John S. C. (John Stevens Cabot) Abbott.

Austria, its rise and present power online

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LIBRARY

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

SANTA BARBARA



FROM THE LIBRARY
OF F. VON BOSCHAN





1



^' /l.^VAjn^ t^L,






L. KOSSUTH




Austria^ Frontispiece.



AUSTRIA



!TS



RISE AND PRESENT POWER

BY

JOHN S. C. ABBOTT

WITH A SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER OF RECENT EVENTS

By WILFRED C. LAY, Ph.D.



ILLUSTRATED




NEW YORK

PETER FENELON COLLIER & SON

MCM






Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1858, by

MASON BROTHERS.

to Wie Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New Torlt-

COPTRIGHT, 1877,

BY ESTATE OF .JOHN S. C. ABBOTT.



OOPYBIGHT BY DODD, MEAD, AND COMPANY, 1882-



PREFACE.

The studies of the author of this work, for the last ten
years, in writing the " History of Napoleon Bonaparte," and
" The French Revolution of 1789," have necessarily made
him quite familiar with the monarchies of Europe. He has
met with so much that was strange and romantic in their
career, that he has been interested to undertake, as it were, a
biography of the Monarchies of Continental Europe — their
birth, education, exploits, progress and present condition. He
has commenced with Austria.

There are abundant materials for this work. The Life of
Austria embraces all that is wild and wonderful in history ;
her early struggles for aggrandizement — the fierce strife with
the Turks, as wave after wave of Moslem invasion rolled up
the Danube — the long conflicts and bloody persecutions of the
Reformation — the thirty years' religious war — the meteoric
career of Gustavus Adolphus and Charles XII. shooting
athwart the lurid storms of battle — the intrigues of Popes —
the enormous pride, power and encroachments of Louis XIV.
— the warfare of the Spanish succession and the Polish dis-
memberment — all these events combine in a sublime tragedy
which fiction may in vain attempt to parallel.



VJ PREFACE.

It is affecting to observe in the history of Germany, through
what woes humanity has passed in attaining even its present
position of civilization. It is to be hoped that the human
family may never again suffer what it has already endured.
We shall be indeed insane if we do not gain some wisdom
from the struggles and the calamities of those who have gone
before us. The narrative of the career of the Austrian Em-
pire, must, by contrast, excite emotions of gratitude in every
American bosom. Our lines have fallen to us in pleasant
places ; we have a goodly heritage.

It is the author's intention soon to issue, as the second of
this series, the History of the Empire of Russia.

JOHitf S. C. ABBOTT.

Bbunswiok, Maiae, 1869.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

EHODOLPH OF HAP8BDE6.

Feom 1282 to 1291.

rin

Siwk's Castle. — Albeet, Count of Hapsbubg. — Rhodolph of L apsbtbg. — Ha

Mabbiage and Estates. — Excommunication and its Results. — His Pbinoi-

PLE8 OF HONOE. — A CONFEDEEACY OF BaBONS. — ThEIE ROUTE. — RhODOLPH'S

Election as Empbbob of Germany. — The Bishop's Warning. — Dissatisfac-
tion at tub Result of the Election. — Advantages acobuing feom thb Pos-
session of an intbeesting Family.— Conquest. — Ottooab acknowledges thb
Empesob; yet bbeaks his Oath of Allegiance. — Gathebinq Clouds. — Won-
derful Escape. — Viotoey of Rhodolph. — His Rbfobms tt



CHAPTER II.

REIGNS OF ALBERT I., FREDERIC, ALBERT AND OTHO.

Feom 1291 to 1847.

Anecdotes of Rhodolph. — His Desibb fob the Election of his Son. — His
Death. — Albeet. — His Unpopularity. — Conbpieacy of the Nobles. — Theib
Defeat. — Adolphus of Nassau chosen Empebob. — Albebt's Conspibaoy.— De-
position of Adolphus and Election of Albeet. — Death of Adolphus. — Thb
Pope Defied. — Annexation of Bohemia. — Assassination of Albeet. — Aveng-
ing Fuey. — The Hebmit's Direction. — Frederic the Handsome. — Election
of Hbnby, Count of Luxembubg. — His Death. — Election of Louis of Bava-
bia. — Captubb of Fbbdeeic. — Remaekable Confidence toward a Prisoner,
— Death of Frederic— An early Engagement.— Death of Louis.— Accession
of Albeet 84

CHAPTER III.

