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LIBRARY

^ Diversity oi California'

IRVINE,



ITALY

BY

JOHN S. C. ABBOTT

WITH A SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER OF RECENT EVENTS

By WILFRED C. LAY, Ph.D.



ILLUSTRATED




NEW YORK

PETER FENELON COLLIER

MDCCCXCVIIl



. '

A 3.



according to Act of Congress, in the year 1871,

BY B. B. RUSSELL,
the Offine of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

OorrBiaKT BT DODD, MEAL), AMD COKPAKT, 1881,



PEEFAOE.



TH! anaals of the world contain no other such narrative as that
of Italy. Legendary Rome, the frenzied strife with Carthage, the
wild career of Hannibal, the lifelong struggles of Pompey and Csar,
the culmination of the empire into universal sovereignty, the rise of
Christianity, the crumbling temples of Paganism, the sweep of Moslem
armies, the surging billows of barbaric invasion, the fall of imperial
Rome, the gloom and chaos of the dark ages, the struggle of the great
monarchies of Europe to grasp the fragments of the empire, the
amazing campaigns of Napoleon L, the triumph of the allies, the new
dismemberment of Italy, the campaigns of Magenta and Solferino, and
the recent re-establishment of Rome as the capital of re-united
Italy, all these conspire in furnishing historical records, which, in
interest and instruction, are without a parallel.

The materials from which to gather information upon these points
are inexhaustible. Those upon which the author has mainly relied
are the works of Niebuhr, Arnold, Schmidt, Livy, Tacitus, Plutarch,
Guicciardini, Sforzozi, Botta, Luigi Bosri, Sismondi, Percival, Spauld-
ing, Gibbon, Robertson, Thiers, Alison, Julie de Marguerites, together
with reviews and encyclopedias upon important characters and events.
The author has spared no pains to attain all possible accuracy, hav-
ing devoted to the most important events here recorded the studies
of many years. Where there has been disorepaocy of authorities, oe
has adopted that statement, which, after toe moft careful eonsidwra-
tion, has appeared to him beat authenticated.

5



6 PREFACE.

The one great truth taught in all these annals is, that there is n
hope for the world but in the religion of the Bible. A change in the
form of government is of but little avail, so long as the people remain
ignorant and corrupt. Probably, in all governments, the rulers pretty
fairly represent the average intelligence and integrity of the people.
A true republic cannot exist where the people are degraded. It is
of but little avail to batter down an old despotism, unless there is
sufficient enlightenment to rear upon its ruins a better edifice.

The question, whether united Italy shall be prosperous and happy,
is one to be decided in the hearts of the Italian people. Italy has
deposed its old tyrannic rulers, and has introduced principles of civil
and religious liberty hitherto unknown in that fair but ill-fated land ;
but if there be not found among the masses of the people that intel-
ligence and moral worth which are essential to free institutions, then
the light we now behold gleaming over the Alps and the Apennines
will prove but the flash of the midnight storm, not the dawn of open-
ing day.

The men who are now doing the most for the welfare of the world
are those who are striving, by all the varied instrumentalities of life,
to make men better ; to awaken in the human heart the consciousness
that God is our common Father, and that all we are brethren. He
only is the true philanthropist who offers the unceasing prayer, with
corresponding exertions, " Thy kingdom come, thy will be done, as
in heaven, so in earth."

JOHN S. C. ABBOTT,

iVia HAVKB, Cow*., fehrnuy, 1871.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

LEGENDARY ROME.

FROM 700 B. o. TO 493 B. 0.

PAM

tarn ITALIAN PENINSULA. UNCERTAIN HISTORY. LEGEND OF TKOT. TIM FLIGHT
OF ^NEAB. LANDING IN ITALY. WARS WITH NATIVE TRIBES. ALBA LONGA.
THE STOBY or BOMULUS AND BEMUS. THE FOUNDATION OF BOME. THB RAP or
THE SABINES. CONTINUED CONQUESTS. TRANSLATION or ROMULUS. THEHOEATII
AND CUBIATIL CONQUEST OF ALBA LONGA, ACCESSION OF TARQUIHIUS. SERVIUS
TULLIUS. His DEMOCRATIC SWAY. ACCESSION CF TARQUINIUS SUPEBBUS. TH
BOOKS OF THE SIBYL. THE STORY OF LUOEETIA. BAXISHMENT OF TARQUIN.
EEIGN OF THJC CONSULS. INSURRECTION OF THE COMMONS It



CHAPTER II.

THE PRETORSHIP, DECEMVIBATE, AND CONSULATE.
FROM 493 B. a TO 438 B. o.

