
23
31
12
11?
15?

3

1?

6?
12



1,075



1,538



0) o



228
135
216
75?
9



164
69

36?

17?

7?
18?






104?
5



208
38?



246

27?



44
112?
13



2,100
950



27,740



1,493
326



18,560
18,221
80,307



611
1,500



20,193
1,212



1,741

3,229?



603

157?

457

1,453?

1,261

633



25,156
33,977
92,912



9,696



2,342
8,290



$350,915
211,968



25,035

99,476
t84,000?

102,140
39,824
4,013
1,952



£ 161,376
93,431
129,076
26,513
4,464
8,254
16,028



20,448



1,994
! 18,000?



* The receipts of the Association for its last reported year, irere $50,513, for all its missions. Foreign and Home.

t The receipts of the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church are for all missionary purposes, Foreign and Domestic, no distinction being made. It
cannot be said, therefore, with perfect accuracy, what is the income for Foreign Missions.

_ J The reports of this Society do not distinguish, in its missions among the North American Indians, between missionaries from the United States and ordained
natives. Seventeen of its missionaries in Africa are colored " colonists."

5 Most of the operations of this Society ■
the unevangelized.



among Englisb^ colonists, and there are no means of knowing fully how many of its 406 missionaries are laboring for



VIEW OF MISSIONS IN DIFFERENT PORTIONS (F THE FOREIGN FIELD.



SOdETIES.



AiTBEiCA^T Societies.

American Board,

Preebjterian Board, (including Reformed Preabyteri

Associate Presbrterianf,

Associate Eeformed Presbyteriang, .' '



Scotia Presbyter! ,

Eeformed Dutch Bc^rd, .' [
American Evangelical Lutherans, .
Episcopal Board, . . . ,
Methodist Episcopal Board, .
Southern Methodists,
Baptist Missionary Union,
Southern Baptists, . . , .
Free Will Baptists,
Seventh-day Baptist*,
Baptist Free Mission Society, .
American Missionary Association, .



Total,



Ei-ROPEAN Societies,



Eng'lish Church Missionarj- Society,

London Missionary Society, .

Wesleyan Missionary Society,

Baptist Missionary bociety,* . ,

General Baptisu, ....

Church of Scotland, . ,

Free Church of Scotland,

Society for the Propag:ation ot the GospeL

Irish Prefbyterians,

Eng^liah Preabjttrians, ,

Cnited Presbyterians of Scotland, .

Covenanters,

Welsh Presbyterians and Calvinistic Methodists
English Chinese Evangelization Society,
Moravians, , . . . . '
Basle Missionary Society,
Hhenisb Hissionar}' Soaety, .
French Evangelical Missionary Society,
Lcipsic Missionary Society, ,
Berlin Miiiionary Society,
Berlin Missionary Cnion,
Norwegian Missionaiy Society,
Oosner's Missionar}- 8<x:iety, .
>*onh German Missionary Society,

Total of European 8ocietie«, .

Grand total, ....



Western Asia,

and European

Turkey and

Greecci



India, Burmah, and Ceylon.



1,571



1,213



7,176

2,258
1,265



8,871



921
2,111



Islands of the Pacific.



20,231



5,834
7,613
15,136



North Ameri-



• There are other fnisstonarict in Boutfaeattcm Asia AnA *h* Brf!a#.on» i i ^ fm. » ~

«. ^«t f<rty.U,r« in tb. I«li.n Archipelago, ^^tl,- eonnecl^d SL Nnb^JruI^Mh^^Kl^^^^^ IocTS"^ ""■■ '"''■''"'"' """'' "■" ""''' *"* '^' Mi'''""")- Aseociation



1,030
3,869
1,624
2,550



1,458



West India

Islands and

adjoining

coaats.



4,697
46,565
8,S22



, in Siam, and there



19



The following tables, in connection with one already given (page 12) of
the receipts of the American Board, will serve to indicate, in some measure,
the progress which is being made in missionary effort by some branches of
the Christian church. The receipts of the two English societies, it will be
noticed, are given in pounds sterling, and must be multiplied by five to
reduce them to dollars.

Receipts of the General Assembly's Board of Foreign Missions.'^

Periods. Av. Annual Beceipts.



