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" PRINCE, I write to you for the first time
since the awful misfortune which has been
added to the sorrows of your family. Your
Highness is acquainted with the events of the
first years of this cruel exile. Many persons
who have visited Saint Helena have informed
you of what was still more interesting to you,
the manner of living and the unkind treat-
ment which aggravated the influence of a
deadly climate.

" In the last year of his life, the Emperor,
who for four years had taken no exercise, alter-
ed extremely in appearance. He became pale


Letter of General Bertraud.

and feeble. From that time his health deteri-
orated rapidly and visibly. He had always-
been in the habit of taking baths. He now
took them more frequently, and staid longer
in them. They appeared to relieve him for
the time. Latterly Dr. Antommarchi forbade
him their use, as he thought that they only in-
creased his weakness.

" In the month of August he took walking
exercise, but with difficulty ; he was forced to
stop every minute. In the first years he used
to walk while dictating. He walked about
his room, and thus did without the exercise
which he feared to take out-of-doors, lest he
should expose himself to insult. But latterly
his strength would not admit even of this.
He remained sitting nearly all day, and discon-
tinued almost all occupation. His health de-
clined sensibly every month.

"Once in September, and again in the begin-
ning of October he rode out, as his physicians
desired him to -take exercise; but he was so
weak that he was obliged to return in his car-
riage. He ceased to digest; shivering fits
came on, which extended even to the extremi-
ties. Hot towels applied to the feet gave him
some relief He suffered from these cold fit*

1821.] LIFE IN EXILE. 329

Letter of General Bertrand.

to the last hour of his life. As he could no
longer either walk or ride, he took several
drives in an open carriage at a foot pace, but
without gaining strength.

" He never took off his dressing-gown. His
stomach rejected food, and at the end of the
year he was forced to give up meat. He lived
upon jellies and soups. For some time he ate
scarcely any thing, and drank only a little
pure wine, hoping thus to support nature with-
out fatiguing the digestion ; but the vomiting
continued, and he returned to soups and jellies.
The remedies and tonics which were tried pro-
duced little effect. His body grew weaker
every day, but his mind retained its strength.
He liked reading and conversation. He did
not dictate much, although he did so from time
to time up to the last days of his life. He felt
that his end was approaching, and frequently
recited the passage from 'Zaire,' which closes
with this line :

" ' A revoir Paris je ne dois plus pr&endre.'

" Nevertheless the hope of leaving this
dreadful country often presented itself to his
imagination. Some newspaper articles and
false reports excited our expectations. We


Letter of General Bertram!.

sometimes fancied that we were on the eve of
starting for America. We read travels, we
made plans, we arrived at our house, we wan-
dered over that immense country, where alone
we might hope to enjoy liberty. Vain hopesl
vain projects I which only made us doubly feel
our misfortunes.

" They could not have been borne with more
serenity and courage I might almost add
gayety. He often said to us in the evening,
* Where shall we go? to the Thdatre Fran9ais
or to the Opera?' And then he would read a
tragedy by Corneille, Yoltaire, or Racine; an
opera of Quinault's, or one of Moliere's come-
dies. His strong mind and powerful character
were perhaps even more remarkable than on
that larger theatre where he eclipsed all that is
brightest in ancient and in modern history.
He often seemed to forget what he had been.
I was never tired of admiring his philosophy
and courage, the good sense and fortitude
which raised him above misfortune.

" At times, however, sad regrets and recol-
lections of what he had done, contrasted with
what he might have done, presented them-
selves. He talked of the past with perfect
frankness, persuaded that, on the whole, he

1821.] LIFE IN EXILE. 331

Letter of General Bertrand.

had done what he was required to do, and not
sharing the strange and contradictory opin
ions which we hear expressed every day on
events which are not understood by the speak-
ers. If the conversation took a melancholy
turn, he soon changed it. He loved to talk of
Corsica, of his old uncle Lucien, of his youth,
of you, and of all the rest of the family.