STORY OF COBIOLANUS. APPOINTMENT OF A DICTATOR. ACHIEVEMENTS OF CCTOIN-
NATUS. WAB WITH THE JiyUlANS AND YOLSCIAN8. TuE SOLDIERS REFUSE TO
FIGUT. INFAMOUS CONDUCT OF THE NOBLES. APPIUS CLAUDIUS. VIRGINIA
CLAIMED AS A FUGITIVE SLAVE. SLAIN BY UEB FATHER. INSURRECTION or THE
PEOPLE. ITS SUCCESS. CONSPIRACY OF THE YOUNG NOBLES. K..&SO, SON OF Ci-

OINNATUS. ClNCINNATUS CHOSEN CONSUL. CHANGE IN HIS CHABACTEB. AVEN-

TINK HILL TAKEN BY THE COMMONS. IMPEACHMENT OF APPIUS CLAUDIUS. THB
POPULAR CAUSE TRIUMPHANT. THE DECEMVIRS EEJECTED AND EXPELLED. IN-
TRODUCTION OF THE CONSULATE.



CHAPTER III.
CONFLICTS AT HOME AND WARS ABROAD

FROM 433 B. c. TO 818 B. o.

PCWSB OF AN ARISTOCRACY. DEMANDS OF THE PLEBEIANS. STRUGGLE OF THB
PATBICIANS AGAINST POPULAB EIGHTS. THE OFFICE OF CENSOR. ITS DESPOT-
ISM. INVASION OF THE GAULS. DEFEAT OF THE ROMAN ARMY. SACK OF BOMB.
SIEGE OF THE CAPITOL. TERMS OF PEACE. MANLITJS. His PHTLANTHBOPY AND
CONDEMNATION. DESPOTISM OF CAMILLUS. CONQUEST OF THE PRIVERNATIANB^
WAR wrrn THE SAMNITES. DISASTKK AT THE CAUDINE FORKS MAGNANIMITY or
PONTIUS. CHARACTERISTIC ROMAN PRIDE ANP HEKOISM. ...



2 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.
BOMB, 6BEECE, AND CABTHAQB

FROM 818 B. o. TO 241 B. o

PAC

Tarn DISASTER OF THE CAUDINB FORKS AVENGED. PASTIES IN ROME. DEMOCRACY
OF APPIUS CLAUDIUS. IGNOBLE TREATMENT or PONTIUS. BTATB OF THB WORLD
AT THIS TIME. COALITION AGAINST BOMB. THE GREEKS JOIN THE COALITION.
PYRRHUS LANDS ON THB ITALIAN PENINSULA. PBOOBKSS OF THB WAR. EXPUL-
SION OF THB GREEKS. INVASION OF SICILY. WAB WITH CABTUAGE. INVASION
OF AFRICA. STORY OF BseuLus. VIOTOBIES AND DEFEATS. BOMB TRIUMPHANT.
SICILY ANNEXED TO BOMB T4



CHAPTER V.
THE PASSAGE OF THE ALPS BY HANNIBAL.

FROM 241 B. o. TO 217 B. a

INVASION OF SPAIN BY CARTHAGE. WAR BBNEWBD BETWEEN BOMB AND CA-
THAGK. NEW GAULISH INVASION. ANNIHILATION OF THB GAULISH ARMY.
CONQUEST OF CISALPINE GAUL. HANNIBAL CROSSES THE BHONR. PASSAGE OF IBM
ALPS. INVASION OF ITALY. BATTLES ON THE TICINO AND THE Po. DISCOMFI-
TURE OF THE BOMANS. HANNIBAL BNTEBS TCSOANY. GREAT BATTLE OF THBABY-
MBNE. ANNIHILATION OF THE BOM AN ABM Y. COMMEMORATED BY BYBON



CHAPTER VI.
THE ITALIAN CAMPAIGNS OF HANNIBAL.

FROM 217 B. o. TO 204 B. o.

DEVASTATING MARCH OF HANNIBAL. COMPOSITION OF HIS ARMY. TERROR
BOMK. WINTER QUABTEBS IN APULIA. DISSENSIONS IN THE BOMAN ARMY. THB
BATTLE OF CANNJL ANNIHILATION OF TUB BOMAN ARMY. INCREASING PERIL OF
HANNIBAL. BETREAT FROM TIFATA. MARCH UPON BOMB. SIEGE OF CAPUA.
SLAVERY OF CAPTIVES. THE MARCH OF HASDEUBAL. PASSAGE OF THE ALPS.
NEW VICTORIES OF HANNIBAL. DEATH OF HASDBUBAL AND DESTRUCTION or
HIS ARMY. THE HEAD OF HASDRUBAL. EXULTATION IN BOMB. DESPAIR or
HASNIBAL 110



CHAPTER VII.
FOREIGN CONQUESTS AND INTERNAL FEUDB.

FROM 204 B. o. TO 121 B. o.