RHODOLPH II., ALBERT IV. AND ALBERT ▼.

Fbom 1389 to 1437.

Bbodolph II. — Mabsiagb of John to Marg abet. — Intriguing fob the Tyrol.—
Death of Rhodolph. — Accession of Power to Austbia. — Dividing thb En*
fire. — Delight of thb Empebob Chablbs. — Leopold. — His Ambition and Suc-
cesses. — Hedwige, Queen of Poland. — "The Course of tbue Love never did
bun smooth." — Unhappy Mabbiage of Hedwigb. — Heroism of Arnold ©»
wlnkelrf.id. — dxatb of leopold. — death of albert iv. — accession of al-
BERT V. — Attempts of Sigismond to bequeath to Albeet V. Hungary and
Bohemia 48

1*



Vfli CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.

ALBERT, LADISLAUS AND FREDERIC.
From 1440 to 1489.

mm

[SOBEASING HONOR8 OP ALBBET V. — EnOBOAOHMENTS OF THB TURKS. — THE CHRIS-
TIANS Routed. — Teeboe of thk Hungarians. — Death of Albert. — Magnani-
mous Conduct of Albebt of Bavaria. — Internal Troubles. — Precocity or
Ladislaus. — Fortifications raised by the Turks. — John Capistrun.— Rescue
of Belgrade. — The Turks Dispersed. — Exultation over the Victory. —
Death of Hunniades.— Jealc usy of Ladislaus. — His Death.— Brotherly
Quarrels. — Devastations by the Turks. — Invasion of Austria. — Repeal or
the Compromise. — The Emperor a Fugitive 68



CHAPTER V.

THE EMPERORS FREDERIC II. AND MAXIMILIAN t

From 14T7 to 1500.

Wanderings of the Emperor Frederic. — Proposed Alliance with the Duke
of Burgundy. — Mutual Distrust. — Marriage of Mary. — The Age of Chiv-
alry. — The Motive inducing the Lord of Praunstein to declare War. —
Death of Frederic II. — The Emperor's Secret. — Designs of the Turks.—
Death of Mahomet II. — First Establishment of Standing Armies. — Use of
Gunpowder. — Energy of Maximilian. — French Aggressions. — The League

TO EXPEL THE FRENCH. — DISAPPOINTMENTS OF MAXIMILIAN. — BeIBING THE POPE.

Invasion of Italy.— Capture and Recapture. — The Chevalier de Bayard. Tf



CHAPTER VI.

MAXIMILIAN I.

From 1500 to 1519.

Base Treachery of the Swbs Soldiers. — Perfidy of Ferdinand of Arragow.
— Appeals by Superstition. — Coalition with Spain. — The League of Cam-
bray. — Infamy of the Pope. — The King's Apology. — Failure of the Plot. —
Geemany aroused. — Confidence of Maximilian. — Longings for the Pontifi-
cal Chair. — Maximilian Bribed. — Leo X. — Dawning Prosperity. — Matri-
monial Projects. — Commencement of the War of Reformation. — Sickness
of Maximilian. — His last Directions. — His Death. — The Standard by which
his Character is to be Judged (ft



CHAPTER VII.

CHARLES V. AND THE REFORMATION.

From 1519 to 1531.

Oh a bleb V. of Spain. — His Election as Emperor of Germany.— His Ookowa-
TION. — The First Constitution. — Progress of the Refoemation. — The Pope's
Bull against Luther. — His Contempt for his Holiness. — The Diet at
Worms. — Frederic's Objection to tue Condemnation of Luther by the Diet.



CONTENTS. fS

MM

— Hb obtains fob Ldthkb the Rioht op Defense. — Luther's triumphal

March to the Tribunal. — Charles urged to Violate his Safe Conduct.—
Luther's Patmos. — Marriage of Sister Catharine Bora to Luther. — Ter-
bible Insurrection. — The Holy League. — The Protest of Spires. — Confes-
sion or Augsburg. — The Two Confessions.— Compulsory Measures 106



CHAPTER VIII.