^100,898 50,449



230,453 57,613



297,925 74,481



398,668 99,667



520,013 130,003



643,969 160,992

* The grants of Bible and Tract Societies, and appropriations from the United States Govern-
ment for Indian missions, have been deducted.

t For two years only.



Year.


Beceipts.


1838,
1839,


$44,748
56,150


1840,
1841,
1842,
1843,


54,425
62,344
58,924
54,760


1844,
1845,
1846,
1847,


66,674
72,117
76,395
82,739


3848,
1849,
1850,
1851,


89,165

96,294

104,665

108,544


1852,
1853,
1854,
1855,


117,882
122,615
140,719
138,797


1856,
1857,

1858,
1859,


145,202
158,189
179,210
161,368



20

Receipts of the Church Missionary Society, England.



Tear.

1836,
1837,

1838,
1839,
1840,
1841,
1842,
1843,
1844,
1845,
1846,
1847,
1848,
1849,
1850,
1851,
1852,
1853,
1854,
1855,
1856,
1857,
1858,
1859,



Tear.

1836,
1837,
1838,
1839,
1840,
1841,
1842,
1843,
1844,
1845,
1846,
1847,
1848,
1849,
1850,
1851,
1852,
1853,
1854,
1855,
1856,
1857,
1858,
1859,



Receipts.


Periods. Av.


Annual Eeceipts.


£ 70,465






74,731






91,723






QK c^r\K


-332 424


£ 83,106


104,304


^(JtJ^ J Tt/***


101,576






113,263






111,875 —


-431,018


107,754


103,661






102,495






105,059






119,410 —


-430,625


107,456


115,012






101,003






94,401






101,554 —


-411,970


102,992


118,674






120,932






123,915






124,260 —


-487,781


121,945


127,782






136,000






164,484






161,376—


-589,642


147,410


' the London Missionary Society.




Receipts.


Periods. Av.


, Annual Receipts,


£ 63,714






71,335






84,821






80,321—


-300,191


£ 75,047


94,954






96,771






91,795






93,947_


-377,467


94,366


89,124






90,715






82,991






81,183—


-344,013


86,003


87,925






67,563






64,642






72,292—


-292,422


73,105


72,778






71,821






76,781






59,665—


-281,045


70,261


82,331






67,277






84,150






93,431_


-327,189


81,797



^^



Jimcntan Soarl^ of tamissioiters tax imi^v, 'Bimm,



MISSIONARY SCHOOLS,

1861.



The design of this Tract is to give a brief account of the
Schools in connection with the Missions of the American Board
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Such a tract has been
called for by many friends and supporters of the cause, who
feel the need of authentic information on the subject. A
Tract was issued some two and twenty years ago, designed
to counteract unreasonable prejudices against such schools.
Though now out of print, and perhaps not called for in its
original form, its doctrines are believed to have stood the test
of experience.

I. The Common Schools.

It results from the nature of the missionary enterprise, that
common schools have usually been most numerous and promi-
nent in the introductory stages of a mission. They are a part
of the machinery which is most easily put in motion; and
where heathen teachers could be had, as in India, schools could
be instituted at once and with little opposition.

The Sandwich Islands Mission was instituted in the year
1820 ; and it is a singular fact, that the greatest number of
pupils reported in connection with it was before the year 1837.
The number of pupils in the years 1830, 1831, and 1832,
(omitting fractions,) was, for those years respectively, 39,000,
45,000, and 53,000. Learning to read was easy with their
simple alphabet; and the greater portion of the pupils were
adults, who attended as their ordinary occupations Avould per-
mit. The teachers were from among the people, and gained
their knowledge by spending a few months at the station
schools, under the immediate superintendence of the mission-
aries. The number of these teachers in 1831 was nine hundred.
Their qualifications were extremely moderate, and after 1832