SOIPIO. His CHARACTER AND CAREER. TUB CONQUEST OF SPAIN. QUELLING THB
MUTINY. MILITARY PROWESS OF HANNIBAL. HE RETIRES FROM ITALY. SOIPIO
INVADES AFRICA. DESTRUCTION OF THE CARTHAGINIAN ARMY. TBUCB AND
HUMILIATION OF CARTHAGE. LANDING OF HANNIBAL IN AFRICA. BATTLE or
ZAJIA. CLOSE OF THE SECOND PUNIC WAR. CONQUEST or GREECE. INVASION or
SYEIA. THIBD PUNIO WAR. DESTRUCTION or CARTHAOV. THE NUMIDIAN WAB,
BARBARIAN INVASION. THE PLEBEIAN AND PATRICIAN CONFLICT. GRACCHUS

AHDOOTAVIUB ,



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VIII.
THE SOCIAL WAB.

FUOM 121 E. o. TO 82 B. o.

M

>>*BUPTION or THS NOBLES. RESTLESSNESS OF THE PEOPLE. DEM AGOOISM or
MAKIUB. SERVILE INSURRECTION IN SICILY. HKROISM OF EUNUS. MISERIES or
THE SERVILE WARS. SUMPTUARY LAWS. STRUGGLE FOB RIGHTS OF CITIZENSHIP.
COMMENCEMENT OF THE SOCIAL WAR. CONTEMPLATED REORGANIZATION OF
ITALY. SYLLA. WAR WITH MITHBIDATES. INTERNAL DISSENSIONS AT BOMB.
CIVIL WAR IN THE STREETS. VIBRATION OF THE PENDULUM OF PARTIES. CINNA.
THE RALLYING OF THE PEOPLE. MABIUS RECALLED. SCENES OF ANABOHY.
DEATH OF MARIUS. RETURN OF SYLLA. POMPBY ENTEBS TH ARENA. BATTLES
AND ASSASSINATIONS



CHAPTER IX.
SYLLA AND CATILINE.

FROM 82 B. c. TO 59 B. o.

BATTLE UNDEB THE WALLS. TRIUMPH OF SYLLA. CAIUS JULIUS OSSAR DEATH
or MABIUS. MASSACRE AT PRJSNESTE. MISSION OF POMPEY. ABDICATION or
SYLLA. His DEATU. POLICY OF LEPIDUS. TRIUMPH OF THE ARISTOCRACY.
CJSSAR A RANSOMED SLAVE. HE ESPOUSES THE POPULAR CAUSE. CHARACTER
or POMPEY. SPARTACUS AND HIS BAND. His DEFEAT AND DEATH. THE SLAVB
TRADE. ILLUSTRATIVE ANECDOTE. POMPBY CRUSHES THE PIRATES. TUB CON-
PIRACY OF CATILINE i 118



CHAPTER X.
C.SBAR AND POMPET

FROM 59 B. c. TO 50 a. o.

CATO. RETUBN OF POMI-EY TO ROME.- -CLODIUS AND THE MYSTIC RITES. DIVOBOB
OF POMPEIA. ANECDOTES OF. CAESAR. THE TRIUMVIRATE. POLICY OF CICERO.
POPULAR MEASURES OF CJSSAB. DIVISION OF THE SPOILS OF OFFICE. PROSECU-
TION OF CICERO. His BANISHMENT AND RECALL. DEMOCRATIC TRIUMPHS. DO-
MESTIC GRIEFS. BLOODY FRAY. TUMULT IN ROME. DICTATORSHIP OF POMPEY.
ORGANIZATION OF A ROMAN COURT. ANECDOTE OF CJCSAK. His AMBITIOUS
DESIGNS. SICKNESS OF POMPEY. POLITICAL CONTESTS IN ROME. OPEN WAB
BETEEAT OF POMPEY AND FLIGHT TO GREECE. 191



CHAPTER XI.
T ; B BTBUGQLE AND FALL OF POMPEY

FROM 50 B c. TO 48 B. o.

BGE or BBUNDUBIUM. FLIGHT OF POMPBY. CESAR'S MEASURES IN ROME, H
EXPEDITION TO SPAIN. THE WAR AND FINAL CONQUEST. C^SAR RETURNS TO
BBUNDUBIUM. CROSSES TO GREECE IN PURSUIT OF POMPEY. VICISSITUDES OF THB
WAR. POMPEY'S VICTORY AT DYRACHIUM. RETREAT OF CJSSAR. BATTLE or
PHARSALIA.~UTTER RUIN OF POMPEY. His FLIGHT. JOINS CORNELIA AND BIB
Son. MELANCHOLY VOYAGE TO EGYPT. His ASSASSINATION BY PTOLEMY 80J



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XII.
THB TEIUMPH OF CLESAB AND THE FATE OF POMPET.