CHARLES V. AND THE REFORMATION.

From 1581 to 1552.

Determination to crush Protestantism. — Incursion of the Turks.— Valob or
the Protestants. — Preparations for renewed Hostilities. — Augmentation
of the Protestant Forces. — The Council of Trent. — Mutual Consterna-
tion. — Defeat of the Protestant Army. — Unlooked-for Succor. — Revolt in
the Emperor's Army. — The Fluctuations of Fortune. — Ignoble Revenge. —
Capture of Wittemberg. — Protestantism apparently crushed. — Plot
against Charles. — Maurice of Saxony. — A. Change of Scene. — The Biter
bit — The Emperor humbled. — His Flight.— His determined Will 181



CHAPTER IX.

CHARLES V. AND THE TURKISH WARS

From 1552 to 1555.

The Treaty of Passau. — The Emperor yields. — His continued Reverses. — Thb
Toleration Compromise. — Mutual Dissatisfaction. — Remarkable Despon-
dency of the Emperor Charles. — His Address to the Convf.ntion at Brus-
sels.— The Convent of St. Justus. — Charles returns to Spain. — His Convent
Life. — The Mock Burial. — His Death. — His Traits of Character. — The
King's Compliment to Titian. — The Condition of Austria. — Rapid Advance
of the Turks. — Reasons for the Inaction of the Christians. — The Sultan's
Method of Overcoming Difficulties. — The little Fortress of Ountz. —
What n accomplished 184



CHAPTER X.
FERDINAND I. — HIS WARS AND INTRIGUES.
From 1555 to 1562.
/otrv of Tapoli. — The Instability of Compacts. — The Sultan's Demands.-— A
Reign of War. — Powers and Duties of the Monarohs of Bohemia. — The
Diet.— The King's Desire to crush Protestantism. — The Entrance to
Prague. — Terror of the Inhabitants. — The Kino's Conditions. — The
Bloody Diet. — Disciplinary Msasures. — The establishment of the Order
of Jesuits. — Abdication of Charles V. in Favor of Ferdinand. — Power of
the Pope. — Paul IV. — A quiet but powerful Blow. — The Progress of thb
Reformers. — Attempts to reconcile the Protestants.— The unsuccessful
Assembly IS:



ff fl O NTH NTS

CHAPTER XL

DEATH OF FERDINAND L— ACCESSION OF MAXIMMJAN M.

Fbom 1662 to 1676.

EM

The Council op Tbent.— Spread of the Refobmation. — Febdin and's Attempt

TO INFLUENCE THE POPE. — HlS ABOUMENTS AOAIN8T CeLIBaOY. — STUBBORNNESS

op the Pope. — Maximilian IL— Displeasure op Ferdinand. — Motives fob

NOT ABJUBTNO THE CATHOLIC FAITH. — RELIGIOUS STBIPB IN EUROPE.— MAXIMIL-
IAN'S Address to Charles IX. — Mutual Tolebation. — Romantic Pastime op
War.— Heroism of Nicholas, Count op Zrini. — Accession op Power to Aus-
tria.— Accession of Rhodolpe IIL— Death or Maximilian MB



CHAPTER XII.

CHARACTER OF MAXIMILIAN.— SUCCESSION OF RHODOIPH IIL

Fbom 1676 to 1604.

Chabaoteb op Maximilian.— His Accomplishments. — His Wife. — Fate op am
Children. — Rhodolph III. — The Liberty of Wobship. — Means of Emancipa-
tion. — Rhodolph's Attempts against Pbotestantism. — Declaration op a
higher Law. — Theological Differences. — The Confederacy at Heilbbun-
— The Gregorian Calendar. — Intolerance in Bohemia. — The Trap op th»
Monks. — Invasion of the Turks. — Their Defeat. — Coalition with Sigismoni
— Sale op Transylvania. — Rule op Basta. — The Empire captured and bi
captured.— Devastation op the Country. — Treatment of Stephen Botskoc



CHAPTER XIII.

BHODOLPH III. AND MATTHIAS.