" Toward the middle of March fever came
on. From that time he scarcely left his bed
except for about half an hour in the day. He
seldom had the strength to shave. He now
for the first time became extremely thin. The
fits of vomiting became more frequent. He
then questioned the physicians upon the con-
formation of the stomach, and about a fortnight
before his death he had pretty nearly guessed
that he was dying of cancer. He was read to
almost every day, and dictated a few days be-
fore his decease. He often talked naturally as
to the probable mode of his death, but when
he became aware that it was approaching he
left off speaking on the subject. He thought
much about you and your children.

" To his last moments he was kind and af-
fectionate to us all. He did not appear to
suffer so much as might have been expected


Letter of General Bertrand.

from the cause of his death. When we ques-
tioned him he said that he suffered a little, but
that he could bear it. His memory declined
during the last five or six days. His deep
sighs, and his exclamations from time to time,
made us think that he was in great pain. He
looked at us with the penetrating glance which
you know so well. We tried to dissimulate,
but he was so used to reading our faces that
no doubt he frequently discovered our anxiety.
He felt too clearly the gradual decline of his
faculties not to be aware of his state.

"For the last two hours he neither spoke
nor moved. The only sound was his difficult
breathing, which gradually but regularly de-
creased. His pulse ceased. And so died, sur-
rounded by only a few servants, the man who
had dictated laws to the world, and whose life
should have been preserved for the sake of the
happiness and glory of our sorrowing country.

"Forgive, prince, a hurried letter, which
tells you so little when you wish to know so
much ; but I should never end if I attempted
to tell all. I must not omit to say that the Em-
peror was most anxious that his correspond-
ence with the different sovereigns of Europe
should be printed. He repeated this to us sev

1821.] LIFE IN EXILE. 333

Letter of General Bertrand.

eral times, 1 Jn his will the Emperor expressed
his wish that his remains should be buried in
France ; however, in the last days of his life,
he ordered me, if there was any difficulty about
it, to lay him by the side of the fountain whose
waters he had so long drunk."

Joseph loved his brother tenderly, and he
naver could speak without emotion of the in-
dignities and cruelties Napoleon suffered from
that ungenerous Government to whose mercy
he had so fatally confided himself. Anxious
to do every thing which he thought might grat-
ify the departed spirit of his brother, he im-
plored permission of Austria to visit Napole-
on's son, the Duke of Reichstadt, that he might

1 The Emperor was very desirous that his correspondence
with the allied sovereigns should be published. He wrote to
Joseph from Saint Helena to secure their publication in the
United States if possible. " It will be the best response," he
said, "to all the calumnies which have been uttered against
me." During Joseph's sojourn in England, he learned from
Dr. O'Meara that the autograph originals of these letters ad-
dressed by Napoleon to the sovereigns had been oifered for
sale in London in the year 1 822 ; that they had been in the
hands of Mr. Murray, a well-known publisher ; that the letters
relating to Russia had been purchased by a diplomatic agent
of that power for ten thousand pounds sterling. There was
no longer any hope of obtaining them, since they were in the
hands of those interested in having them destroyed. Me-
vioires et Correspondence, Politique et Militaire du Jloi Joseph,
toiite dixiemc, n. 231.


Marriage of Princess Charlotte.

sympathize with him in these hours of afflic-
tion. The Court of Austria refused his request

In 1824, Joseph's youngest daughter, the
Princess Charlotte, left Point Breeze to join her
mother in Europe, where she was to be married
to Charles Napoleon Louis Bonaparte, the son
of Louis and Hortense, and the elder brother of
the present Emperor of the French. The tastes
of Joseph inclined him to the country, and to
its peaceful pursuits. He had, however, a city
residence in Philadelphia, where he usually
passed the winters. While thus residing on
the banks of the Delaware, sadly retracing the
memorable events of the past and recording its
scenes, he received a proposition which sur-
prised and gratified him. A deputation of
Mexicans waited upon him at Point Breeze,
and urged him to accept the crown of Mexico.
The former King of Naples and of Spain in the
following terms responded to the invitation :

"I have worn two crowns. I would not
take a single step to obtain a third. Nothing
could be more flattering to me than to see the
men who, when I was at Madrid, werejunwil-
ling to recognize my authority, come to-day to
geek me, in exile, to place the crown upon my
head. But I do not think that the throne


The Crown of Mexico. Visit of La Fayette.

which you wish to erect anew can promote
your happiness. Every day I spend upon the
hospitable soil of the United States demon-
strates to me more fully the excellence of re-
publican institutions for America. Guard
them, then, as a precious gift of Providence;
cease your intestine quarrels ; imitate the
United States and seek from the midst of
your fellow citizens a man more capable
than I am to act the grand part of Washing-
ton. 1

When La Fayette in 1824 made his tri-
umphal tour through the United States, he
visited Point Breeze to pay his respects to the
brother of the Emperor. Upon that occasion
the marquis expressed deep regret in view of
the course he had pursued at the time of the
abdication of Napoleon.