FROM 48 B. a TO 44 B. a

N

OT or CJBBAB. PURSUIT OK POMPBY. THE EGYPTIAN WAR. CAESAR AJfD
CLEOPATRA. CAPTURE or PHAROS. POPULARITY OF CJSSAB. Loss or TUB ALEX-
ANDRIAN LIBRARY. BRIEF CONFLICT WTH THK KINO OF PONTUS. QUELLING THE
MUTINY. CATO'B EFFORTS IN AFRICA. THB AFRICAN WAR. DEFEAT AND DBATH
OF SCIPIO. SUICIDE OF CATO. TUB SPANISH WAR. DEATH OF POMPBY'S SON.
OMAR'S BETURN TO BOMB. His TRIUMPH. His ADMINISTRATIVE MEASURE* AND
CHAKAOTEB. CHARACTER OF CICERO '



CHAPTER XIII.

ASSASSINATION OF J& S A B.

FROM 44 B. c. TO 42 B. o.

\ AND CABSIBS. THE CONSPIRACY. THB SCENE OF ASSASSINATION. CONDUOT
OF THE CONSPIRATORS. INDIGNATION OF THE PEOPLE. FLIGHT OF TUB COKSPIBA-
TOES FROM KOME. MEASURES OF MARO ANTONY. CAIUS OCTAVIUS. INTERVIEW

WITH CICERO COLLISION WITH ANTONY. KALLYINO OF THE ARISTOCRATS. Civil

WAR. FALSE POSITION OF OCTAVIUS. PHILIPPICS OF CICERO. DEFEAT or
ANTONY. ESCAPE BEYOND THE ALPS. OCTAVIUS CESAR'S MARCH CPOM
TRIUMPH OF THE PLEBEIAN CAUSE. THB NATURE OF THB CONFLICT.



CHAPTER XIV.

OCTAVIUS 0-(E8AB.

FROM 42 B. o. TO 82 B. o.

FATE OF DECIMUS BRUTUS. MASS ACRES IN ROME. DEATH OF CIOEEO. ANECDOTES.
THE TEIUMYIRATE. WAR IN MACEDONIA. BUIN OF THE PATBIOIAN CAUSE.
SUIOIDB OF CA88IU8 AND B".UTU8. TRIUMPH OP TUB TRIUMVIRATE. OPPRESSION
OF THE PEOPLE AND DISCONTENT IN BOMB. PROFLIGACY OF OCTATIUS OESAE.
DOWNFALL OF LEPIDUS. DRUSILLA. DIVORCE OF ANTONY'S WIFE. ANTONY AND
CLEOPATRA. WAR BETWEEN OCTAVIUS AND ANTONY. MUSTERING OF THE FORCES.
-ANTONY AND HIS BRIDAL I'AKAMOUK. . . .



CHAPTER XV.

02BSAB AUGUSTUS AND MABO ANTONY.
FROM 82 B. o. TO 10 B. o.

BATTLE OF AOTIUM. FLIGHT OF CLBOPATBA. ENTIRE VICTORY or OOTAVIUB. THB
PTBSUTT TO ALEXANDRIA. SUICIDE OF ANTONY. GUILE OF CLEOPATRA. HUB
ENDEAVORS TO WIN OOT A vius. DESPAIR AND SUICIDE OF CLEOPATRA. Tw-
UVPHANT BBTURN OF OOTAVIUS TO BOME. His WISE MEASURES. THE TITLE OF
AUGUSTUS CONFERRED. STATE OF THB BOMAN EMPIKE. ITALY, OAI-L, BRITAIN.
PAIN, AFRICA, SYWA, ASIA MINOR, GREECE. THK DEFLATIONS OF CIVIL WAK



CONTENTS. Xlli

CHAPTER XVI.
TIBERIUS OJ38AR, CALIGULA, AND CLAUDIUS.

FBOM 10 B. o. TO A. D. 51.

FA1

EJ*jr AL DIVISION OF WEALTH. SLAVERY. THE JEWS. TIBEKIUB C JAR. DEATH
OF CVSSAS AUGUSTUS. TYRANNY OP TIBERIUS. His RETREAT TO CAPR. DEATH
OF GERMANIOUB. EDICT AGAINST THE PLAY-ACTORS. TESTIMONY OF TACITUS.
TERRIBLE ACCIDENT. CALIGULA. DEATH OF TIBERIUS. CRUCIFIXION OF OUK
SAVIOUK. EEIGN OF CALIGULA. Ills CRUELTY AND MADNESS. ASSASSINATION
OF CALIGULA. ACCESSION OF CLAUDIUS. ANECDOTES. DKATH OF CLAUDIUS.
ACCESSION OF NERO. His CHARACTER 296



CHAPTER XVII.

NERO
FROM A. D. 51 TO A. D. 67.