the schools declined rapidly, for want of teachers able to
instruct beyond the mere rudiments. Yet more than a fourth
part of the 85,000 Hawaiians had learned to read the word of
God ; and some in every place had learned to write, and to use
the elementary principles of arithmetic. The cheapness of this
instruction was wonderful. Not a dozen of the teachers were
paid anything by the mission. The supply of books was almost
the only expense, and even these were not distributed gratu-
itously ; though, for want of a circulating medium, the people
could pay for them only with products of the Islands, or by
their labor. A re-organization became at length indispensable,
and a school was commenced for the education of teachers.
The number of pupils reported in the common schools at the
Sandwich Islands in 1837, was little more than two thousand.
The greater part of these were probably children. The number
had risen in 1843 to 18,700 — a larger number than has been
since reported. Four years later, the Hawaiian Government
assumed the entire support of these schools, including the wages
of the teachers ; and its annual expenditure, for all the branches
of native education, has been some thirty thousand dollars. The
Island Government has also given ten thousand dollars towards
the endowment of the ' Oahu College,' now an independent in-
stitution, which the Board commenced for the children of mis-
sionaries, at Punahou, near Honolulu. Aside from a portion of
the expenses of the College, until it shall have completed its
endowment, the only charge for education at the Islands, now
resting on the American Board, is for a select school on the
island of Hawaii, and for another on the island of Kauai.

The oldest mission under the care of the Board is the one
among the Mahrattas of Western India. It was instituted in
1813. The schools reached their numerical meridian here as
long ago as 1831, when the pupils were 1,940. They were
saved from the influence of the great commercial crisis of 1837,
so disastrous in Ceylon, by means of a generous contribution of
$2,500 from English residents in that part of India. The pupils
in 1842 were not half as many as in 1832. Schools must needs
decline if they have not competent, faithful masters. This has
been a standing difficulty with mission schools. The results,
where heathen masters are employed, though it be with Chris-
tian books and under missionary superintendence, have not been
all that was expected. The assembled members of the Mah-
ratta missions, in the year 1854, after stating that at least ten
thousand pupils had been connected with the schools from the
beginning, made the following statement : "We cannot point to
a single case of conversion from among all this number. A
rvw instances of conversion have occurred among the superin-



8

tendents and teachers of these schools, and these men are
among our most valuable helpers at the present time. We
occasionally meet with those who were formerly pupils in these
schools, while preaching in the villages. Often such persons
are interested and attentive hearers, and often they are among
the abusers of us and our work. The result seems to show,
that these schools have failed of accomplishing, except to a very
slight extent, what was hoped from their establishment, in the
way of influencing the people, and gaining them over to the
truth. From this result follows, as a general rule, the inexpe-
diency of employing heathen teachers in common schools.
The main ground upon which such schools are urged at present
is, that they are a means of communicating with the people,
of forming some kind of connection with them, of getting a
congregation. It is probable, however, that in most cases,
the missionary can secure a hearing for his message without
the aid of such schools." Yet the missionaries say : " The
objections which are felt to the employment of heathens as
teachers of common schools, would not lie against the employ-
ment of Christians. We have much to hope from such efforts,
where a decided Christian influence is exerted upon the chil-
dren, and upon all connected with them. The experiment is
but a recent one in any of our stations. In the case of schools
for Mahar children at Ahmednuggur, they are exerting a decided
influence in favor of Christianity, not only by dii'ect teaching,
but by bringing persons, old and young, to listen to the preached
word on the Sabbath. If teachers can be obtained for these
labors, and funds supplied, we think such schools would be of
service at all our stations." — The Prudential Committee voted
in the year 1851, three years before sending a deputation to
India, that "they deemed it their duty no longer to make
appropriations for day-schools taught by heathen masters, except
in existing cases of rare peculiarity."

The Ceylon mission was commenced in 1816, and soon went
largely into schools. At the end of twenty years there were
5,790 pupils, and in 1837 there were 6,035. The commercial
disasters of that year obliged the mission to dismiss five thou-
sand. In each of the three following years, the pupils were
less than two thousand. From 1841 to 1854, the average was
about 3,700, including the station-schools for teaching the
English language.