From 1604 to 1609.

Botbkoi'B Manifesto. — Hoerible Suffebing in Tbansylvania. — Chabaoteb of
Botskoi. — Confidence of the Protestants. — Superstition of Rhodolph,—
His Mystic Studies. — Acquirements of Matthias. — Schemes of Matthias. —
His increasing Power. — Treaty with the Turks. — Demands on Rhodolph.—
The Compromise. — Pebfidy of Matthias. — The Mabgravite. — Filibustering.
The People's Diet. — A Hint to Royalty. — The Bloodless Triumph. — DE-
MANDS OF THE GERMANS. — ADDRESS OP THE PRINCE OP AnHALT TO THE KlNO. . . . . '



CHAPTER XIV.

BHODOLPH III. AND MATTHIAS.

From 1609 to 1612.

D iP T KJULTma as to the Suoobssion.— Hostility of Henry IV. to the Hoom o»
Austria.— Assassination op Henry IV. — Similarity in Sully's and Napo>
lbon"s Plans. — Exultation op thb Catholics. — The Brother's CoMPAot—
How Rhodolph kept it. — Seizure op Prague. — Rhodolph a Pbisonbr.— Thb



CONTENTS. H

rin

JlJS'l ABDICATION. — CONDITIONS ATTACHED TO TnE CROWN. — RaOE OF RlJO-
DOLPH.— MATTHIAS ELECTED KlNG. — THE EMPEROR'S ReSIDENOE.— REJOICINGS OF

the Protestants. — Reply of the Ambassadors. — The Nuremberg Diet. — Th»
unkindbst Cut of all. — Rhodolph's Humiliation akd Death SIB



CHAPTER XV.

MATTHIAS.

From 1612 to 1619.
Matthias elected Emperor of Germany. — His despotic Character. — His
Plans thwarted. — Mulheim. — Gathering Clouds. — Family Intrigue. — Cor-
onation of Ferdinand. — His Bigotry. — Henry, Count of Thuen. — Conven-
tion at Prague. — The King's Reply. — The Die oast. — Amusing Defense or
an Outrage. — Ferdinand's Manifesto. — Seizure of Cardinal Elesis. — The
King's Rage.— Retreat of the Kino's Troops.— Humiliation of Ferdinand.
— The Difficulties referred. — Death of Matthias Wt



CHAPTER XVI.

FERDINAND II.

From 1619 to 1621.

Possessions of the Emperoe. — Power of the Protestants of Bohemia. — Grn-
eral Spirit of Insurrection. — Anxiety of Ferdinand. — Insurrection led bt
Count Thurn. — Unpopularity of the Emperor. — Affecting Declaration of
the Emperor. — Insurrection in Vienna.— The Arrival of Succor. — Ferdi
nand seeks the imperial Throne. — Repudiated by Bohemia. — The Palatin-
ate. — Frederic offered the Crown of Bohemia.— Frederic crowned.—
Revolt in Hungary. — Desperate Condition of the Emperor.— Catholio
League. — The Calvinists and the Puritans. — Duplicity of the Emperor.—
Foreign Combinations. — Truce between the Catholics and the Protest-
ants. — The Attack upon Bohemia.— Battle of the "White Mountain 248



CHAPTER XVII.

FERDINAND II.

From 1621 to 1629.

Pusillanimity of Frederic. — Intreaties of the Citizens of Prague. — Shame-
ful Flight of Frederic. — Vengeance inflicted upon Bohemia. — Protest-
antism and civil Freedom. — Vast Power of the Emperor. — Alarm of Eu-
rope. — James I. — Treaty of Marriage for the Prince of Wales. — Cardinal
Richelieu. — New League of the Protestants. — Desolating War. — Defeat
of the King of Denmark. — Energy of Wallenstein. — Triumph of Ferdi-
nand. — New Acts of Intolerance. — Severities in Bohemia. — Desolation of
the Kingdom. — Dissatisfaction of the Duke of Bavaria. — Meeting of the
Aatholio Princes. — The Emperor Humbled 261



SB CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XVIII.

FBBDINAND II. AND GU8TAVU8 AD0LPHU8.