STRIFE BETWEEN NERO AND HK MOTHER. MURDER OF BRITANNIOUS. ATTEMPT TO
MURDER AGBIPPINA HER ESCAPE. EFFECTUAL PLAN FOR HER MURDER. RE-
MARK OF TACITUS. WAR IN BRITAIN. HORRIBLE LAW OF SLAVERY. ITS EXE-
CUTION. REPUDIATION AND DEATH OF OCTAVIA. THE FESTIVAL NERO SETS

FIRE TO ROME. THE CHRISTIANS FALSELY ACCUSED. THEIR PERSECUTION. TUB
INSURRECTION OF GALBA. TERROR OF NERO. HE COMMITS SUICIDE. GALBA
CHOSEN EMPEROR. His ASSASSINATION .- 816



CHAPTER XVIII.
EMPERORS, QOOD AND BAD.

FBOM A. D. 61 TO A. D. 180.

OTHO AND VITBLLUS. THB CONFLICT. THB TRIUMPH OF VESPASIAN TITUS D*.
TROYS JERUSALEM. His ACCESSION TO THE THRONE. SUCCESSION OF DOMITIAN.
ADORNMENT OF THE CAPITOL. His DEPRAVITY AND DEATH. THE CROWN CON-
FERRED ON NEBVA. TBAJAN, ASSOCIATE EMPEROR. REIGN OF TRAJAN KB
COLUMN. CORRESPONDENCE WITH PLINY. CONQUESTS OF TRAJAN. REIGN or
ADRIAN. ANTONINUS Pius. His NOBLE CHARACTER. MARCUS AURELTU*.
TBBUS, HIS COLLEAGUE. DEATH OF AUBBUUS



CHAPTER XIX.

COMMENCEMENT OF THE DECLINE AND FALL.
FROM A. D. 180 TO A. D. 2-35.

MARCUS AURELIUS. PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY. COMMODUS. His DEATH. COM-
MENCEMENT OF THB DECLINE AND FALL. THE PRETORIAN GUARD. ITS CHARAC-
TER AND INFLUENCE. THE THRONE SOLD AT AUCTION. JULIAN. THE RIVAL
EMFERIRS. TRIUMPH OF SEVERUS. His PERFIDY REIGN OF CARACALLA AND
GBTA. MURDER cr GETA. ASSASSINATION OF CARACALLA. MACRINUB. HA
SHORT REIGN AND DEATH. ELAGABALUS. BOTH PONTIFF AND EMPEROB. Hm

EXTRAORDINARY DEPRAVITY. ANECDOTES OF M AXIMIN ....



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XX.
RAPID ST1D8 OF DECLINE

FBOM A. D. 286 TO A. D. 288.

tt

rHis REIGN AND DEATH. REVOLT IN AFBIOA. THB GOBDIANB. Tarn
TWO EMPEBORS. BALBINUS AND MAZIMUS. ANARCHY IN HOME. MUEDEB or TOi
EMFKROBS. PIIILIP MARINUS AND DECIUS. DESIGNATION OF CJESAR. HJCEEDI-
TAEY DESCENT. THE GOTHIC INVASION. VALEBIAN AND (TALLIES us. TEEEIBLB
FATE or VALEBIAN. ACCESSION OF CLAUDIUS. IMMENSE ARMY or THE GOTHS.
VICTORIES OF CLAUDIUS. CIIABAOTEB AND FATE OF ZBNOBIA. AUEELIAN. IN-
T*BBUM. TACITUS. His DEATH. PBOBUB.CABUB. His MAEOH TO PERSIA,
AND DKATB I

CHAPTER XXI.

DIVISIONS OF THE EMPIRE.

FROM A D. 288 TO A. D. 880.

OABINUS AND NUMKBIAN. ANECDOTE OF DIOCLETIAN. His ACCESSION SASAOIOQ,
ABBANGEMKNTS. THE FOUR EMPEBOES. WAES OF TUB BABBABIANS. TUB Two
NEW CAPITALS, MILAN AND NIOOMEDIA. DECADENCE or HOME. ABDICATION OF
DIOCLETIAN. His RETIREMENT AND DEATH. CONSTANTIUS AND CONSTANTINB.
THE OVEETHEOW OF MAXENTIUS, MAXIMIN, AND LICINIUS. CONSTANTLNB BOLE
EMPEROR. TEIUMPU OF CHRISTIANITY OTEB PKRSECUTION. CONSTANTINE ADOPTS
CHEISTIANITY. BYZANTIUM CHAHSED TO CONSTANTINOPLE. THE GBOWTH AND
BPLKNDOB or THE CITY



CHAPTER XXII

THE EMPIRE DISMEMBERED.

FBOM A. D. 880 TO A. D. 875.