" The dynasty of the Bourbons," said he,
"can not maintain itself. It too manifestly
wounds the national sentiment. We are all
persuaded in France that the son of the Em-
peror alone can represent the interests of the
devolution. Place two million francs at the
disposal of our committee, and I promise you

* Qnelqne Mot sur Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, par Na-
poleon III.


General Lamarque.

that in two years Napoleon II. 1 will be upon
the throne of France.""

Joseph, however, did not think it best to
embark at that time in any new enterprise for
the restoration of popular rights to France.
The Bourbon throne seemed to be for a time
firmly established. Joseph was getting to be
advanced in years. The storms of his life had
been so severe that he longed only for repose.

The following extracts from the correspond-
ence of Joseph, while he was an exile in Amer-
ica, throw interesting light upon his political
principles and upon his social character. Gen-
eral Lamarque was one of the veteran gener-
als of the Empire. After the restoration of
the Bourbons, he was highly distinguished for
his eloquence in the Tribune as the antagonist
of aristocratic privilege. Napoleon, when on
his death-bed at Saint Helena, in view of his
earnest support of popular rights, both on the
battle-field and in the Chamber of Deputies,
recommended him for a marshal of France.
Those friends of the Empire who had been pros-

1 The Duke of Reichstadt, son of the Emperor, then thir-
teen years of age, living at Vienna, in the Court of the Em-
peror of Austria, his grandfather. He died of consumption
in July, 1832.

1 CEuvres de Napoleon III., tome deuxieme, p. 439.

1824.J LIFE IN EXILE. 337

Letter from General Lamarque.

ecuted for the part they took in the Hundred
Days, had found in him a zealous friend. His
devotion to the interests of Poland had secured
for him the homage of that chivalrous people.
The liberal party in France, with great unanim-
ity, regarded him as their leader. Upon the
occasion of his funeral, in June, 1832, the Lib-
erals in Paris made a desperate endeavor to
overthrow the government of Louis Philippe.
The insurgents numbered over one hundred
thousand. The attempt was bloodily repulsed
by the royalist troops. On the 27th of March,
1824, General Lamarque wrote a letter from
Paris to Joseph, from which we make the fol-
lowing extracts:

" MONSIEUR LE COMTE, The memory of
your kindnesses lives as vividly in my heart
as on the day in which I received them, and I
ever seek occasions to prove this to you. Al-
ready I have refuted, in many articles of the
journals, the atrocious calumnies which have
been published against you, and I ever avow
myself to the world as your admirer and grate-
ful friend. Be assured that your reputation is
honorable and glorious. Truth has already
dispelled many clouds ; soon it will shine forth
in all its brilliance.



Letter from General Lamarque.

"You do well to consecrate a portion of
your time to writing your memoirs. It seems
to me that the part most interesting will be
your reign in Naples. You were there truly
the philosopher upon the throne, which Plato
desired for the interests of humanity. I recall
your journeys in which you urged upon the
nobles love for the people ; upon the priests
tolerance; upon the military, order and moder-
ation. Not being able to establish political
liberty, you wished to confer upon your sub-
jects all the benefits of municipal regime, which
you regarded as the foundation of all institu-

" Under your reign too short for a nation
which has so deeply regretted you feudalism
was destroyed, brigandage disappeared, the sys-
tem of imposts was changed, order was estab-
lished in the finances, administration created,,
the nobles and the people reconciled, new
routes opened in all directions, the capital em-
bellished, the army and marine reorganized,
the English driven out of the whole realm, and
Gae'ta, Scylla, Reggio, Manthea, and Amanthea

" Your memoirs will be a lesson for kings.
But that they may be received with the relig-

1824] LITE IN EXILE. 339

Letter from General Lamarque.

ious respect due to a great misfortune, it seems
to me that you ought to efface yourself from
the scene of the world, that your writings
should be like a voice coming from the depths
of the tomb, and that you should only ask of
your contemporaries not to calumniate and
hate the memory of a man who, having attain-
ed the height of all dignities, has descended
from it with serenity, with resignation, and al-
most with pleasure. As to Spain, were I in
your place, I should say but one word ; that
word would be regret in not having been able
to accomplish for Spain the good which was
accomplished for Naples.