Feom 1629 to 1632.

MM
Vexation of Ferdinand.— Gustavus Adolphus. — Address to the Nobles or

Sweden. — March of Gustavus.— Appeal to the Protestants.— Magdebubh
joins Gustavo's. — Destruction of the City.— Consternation of the Protest-
ants. — Exultation of the Catholics The Elector of Saxony driven from

his Domains. — Battle of Leipsio. — The Swedes penetrate Bohemia. — Free-
dom of Conscience established. — Death of Tilly.— The Retirement of Wal-
lenstein.— The Command resumed by Wallenstein.— Capture of Prague.—
Encounter between Wallenstein and Gustavus. — Battle of Lutzen.—
Death of Gustavus 87t



CHAPTER XIX.

FERDINAND II., FERDINAND III. AND LEOPOLD I.

From 1632 to 1662.

Character of Gustavus Adolphus. — Exultation of the Imperialists.— Dis-
grace of Wallenstein. — Hb offers to surrender to the Swedish General.
— His Assassination. — Ferdinand's Son elected as his Successor. — Death or
Ferdinand. — Close of the War. — Abdication of Christina. — Charles Gus-
tavus.— Preparations for War. — Death of Ferdinand III. — Leopold
elected Emperor.— Hostilities Renewed.— Death of Charles Gustavus.—
Diet convened. — Invasion of the Turks 880



CHAPTER XX.

LEOPOLD I.

From 1662 to 1697.
Invasion of the Turks.— A Treaty concluded. — Possessions of Leopold.— Ih>

VA8I0N OF THE FSENOH. — LEAGUE OF AUGSBURG. — DEVASTATION OF THE PALATI-
NATE. — Invasion of Hungary. — Emeric Tekeli. — Union of Emerio Tekeli

WITH THE TURK8. — LEOPOLD APPLIES TO SOBIESKI. — He IMMEDIATELY MARCHES

to his Aid. — The Turks conquered. — Sobieski's triumphal Receptions.—
Meanness of Leopold.— Revenge upon Hungary.— Pbaob concluded. — Con-
test for Spain 311



CHAPTER XXI.

LEOPOLD I. AND THE SPANISH SUCCESSION

From 1697 to 1710.

The Spanish Succession. — The Impotence of Charles II. — Appeal to the Pops.

— His Dbcdjion. — Death of Charles II. — Accession of Philip V. — Indioha-

jion of Austria. — The Outbreak op War.— Charles III. crowned. — Insue

beotion in Hungary.— Defection of Bavaria. — The Battle of Blenheim,—



CONTENTS. Kill

MM

Death or Leopold I. — Elronora. — Accession or Joseph I. — Charles XIL, or
Sweden. — Charles IIL of Spain. — Battle or Malplaquet. — Chablbs at
Baboblona. — Charles at Madrid 81 i



CHAPTER XXII.

JOSEPH I. AND CHARLES VI.
From 1710 to 1717.

PERPLEXITIES IN MaDBID. — FLIGHT OP CHARLES. — BeTBEAT Or THE AUSTRIA*

Abmt. — Stanhope's Division out off. — Capture or Sta-NHOPR. — Starembebo
assailed.— Retreat to Barcelona. — Attempt to pacify Hungary. — Thb Hun-
sabian Diet. — Baronial crowning or Ragotsky. — Renewal of the Hunga-
rian War. — Enterprise of Herbeville. — The Hungarians crushed. — Lenity
or Joseph. — Death of Joseph. — Accession of Charles VI. — His Career in
Spain.— Capture of Barcelona. — The Siege. — The Rescue. — Character or
Charles. — Cloisters of Montseerat. — Increased Efforts for the Spanish
Grown. — Charles crowned Emperor of Austria and Hungary.— Bohemia. —
Deplorable Condition op Louis XIV 84S



CHAPTER XXIII.

CHARLES VI.

From 1716 to 1727.