OONSTANTINK TH G BEAT. DIVERSITY OF VlEWS RESPECTING HlM. THE TfiAOEDT

OF CEISPUB AND FAUBTA. DEATH OF CONSTANTINK. TBIPLK DIVISION OF THB EM-
PIBE. TBIUMPH OF CONSTANTIUS OVEB HIS BROTIIEES. STRUGGLE WITH MAGNEN-
TIUS. FATAL BATTLE OF MUESA. FATE OF GALLUS. ACCESSION AND APOSTAOY
OF JULIAN. His SOHOLAELY CHAEAOTKB. DEVELOPMENTS OF ENEEGY. HIB WAR
IN GAUL. SELECTION OF PARIS FOE HIS CAPITAL. His MELANCHOLY DEATH.
RETREAT OF THE ARMY. CHOICE OF VALENTINIAN. VALENB HIS ASSOCIATE.
ACCUMULATING WABS. DEATH OF VALENTINIAN I

CHAPTER XXIII.
THE DYNASTY OF THE GOTHS.

FBOM A. D. 875 TO A. D. 1085.

THB MARCH or THE HUNS. FLIGHT OF THE GOTHS TO ITALY. ENKBGY or YALKHB.
INGLORIOUS REIGN OF GRATJAN. THE REIGN OF THEODOSIUS. GOTHIC INVA-
SIONS. ALAEIO. ROMS BESIEGED. THE CONQUEST OF ROME. CAPTURE OF SICILY.

43AGAOITY OF ADOLPHUS. lilllEF DOMINION OF THE EA8TEEN EMPIRE OVEE Till

WEST. THE RAVAGES OF ATTILA. ANARCHY IN ITALY. KEPOS, ORESTES, AND
ODOACEB. INVASION OF THEODOBIO. JUSTINIAN AT CONSTANTINOPLE. THX CA-
BEEB or BELISAKIUS. CHARLEMAGNE AND His EMPIEE. THB REIGN OF THB
DOTES. SUBJECTION TO THEGBBMAN EMPKKOB - . i



CON1 E NTS. XT

CHAPTER XXIV.

THE ITALIAN REPUBLIC B.

FROM A. D. 1088 TO A, D. 128.

PAGl

D ACHSTBNTS or THE CHURCH. HILDEBRAND. HtrMiLiATiON OF THB EMPEROR
HENRY IV. DOMINION OF THE GERMAN EMPIBK OVER ITALY. WAR BETWEEN
THE EMPEROR AND LOMBARDT. SOUTHERN ITALY. OBOANIZATION OF THE KINO-
DOM OF NAPLES. THB NORMAN EMIGRATION. THB VENETIAN REPUBLIC. ITS
BIBB AKD VICISSITUDES. ITALIAN CHARACTER. THE CRUSADES. CONFLICT BE-
TWEEN HONORIUS III. AND FREDERIC II. ANARCHY IN ROME. CONQUEST OP THB
KINGDOM OF NAPLES BY CHARLES OF ANJOU. FLORENCE. ITS CONFLICTS 48



CHAPTER XXV.

ITALIAN ANARCHY.

FROM A. D. 12C6 TO A. D. 1400.

Tmm GUELPHS AND GHIBELLINES. TRAGIC FATE OF BONTFAZIO AND IMALDA. EX-
TENT OF THE PAPAL STATES. THE SICILIAN VESPERS. CONFLICT BETWEEN GENOA
AND PISA. RUIN OF PISA. STATE OF FLORENCE. OF SICILY. THE PAPAL COCTIT
REMOVED TO AVIGNON. THE ROMANCE OF ANDREW AND JOANNA. CONFLICT FOB
THE THRONE OF NAPLES. GENERAL VIEW OF ITALY. VENICE AND GENOA. THB
ANTAGONISTIC POPES. THEIR WARS. ACCESSION OF LADIBLAUS TO THB THBONB
or NAPLES. CRUEL FATE OF CONSTANCE



CHAPTER XXVI.

FRAGMENTARY ITALY

FROM A. D. 1400 TO A. D. 1600.

DAWK OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. SCHISM IN THE CHURCH. THE THREE POPES.
THE GREAT COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE. "Gooo OLD TIMES." BEATRICE TBNDA.
THE DUKES OF SAVOY. THE HOUBB OF MBDICI. EUROPB MENACED BY THB
TURKS. THE GREAT EUROPEAN MONARCHIES. FRAGMENTARY ITALY. LEO X.
FRENCH CONQUESTS. SPANISH CONQUESTS. THE EMPEROR CHARLES V. MASTER
or ITALY. PAPAL STRUGGLES. FATB OF FLORENCE. THE DUCHY OF PARMA
or TUSCANY 4T1



CHAPTER XXVII.

ITALY AT THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.
FBOM A. D. 1600 TO A. D. 1T96.