The deputation visited Ceylon in 1855, and the changes then
agreed upon by the mission took effect in the following year.
The Prudential Committee, in their Report to the Board for
that year, speak thus of the changes as affecting the free schools:
^' It will be seen, that there was an increase in the ajppropriations



for the free or village schools in 1856. In the reconstruction of
the system, each missionary stated how many schools he de-
sired to have in his district for the children of Christians, and
how many for heathen children, with Christian masters. The
number of the former was twenty, and of the latter twenty-one ;
in all forty-one. This was a less number of free schools than
had been on the list the previous year, but was estimated to
cost more, because the station schools for the English language
being discontinued, it would become possible, as it was desira-
ble, to obtain better masters, who would of course expect higher
wages. These schools were to take the place of some sixty or
seventy of the old free schools, of several girls' schools which
had been long kept together chiefly by means of small presents
of clothes, and of the English schools at the several stations.
The cloth-presents were to be discontinued, having not been
found useful on the whole, after near forty years of trial ;
though it may be expedient, for a time, to give slight rewards
for good behavior and regular attendance. The English schools
were supported chiefly by a Government grant of £200, which
was respectfully declined, so far as the support of those schools
was concerned. There is such a redimdant population in Jafi"na,
and so much native tendency to acquire the English language
as a means of securing government, commercial, or plantation
employment, beyond the confines of our own mission field, that
some time must elapse, and many difficulties be encountered,
before the parochial and village vernacular schools will attain
their proper rank and influence. But so far as this motive and
tendency shall have the efiect to lead the natives, no longer
furnished with English schools by the mission, to sustain such
schools themselves, and thus acquire habits of enterprise and
self-reliance, good will arise. The Committee have been glad
to hear of such a school existing at Batticotta, supported by the
people, and taught by a former teacher in the Batticotta Sem-
inary, of approved piety, who conducts his school on Christian
principles. The necessity for self-support, especially in all
matters affecting their temporal interests, is one it is exceed-
ingly important to throw upon the native Christians without
reserve or delay." — The iiumber of free schools was then 55,
and of pupils 2,017, of whom 503 were females. This was as
many as the mission, with its other cares and duties, felt able
to superintend efficiently.

A report on the common schools of the Ceylon mission,
drawn ;up in 1855, by the Rev. B. C. Meigs, one of the first
band of missionaries, and adopted by the mission, speaks with
much discrimination and judgment concerning this class of
schools. That report says : " As to the question whether these
schools have answered our expectations, in promoting the grand



object of the mission, we would say, that if we reasonably
expected, as the result of teaching these children, that a great
many souls would be actually converted in youth, we must
answer the question in the negative. Again, if Ave reasonably
expected that stated congregations of adults would be gathered,
as a result of teaching these children, and collecting them
together on the Sabbath in churches and at our school bunga-
lows, the answer must also be in the negative. The people do
indeed assemble, m considerable numbers and with considerable
regularity, in many of our school bungalows. But it is not
clear that it is principally because the children are taught in
them ; for the people in many instances assemble readily in
many other places.

" It should be here stated," continues Mr. Meigs's report,
'^ that these schools are not as valuable as they were formerly ;
principally because the children do not remain so long in the
school as they were accustomed to do many years ago. This
is owing to the fact, that their parents demand their services in
their fields and gardens at an early age. Hence we have a
succession of little children in our schools, who cannot, from
the nature of the case, be expected to receive as much benefit
as those who are older. Formerly, in many of our schools,
there were pupils sufficiently advanced in their studies to be
formed into Bible-classes, and to be taught by the missionary at
the station, with great pleasure and profit. Tracts were also
given out to them, to be carefully read during the week. At
the next meeting, they were able to give a good account of the
contents of these tracts."

Again: ''We shall in future employ none but Christian
teachers. We shall turn our attention more to the children of
our church-members, and to the children of those who join our
congregations. We propose also to have a few schools for
heathen children taught by Christian teachers ; but the instruc-
tion given in all these schools is to be only in the Tamil lan-
guage. Our great object should be to have a few schools of
such a character that the children of our church-members may
receive a good education at home, so as to fit them for useful-
ness in their own villages, and to become suitable agents to
assist in spreading the gospel among the people. From these
schools, also, selections may be made of such youths as show
themselves worthy to be sent to Batticotta and Oodooville, to
complete their education, and to qualify them for a sphere of
greater usefulness."