Heboid Decision or Eugene.— Battle of Belgrade. — Utter Bout or thi
Tubes. — Possessions or Charles VI. — The Electob of Hanover succeeds to
thb English Throne.— Preparations for War. — State of Italy. — Philip V.
or Spain. — Diplomatic Agitations. — Palace of St. Ildefonso. — Order or the
Golden Fleece. — Rejection of Maria Anne.— Contest for thb Rock or Glb-
ealtar.— Dismissal or Rippebda.— Treaty of Vienna.— Peace concluded. . . . 861



CHAPTER XXIV.

CHARLES VI. AND THE POLISH WAS.

From 1727 to 1785.

Oabdtnal Flbuey. — The Emperor or Austria urges the Pragmatic Sanction.
—He promises his two Daughters to the two Sons of the Queen or Spain.
—France, England and Spain unite against Austria. — Charles VL, bsues
Orders to preparr for War.— His Perplexities. — Secret Overtures to Es-
«la.nd. — The Crown or Poland. — Meeting of thb Polish Congress. — Stanis-
laus goes to Poland. — Augustus III. crowned. — War. — Charles sends ax
Army to Lombard y. — Difficulties of Prince Eugene.— Charles's Displeas-
ure with Enoland.— Letter to Count Kinsk y. — Hostilities renewed 8? 8



3? CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXV.

OHABLBS VI. AND THE TURKISH WAR KENEWED.

From 1786 to 1T89.

MM

Anxiety op Austbian Office-holders. — Maria Theresa. — The Duke of LOB-
BAINE.— DI8TBAOTION OF THE EmPEBOB.— TUSCANY ASSIGNED TO THE DUKE OF

Lobbaine. — Death of Eugene. — Rising Gbeatness of Russia. — New War
wtth the tubks. — condition of the asmy. — commencement of hostilities' —
Captube of Nissa. — Inefficient Campaign. — Disgbaob of Seckendobf. — Thb
Duke of Lobbaine placed in Command.— Siege of Obsova. — Belgbadb br-
Kbuzd bt the Turks. — The thibd Campaign. — Battle of Cbotzka. — Defeat
OF THB Aostbians. — Consternation in Vienna. — Barbarism of thb Turks. —
Thb Surrender of Belgbadb 894



CHAPTER X XVI.

MARIA THERESA.

Fbom 1789 to 1741.

AiratnsH of thb Kins. — Lbtteb to the Queen of Russia. — Thb imperial Ciboo-
lab.— Deplorable Condition of Austria. — Death of Charles VL — Acces-
sion of Mabia Thbbesa. — Vigorous Measures of the Queen.— Claim of thb
Duke of Bavaria. — Responses fbom the Coubts. — Coldness of the French
Court. — Frederic of Prussia. — His Invasion of Silesia. — March of the Aus-
triahs. — Battlb of Molnitz. — Firmness of Mabia Theresa. — Pboposed Divis-
ion of Plunder. — Villainy of Fbedbbio. — Intbbvtew with the Kins. — Ohab
actkb of Frederic— Commencement of the general Invasion 411



CHAPTER XXVII.

MARIA THERESA.
Fbom 1741 to 1748.
Ohabacteb of Fbanois, Duke of LoBBArNB. — Policy of Eubopkan Coubtb.—
Plajt of thb Allies. — Siege of Peagub. — Despebatk Condition of the Qubbn
— Hsb Coronation in Hungary. — Enthusiasm of the Barons. — Speech of Ma-
bia Theresa. — Peace with Frederic of Prussia. — His Duplicity. — Military
Movement of the Duke of Lobbaine. — Battle ofChazlbau. — Second Treaty
witii Frederic. — Despondency of the Duke of Bavaria. — March of Mallb-
bois — Extraordinary Retreat of Bblletble. — Recovery of Peagub by thb
Queen 431



CHAPTER XXVII Ij.

MARIA THERESA.
Fbom 1748 to 174a

PWWEBCira ASPKOT OF AUSTBIAN AFFAIRS.— CaPTUBB OP EoSA. — VAST EXTBST 0»

Austria. — Dispute with Sardinia. — Mabbiagb of Charles of Lobbainb •wttb



CONTENTS. If



MB QumTB SlSTBB.— faTTASION or A L8A0E.— FbEDBBIO OVKBBtniB Bohemia.—

Bohemia recovered bt Pbinoe Charles. — Death or the Emperor Charles
VIL— Venality or the old Monarchies.— Battle or Hohenfbiex-bebg. — 8m
Thomas Robinson's Intbbvtew with Mabia Theresa. — Hungarian Enthu-
siasm. — The Duke or Lore aink elected Empebor. — Contlnu atios or thb Was.
— Tkkatv or Pbaob.— Indignation or Mabia Theresa i



CHAPTER XXIX.