Tn DDOHY OF TUSCANY. VENICE. STATE OF ITALY IN THK SEVENTEENTH Cnr-
TtTBY. THE DUCHIES OF PARMA AND MODENA. RISE AND AGGBANDIZBMENT OF
THB DUKES OF SAVOY. STRUGGLES IN GENOA* WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION.
REPOSE IN ITALY. PEACE OF Aix LA CHAPELLE. NAPLES UNDER SPANISH
INFLUENCE. THE PAPAL POWER. ITALY AT THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE REVO-
LUTION. SARDINIA, TUSCANY, MODENA, GENOA, LOMBABDY, VENICE. WAB
AGAINST FRANCE. NAPOLEON IN ITALY. His VICTORIES AND HIS POLICY



XVi CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXVIII.
NAPOLEON IN ITALT.

FBOH A. D. 1796 TO A. D. 1809.

ri

ITALT ra 1T96. MEASURES OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE. MESSAGE TO THB POPB. THB
CISALPINE REPUBLIC. TROUBLES IN GENOA. STATB OF SOUTHERN ITALY. CAP-
TIVITY OF Pius VI. PIEDMONT ANNEXED TO FRANCE. ATROCITIES OF LORD NBL-
SON. NAPOLEON'S RETURN FEOH EGYPT. CAMPAIGN OF MARENGO. LETTER TO
IBB EllPEBOR OF AUSTRIA. LETTER TO THE KlNG feF ENGLAND. IMPERIAL FRANCE,
THE KINGDOM OF ITALY. THE BOURBONS OF NAPLES DETHRONED. POPE
Prim VIL A CAPTIVE. NAPOLEON'S DESIGNS FOR ITALY I



CHAPTER XXIX.

ITALY UNDER NAPOLEON, AND UNDER THE AU8TRIAN8.
FROM A. D. 1809 TO A. D. 1848.

KBINCB MBASUEES IN ITALY. CONDITION OF SICILY. OF SARDINIA. Or NAPLM.
JOSEPH BONAPARTE. MURAT. THE STATES OF THE CHURCH. THE KINGDOM or
ITALY. EUGSNE BEAUHARNAIS. ENCYCLOPEDIA AMERICANA UPON NAPOLEON.
THE FALL OF NAPOLBON. ITS EFFECTS UPON ITALY. THE AUSTRIAN .SWAY is
ITALY. EXECUTION OF MURAT. INSURRECTIONS. ENERGY OF AUSTRIA. STRUG-
GLES OF THE YEAR 1820. REVOLUTION OF 1880. RUIN OF THE ITALIAN PATRIOTS.

ACCESSION OF Louis NAPOLEOK. REVIVAL OF THE ITALIAN STRUGGLE



CHAPTER X XX.
AUSTRIAN TRIUMPHS AND D I 8 O M F I T U R E.

FROM A. D. 1848 TO A. D. 1860.

CONFLICT BETWEEN AUSTRIA AND SARDINIA. AUSTRIA TRIUMPHANT. CONCENTRA-
TION OF THE PATRIOTS IN ROME. RUIN OF THE POPULAR PARTY iw PIEDMONT.
HEROISM OF GARIBALDL RENEWAL OF THE WAR BETWEEN SARDINIA AND AUS-
TRIA. INTERVENTION OF FRANCE. PROCLAMATIONS. BATTLES OF MONTEBELLO,

i'ALKSTRO, AND MAGENTA SARDINIA AND LOMBARDY REGAINED. PRESENT BTATB

or ITALY. 333



CHAPTER XXXI.
FRENCH INTERVENTION 1 .

FROM A. D. 1860 TO A. D. 1870.
BIRTH AKD EXIT.*- BISTORT OF THE POPE. His SPIRIT OF REFORM. ASSASSI-

INTEBVENTION OF AUSTRIA, NAPLES, AND SPAIN. RECKLESSNESS OF THE IN-
SURGBKTS. FREKCH IKTEHVENTION. THE MODERATE REPUBLICANS AND THB
KBDS. VIEWS OF THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT. THE CAPTOKE OF ROME. IN-
eURRBCTION IV F ARIS. DISAPPOINTMENT OF THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT ftt



CONTENTS. rvii

CHAPTER XXXII.

ITALIAN UNITY.

PAH

STRIKING VIEWS OF NAPOLEON I. OBJECT OP THE CONGRESS or VIENNA. THE
CARBONARI. LETTER TO TUB POPE. Louis NAPOLEON IN ITALY. His NAR-
ROW ESCAPE. LETTER FROM MR. MORSE. INSURRECTIONS QUELLED. MA-
GENTA AND SOLFEBINO. PEACE OF VILLAFEANCA. VENETIA NOT LIBERATED;

AND WHY. VIEWS OF M. THIERS. FIDELITY OF LOUIS NAPOLEON TO THE

ITALIANS. ADDRESS TO THE CORPS LEGISLATIF. THE PAPAL STATES. DIF-
FICULTY OF THE QUESTION. SPEECH OF PHINCI NAPOLEON. VIEWS OF THB
EMPEBOB. IMPORTANT LETTER FROM TUB EMPESOK 588



CHAPTER XXXIIL
THE SEIZURE OF ROME.