The Madura was an off'-shoot of the Ceylon mission, and
came into existence in 1834. Before the common ^schools of
this mission contained five hundred pupils, those in Ceylon had



6

nearly five thousand. The highest number of pupils in the
schools was in 1846, at the end of twelve years ; and the period
of greatest numerical prosperity was between 1838 and 1849.
From that time to the arrival of the deputation, in 1855, the
average number of pupils was 1,200; and in 1860, five years
after their visit, the common schools of the mission contained
1,100 pupils ; which was as great a mimber as there was ten
years before, and as many as the mission deemed expedient,
until there should be a greater number of competent school-
masters. To provide such, and to give the schools a greater
value, the Prudential Committee resolved, some months since,
upon opening a normal school department in connection with
the Mission Seminary at Pasumalie, near the city of Madura.*

The whole number of pupils connected with the Mahratta
schools from the beginning, is estimated to have been 12,000 ;
and the whole number in the Madura schools, 25,000. In
Ceylon, the number from the first is reckoned at 33,000. Add
to these all the pupils taught in the Madras mission, and in
the Arcot mission while connected with the Board, and the
number taught in the India Common Schools, up to the year
1860, cannot have fallen short of 75,000.

In China, the ability to read among the males is so extensive,
and there is yet so little access to the females, that no great
progress has been made in establishing missionary schools.
But such schools have been among the prominent efforts to re-
claim the Indian tribes of North America. For a long course
of years, the pupils numbered from six to eight hundred, but
with a sensible decline since 1856. An inspection of the table
of common schools in the missions of Western Asia will show

* The Report of the Madura mission for the year 1860, contains the following
statement :

"In the early history of the mission, a very extended system of schools was
established, and sustained at a heavy expense. There were free schools for the
heathen, generally with heathen masters ; boarding schools at different stations ;
and an English school in Madura. The change which has been made in our
plans will best be indicated by stating briefly our present arrangements.

"1. We have village schools for the Christians wherever ten Christian chil-
dren can be found to attend. Into these schools, heathen children are freely
admitted.

"2. Day schools at the station centres, whether there are ten Christian chil-
dren or not, into which heathen children are freely admitted, and often form
the majority. These schools are generally under the superintendence of the
missionary ladies.

"3. A female boarding school in Madura, intended to raise up wives for the
pastors and mission helpers, and the intelligent lay members of the church, and
to a limited extent, to supply teachers for our village and station schools.

"4. A seminary, intended for the education of pastors, catechists and teach-
ers. For the latter, we hope to establish a normal school department, with a
model school, &c., accompanying it.

"5. Instruction is to be given only by Christian teachers.

•'6. Instruction only in the vernacular."



that the number of pupils, on the whole, has increased to the
present time — from 600, in 1837, to 1,695 in 1852, and to 5,537
ill 1860. The reason of this may be, that the schools among
the Armenians have been mainly restricted to the children of
Protestants and of those inclined to that faith, and so have
grown with the progress of the reformation.

Taking a general view of common school education in the
missions, the highest number of pupils was in the year 1832,
when it was 60,000 ; of whom 53,000 were at the Sandwich
Islands, and 5,500 in the Ceylon and Mahratta missions. The
smallest rmmlDer was in 1837, when it was 12,000. The
largest subsequent number was 29,830, and this was in 1846.
At present there are 18,000, including the free schools supported
by the Government of the Sandwich Islands. The whole
number connected with the common schools from the begin-
ning, is believed to have exceeded two hundred thousand.

II. The Higher Schools.

A brief general view will now be given of the efforts of the
Board in the higher departments of education. The higher
schools, for the most part, have been boarding-schools. Most
of the earlier pupils in the Ceylon boarding-schools (which
were in operation some twenty years before those of any ether
of the missions of the Board beyond sea) were heathen youths.
The object of these schools, as well as of the similar early
boarding-schools in the Mahratta and Madura missions, was
two-fold ; first, the conversion of the pupils, and secondly, the
procuring of native helpers. As Xhc. missions passed beyond
their introductory stages, there was an increase in the demand
for native Christian helpers, and also in the power of selection,
and the higher schools were progressively modified, becoming
more and more of the nature of training institutions — for school-
masters, catechists, preachers and pastors. The exigencies of
the work and the state of the funds both required this. The
change, however, was progressive, rendering the schools more
directly, exclusively and effectively missionary institutions.

The earlier boarding-schools were composed of small boys,



Online LibraryJohn S. C. (John Stevens Cabot) AbbottAn address to the Christian public, especially to the ministers and members of the Presbyterian, Reformed Dutch, and Congregational churches, throughout the United States : on the subject of the proposed union between the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions and the United Foreign Mi → online text (page 19 of 31)