" Like you, I have been proscribed. Like
you, I have wandered in foreign lands, breath-
ing always wishes for my country. I know
how irritable and sensitive one thus is, and
how keenly one feels the attacks of his ene-
mies. But upon my return I perceived that
in exile we exaggerate the importance of such
attacks. Let not the calumnies which reach
you, after having traversed the seas, disturb
for a mo/nent your domestic happiness, and
the calm of your situation. They are the last
gusts of the tempest, the last noise of the ex*
piling waves."


Letter to Francis Leiber.

In a letter to Francis Leiber, dated July 1,
1829, Joseph writes :

" Walter Scott wrote for the English Gov-
ernment, and from information furnished him
by the Government which succeeded that of
the Emperor Napoleon. Napoleon found
France in delirium. He wished to rescue it
from the anarchy of 1793, and from a counter-
revolution. That he well understood the na-
tional will, his miraculous return from the isle
of Elba will prove sufficiently to posterity.
The English Cabinet always prevented the sur-
render of his dictatorship by perpetuating the
war. Napoleon was thus under the necessity
of assuming the forms of the other govern-
ments of Continental Europe, to reconcile them
with France. All that which Napoleon did,
his nobility (which was not feudal), his family
relations, his Legion of Honor, his new realms,
etc., he was under the necessity of doing. The
English ever forced him to these acts, that he
might put himself in apparent harmony with
all those governments which he had conquer-
ed, and which he wished to withdraw from the
seduction of England. Napoleon often said to
me, ' Ten years more are necessary in order to
give entire liberty. I can not do what I wish,

1830.] LIFE IN EXILE. 341

Letter to La Fayette.

but only what I can. These English compel
me to live day by day.' "

As the tidings reached the ears of Joseph
of the great Revolution of 1830 in France, in
which the throne of Charles X. was demol-
ished, he wrote to La Fayette under date of
Sept. 7, 1830 :

"MY DEAR GENERAL, General Lallemand,
who will hand you this letter, will recall me to
your memory. He will tell you with what
enthusiasm the population of this country,
American and French, have received the news
of the glorious events of which Paris has been
the theatre. If I had not seen at the head of
affairs a name 1 with which mine can never be
in accord, I should be with you immediately
with General Lallemand. You will recall our
interview in this hospitable and free land. My
sentiments are as invariable as yours and those
of my family. Every thing for the French people.

" Doubtless I can not forget that my neph-
ew, Napoleon II., 8 was proclaimed by the
Chamber which, in 1815, was dissolved by the
bayonets of foreigners. Faithful to the motto
of my family, Every thing by France and for

1 Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans.

' Napoleon's son, the Duke of Reichstadt.


Letter to La Fayette.

France, I wish to discharge my duties to her.
You know my opinions, long ago proclaimed.
Individuals and families can have only duties
to fulfill in their relation to nations. The na-
tions have rights to exercise. If the French
nation should call to the head of affairs the
most obscure family, I think that we ought to
submit to its will entirely. The nation alone
has the right to destroy its work.

"I ask for the abolition of that tyrannic law
which has shut out from France a family which
had opened the kingdom to all those French-
men whom the Revolution had expelled. I
protest against any election made by private
corporations, or by bodies not having obtained
from the nation the powers which the nation
alone has the right to confer.