MABIA THEBKBA.
From 1748 to 1769.

Treaty or Peace.— Dissatisfaction of Mabia Theeesa. — Preparation fob
Was. — Rupture between England and Austria. — Mabia Theeesa. — Air
uance with France. — Influence or Marchioness or Pompadour. — Bitter
Bepboaches between Austria and England. — Commencement of the Seven
Years' War. — Energy of Frederic of Prussia. — Sanguinary Battles.—
Vicissitudes or War,— Desperate Situation or Feederi*.— Elation of Ma-
baa Theresa.— Her ambitious Plans. — Awful Defeat or thb Prussians ai
Berlin



CHAPTER XXX.

MARIA THEBSSA.

From 1T59 to 1790.

Desolations or War. — Disasters of Prussia.— Despondency or Frederic.—
Death or the Empress Elizabeth. — Accession of Paul III. — AsiAssiNATiow
or Paul III. — Accession of Catharine.— Diboomfiturb of the Austbians.—
Treaty of Peace. — Election of Joseph to the Throne of the Empire. — Death
of Francis. — Character or Francis. — Anecdotes. — Energy or Maria The-
resa. — Poniatowskx— Partition or Poland. — Maria Theresa as a Mother.
— War with Bavabia. — Peace. — Death of Mabia Theeesa. — Family or thb
Empress.— Accession or Joseph II.— His Character. 418



CHAPTER XXXI.

JOSEPH II. AND LEOPOLD II.

From 1780 to 1792.

Accession op Joseph II.— His Plans or Reform.— Pius VI.— Emancipation o»
thb Serfs. — Joseph's Visit to his Sifter, Maria Antoinette.— Ambitious Di-
signs. — The Imperial Sleigh Ride. — Barges on the Dneisteb.— Excursion
to the Crimea. — War with Turkey. — Defeat or the Austeianb.— Great Suc-
cesses.— Dbath or Joseph.— His Character. — Accession or Leopold IL— His
Ettortb to confirm Despotism. — The French Revolution. — European Coali-
tion. — Death or Leopold. — His Prcftigaoy. — Accession or Francis II.— Pbbs-
bnt Extent and Powbb or Au8tbi>_— Its Aemy.— Policy or thb Qotbbn-



XVI CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XXXIL

AUSTRIA AND THE FEENCH REVOLUTIONS.

Prom 1792 TO 1860.

Accession of Francis II.— Campaigns against Napoleon.— The Italian Re-
publics.— Tmb Kingdom op Italy. — Hostility op England to the French
Revolution.— The Downfall op Napoleon, and Consequent Downfall op
Free Institutions throughout Europe. — The Congress op Vienna. — Ex-
pulsion OP THEBOUBBONS FROM FRANCE. — RESTORATION OP THE EMPIRE UNDER

Louis Napoleon.— Revolutions throughout Europe. — Hungarian Revolu-
tion. — Russian Intervention. — Fall op Hungary.— Liberation of Italy.—
Present Prospects GOS

APPENDIX.
THE NEW CONSTITUTION, AND SEPARATION FROM GERMANY.

The Reichsrath transformed into a National Legislature. — The
" Path of Constitutionalism." — Jealousy between Austria and
Prussia. — War with Denmark. — Quarrel between Austria and
Prussia about Schleswig-Holstein. — Alliance between Prussia
and Italy. — The Six Weeks' War and Sadowa. — Italy gains Vene-
tia. — Austria loses her Place in Germany. — The Path of Consti-
tutionalism once more. — Reconciliation of Hun&aby. — Bosnia and
Hbrzioovinia •• • •• 686



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



Online LibraryJohn S. C. (John Stevens Cabot) AbbottAustria, its rise and present power → online text (page 1 of 48)