NICE AND SAVOY. THE DEPUTATION AND THE EMPEBOB. THE STATES OF THS
CHURCH. THE EMBARRASSING QUESTION. PARTIES IN ITALY. RESULTS OF
SEDAN. AGITATION IN ITALY. DIPLOMATIC MEASUBES. MESSAGE TO THE
POPE. THE REPLY. PROCLAMATION OF VICTOB EMANUEL. THE MILITARY
MOVEMENT. THE CAPTURE OF ROME. THE LEONINE CITY. REMONSTRANCE
OF THE CATHOLICS 61J



APPENDIX.
LATER HISTORY.

THE AUTHOR'S DEATH. NEW CHAPTER BY ANOTHER HAND. EFFORTS TO
CONCILIATE THE PAPACY. PERPLEXING QUESTIONS. LOYALTY OF THE
KING TO FREE INSTITUTIONS. PAPAL GUARANTYS. THE RELIGIOUS
CORPORATIONS. RELIGION AND THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. DEATH OF VIC-
TOR EMANUEL, AND ACCESSION OF HUMBERT IV. DEATH OF Pius IX.,
AND ACCESSION OF LEO XIH. ATTITUDE OF THE NKW POPE. THE SUF-
FRAGE QUESTION. FIRST NATIONAL EXPOSITION. GREAT RELIGIOUS
CHANGES. DIATH OF GARIBAI.DI



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



ITALY

Frontispiece Destruction of Pompeii
The Bridge and Castle of St. Angelo
General Giuseppe Garibaldi
Victor Emanuel .



CHAPTER I.

LEGENDARY BOMB.
FEOM 700 B. o. TO 493 R a

THB ITALIAN PENINSULA. UNCERTAIN HISTORY. LEGEND OF TBOY. THB FLIGHT or
JSNEAS. LANDING IN ITALY. WARS WITH NATIVE TRIBES. ALBA LONOA. THB
STORY OF ROMULUS AND REMUS. THE FOUNDATION OF BOM*. THE RAPE OF TH
SABINES. CONTINUED CONQUESTS. TRANSLATION OF ROMULUS. TUB HORATII AND
CURIATII. CONQUEST OF ALBA LONGA. ACCESSION OF TARQUINIUS. SERYIUS TUL-
mrs. His DEMOCRATIC SWAT. ACCESSION OF TARQUINIUB SUPERBUS. THE BOOKS

OF THE SiBTL. THE &TOEY OF LuORETIA. BANUHMENT OF TARQUIH REION OF

THB CONSULS. INSURRECTION OF THE COMMONS.

fTlHE Italian peninsula extends from the foot of the Alps into
-*- the Mediterranean sea, about seven hundred and fifty
miles. Its breadth is very unequal. In the extreme north,
where it is bounded by the circular sweep of the Alps, which
separate the plains of Lombardy from Switzerland and the
Tyrol, the country presents a breadth of one hundred and fifty
miles. In the center it is but about eighty miles from the bay
of Naples to the Adriatic, while in Calabria the width dwindles
to but eighteen miles from sea to sea. The islands of Sicily,
Sardinia, and Corsica, with several others of minor importance,
have also been usually considered as a part of Italy. The area
of the main land, exclusive of these islands, is estimated at a
little over one hundred thousand square miles, being about
equal to all of New England and the State of New York.
Italy now contains twenty-five millions of inhabitants, and is
divided into several States, consisting of the two kingdoms
of Sardinia and Naples; Venetian Lombardy the Papal
States the hliputian republic of San Marino, and the four
duchies of Tuscany, Parma, Modena, and Lucca. A range of



18 ITALT

mountains, the Apennines, traverses the peninsula from north
to south, creating rivers, plains, and valleys, which, by the
common consent of mankind, have been pronounced to be
more beautiful than can be found elsewhere on the surface of
the globe. The soil is fertile, the climate remarkably genial,
and poetic inspiration has been exhausted in extolling the
purity of its breezes and the splendor of its skies.

The first glimpse we catch of Italy, through the haze of
past ages, is exceedingly dim and shadowy. Uncounted tribes
spread over the mountains and valleys, either tilling the fields
or herding their cattle, or pursuing wild beasts hi the chase.
Even the tradition, recorded by the Roman historians, of the
origin of the Roman empire, from a colony of fugitives escap-
ing from the sack of Troy, is deemed utterly devoid of foun-
dation in historic truth. These traditions, hi which history



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