"Adieu, my dear general. My letter proves
to you the justice I render to the sentiments
you expressed to me during the triumphal
journey you made among this people, where I
have seen, for fifteen years, that liberty is not
a chimera, that it is a blessing which a na-
tion, moderate and wise, can enjoy when it

To Maria Louisa, daughter of the Emperor
of Austria, and mother of the Duke of Reich-

1830.] LIFE IN EXILE. 343

Letter to Maria Louisa.

stadt, Joseph wrote the next day, September
10, as follows :

" MADAME MY SISTER, The events which
transpired in Paris at the close of July, and of
which we have received intelligence, through
the English journals, to the 1st of August, re-
move the principal difficulties in the way of the
return of Napoleon II. to the throne of his fa-
ther. If the Emperor, his grandfather, 1 lends
him the least support, if he will permit that,
under my guidance, he may show himself to
the French people, his presence alone will re-
establish him upon the throne. The Duke of
Orleans can rally around him partisans, only
in consequence of the absence of the son of
your Majesty. It is his re -establishment in
France which alone can reunite all parties, sti-
fle the germs of a new revolution, and thus
secure the tranquillity of Europe.

"If I were in a position to unfold to your
august father the reasons which render this
step indispensable on his part at this moment,
he could have no doubt of its imperious neces-
sity. His ministry would perceive that the
happiness of his grandson, that of France, the
tranquillity of Italy, and perhaps of the rest of

1 The Emperor of Austria.


Letter to Prince Metternich.

Europe, depend upon the re-establishment of
the throne of Napoleon II. He is the only one
chosen by the voice of the nation. He alone
can prevent a new revolution the results of
which no mortal can foresee. I hope that the
many misfortunes which we have encountered
have not eifaced from the heart of your Majesty
the affection she has manifested for me under
diverse circumstances. I can only offer to her
myself for her son. For a long time I have
been disabused of the illusions of human grand-
eur ; but I am more than ever the slave of that
which I deem to be my duty."

On the 18th of September, 1830, Joseph
wrote a letter to the Emperor of Austria, which
he inclosed in a letter of the same date to
Prince Metternich. In his letter to Metternich,
Joseph wrote:

"I do not doubt, sir, that you desire the wel-
fare of the grandson of the Emperor whom you
have so long served, the welfare of Austria, the
tranquillity of Europe, and even of France, if
these are all reconcilable. I am convinced
that they are to-day perfectly reconcilable, and
that Napoleon II. restored to the wishes of the
French people can alone secure all these re-
sults. I offer myself to serve him as a guide

1830.] LIFE IN EXILE. 345

Letter to the Kmperor of Austria.

The happiness of my county the peace of the
world, will be the noble ends of my ambition.

" Napoleon II. arriving in France under the
national colors, conducted by a man whose sen-
timents and patriotic affections are well known,
can alone prevent the usurpation of the Duke
of Orleans, who, being neither called to the
throne by the rights of succession nor by the
national will, clearly and legitimately express-
ed, can maintain himself in power only by
caressing all parties, and finally becoming sub-
ordinate to the one which offers him the best
chances of success, whatever may be the means
to be employed for that end."

Joseph's letter to the Emperor of Austria
contained the following expressions: "The
particular esteem with which the virtues of
your Majesty inspire me, embolden me to re-
call myself to his recollection under circum-
stances in which the general welfare appears to
me to be in accord with the sentiments of his
heart, that he may restore to the wishes of the
French people a prince who alone can confer
upon them internal peace, and assure the tran-
quillity of Europe. This peace and tranquil-
lity would be disturbed by the efforts which
must be made to sustain in France a govern-


Letter to the Emperor of Austria.

merit of usurpation like that of the Duke of Or-
leans, or even a republic, if the absence of the
son of Napoleon, the grandson of your Majesty,
should constrain the nation, thus abandoned by
the prince of its choice, to surrender itself to
another form of government. Sire, if you
will entrust to me the son of my brother, that
son whom he enjoined, upon his death-bed, to
follow my advice in returning to France, I
guarantee the success of the enterprise. Alone,
with a tri-color scarf, will Napoleon II. be pro-

" Will it be necessary for me to speak of
myself to your Majesty to give him confidence
in my character ? Must I recall to his remem-
brance that, after the treaty of Luneville, he
-communicated to me, through an autograph
letter to Count Cobentzl, that the opinion he
had formed of my moderation, was such that
he would with pleasure see me placed upon
the throne of Lombardy ? I refused that throne.
I preferred to remain in France. Since then,
#t Naples, in Spain, has that character been
falsified ?

"To-day, as then, I am guided by the single

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