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baki, to Jean d'Acre, to communicate to Na-
poleon the state of affairs.

Informed of these facts, at this momentous
crisis Napoleon, having attained renown which


Return of Napoleon. Remarks of Moreau.

caused every eye in France to be fixed upon
him, landed at Frejus, and was borne along,
with the acclamations of the multitude, to Paris.
Immediately upon the young general's arrival,
General Moreau hastened to his humble resi-
dence in the Rue de la Victoire, and earnestly
said to him,

" Disgusted with the government of the law-
yers, who have ruined the Republic, I come to
offer you my aid to save the country."

A number of the most distinguished men
of France crowded the small parlors of Gener-
al Bonaparte. As he was speaking, with that
genius which ever commanded attention and
assent, of the political condition and wants of
France, Moreau interrupted him, saying,

" I only desire to unite my efforts with
yours to save France. I am convinced that you
only have the power. The generals and the
officers who have served under me are now in
Paris, and are ready to co-operate with you."
The little saloon was crowded. General Mac-
donald was present Generals Jourdan and
Augereau had conversed with Salcetti, and re
ported that Bernadotte and a majority of the
Council of Five Hundred were in favor of the


18th Brumaire.

Joseph co-operated diligently with Napole-
on in the measures now set on foot to rescue
France from destruction. Joseph dined with
Sie'yes. At the table Sie'yes said to his guests,

" I wish to unite with General Bonaparte,
for of all the military men he is the most of a

On the 18th Brumaire 1 the Directory was
overthrown, and, without one drop of blood
being shed, a new government was organized,
and Napoleon was made consul. The world
is divided, and perhaps may forever remain di-
vided, in its judgment of this event. Some
call Napoleon a usurper. France then called
him, and still calls him, the saviour of his

In the midst of these tumultuary scenes,
when it was uncertain whether Napoleon
would gain his ends or fall upon the scaffold,
General Augereau came, in great alarm, to St.
Cloud, and informed Napoleon that his ene-
mies in the two councils were proposing to
vote him an outlaw.

" Very well," said Napoleon calmly, " you
and I, General Augereau, have long been ac-
quainted with each other. Say to your friends

18tk Brvmaire, Nov. 9th, 1799.


Character of Joseph.

the cork is drawn, we must now drink the

Joseph Bonaparte, who a little before these
events had withdrawn from the Council of
Five Hundred, was with his brother constant-
ly through these momentous scenes. Imme-
diately after the establishment of the new gov-
ernment he was appointed a member of the
legislative body, and soon after of the Council
of State. Joseph had become a very wealthy
man, having acquired a large fortune by his
marriage. He owned a very beautiful estate
at Mortfontaine, but a few leagues from Paris.
Both Joseph and his wife were extremely fond
of the quiet, domestic pleasures of rural life.
Neither of them had any taste for the excite-
ment and the splendors of state. But France,
in her condition of peril, assailed by the al-
lied despotism of Europe without, and agita-
ted by conspiracies within, demanded the ener-
gies of every patriotic arm. Joseph was thus
constrained to sacrifice his inclinations to his
sense of duty. He rendered his brother in-
valuable assistance by the energy and the con-
ciliatory manners with which he endeavored
to carry out the plans of the First Consul.
Lucien Bonaparte, eight years younger than


Plans and Measures of Napoleon.

Joseph, accepted the post of Minister of the

Before the overthrow of the Directory mob
Jaw had reigned triumphant in Paris. Napo-
leon, as first consul, immediately took up his
residence in the palace of the Tuileries. It was
proposed to him that he should close the gates
of the garden of the Tuileries, that it might no
longer be a place of public resort. Joseph
strenuously opposed the measure, and it was
renounced. The great object Napoleon aimed
at was to ascertain the wishes of the people,
that he might be the executor of their will.
His only power consisted in having cordially
with him the masses of the population. He
was untiring in his endeavors to ascertain pub-
lic sentiment, and endeavored to adopt those
measures which should, from their manifest
wisdom and justice, secure public approbation.
In this service Joseph was invaluable to his
brother. He gave brilliant entertainments at
his chateau at Mortfontaine ; and being a man
of remarkably amiable spirit and polished man-
ners, he secured the confidence of all parties,
and exerted a very powerful influence in heal-
ing the wounds of past strife. At these enter-
tainments Joseph made it his constant object


Joseph an Ambassador.

to study the wishes and the opinions of the
different classes of society.

The Directory had involved the public in
serious difficulties with the United States. Na-
poleon immediately appointed Joseph, with two
associates, to adjust all the differences between
the two countries. As both parties were dis-
posed to friendly relations, all difficulties were
speedily terminated, and a treaty was signed
on the 30th of September, 1800, at Joseph's
mansion at Mortfontaine.

England and Austria, with great vigor, still
pressed the war upon France, notwithstanding
the earnest appeals of Napoleon to the King of
England and the Emperor of Austria in behalf
of peace. This refusal to sheathe the sword
rendered the campaign of Marengo a necessi-
ty. Napoleon crossed the Alps, and upon the
plains of Marengo almost demolished the ar-
mies of Austria. The haughty Emperor was
compelled to sue for that peace which he had
so scornfully rejected. The commissioners of
the two powers met at Luneville. Napoleon,
highly gratified at the skill which Joseph had
displayed in adjusting the difficulties in the
United States, appointed him as the ambassa-
dor from France to secure a treaty with Aus-


Peace of Lunerille. Hostility of England.

tria. The two brothers were in daily, and
sometimes in hourly conference in reference to
the questions of vast national importance which
this treaty involved. But Joseph was again
entirely successful. On the 9th of February,
1801, the peace of Luneville was concluded, to
the great satisfaction of the Emperor, and to
the great gratification of France. Napoleon
says, in the conclusion of a letter which he

/ *

wrote to Joseph upon this subject, "The na-
tion is satisfied with the treaty, and I am ex-
ceedingly pleased with it."

France was now at peace with all the Con-
tinent. England alone implacably continued
the war. But England was inaccessible to any
blows which France could strike without mak-
ing efforts more gigantic than nation ever at-
tempted before. Napoleon resolved to make
these efforts to attain peace. He prepared al-
most to bridge the Channel with his fleet and
gun-boats, that he might pour an army of in-
vasion upon the shores of the belligerent isle,
and thus compel the British to sheathe the
sword. While these immense preparations
were going on, the First Consul devoted his
energies to the reconstruction of society in


Religious Reaction.

Revolutionary fury had swept all the institu-
tions of the past into chaotic ruin. The good
and the bad had been alike demolished. Chris-
tianity had been entirely overthrown, her
churches destroyed, and her priesthood either
slaughtered upon the guillotine, or driven from
the realm. France presented the revolting as-
pect of a mighty nation without morality, with-
out religion, and without a God. The masses
of the people, particularly in the rural districts
of France, had become disgusted with the reign
of vice and misery. They longed to enjoy
again the quietude of the Sabbath morning,
the tones of the Sabbath bell, the gathering of
the congregations in the churches, and all those
ministrations of religion which cheer the joy-
ous hours of the bridal, and which convey
solace to the chamber of death. The over-
whelming majority of the people of France
were Roman Catholics. Among the millions
who peopled the extensive realm there were
but a few thousands who were Protestants.
Napoleon had not the power, even had he
wished it, of establishing Protestantism as the
national religion.

He therefore, in accordance with his policy
of adopting those measures which were in ac-


The Concordat.

cordance with the wishes of the people, resolved
to recognize the Catholic religion as the relig-
ion of France, while at the same time he en-
forced perfect liberty of conscience for all other
religious sects. He also determined that all
the high dignitaries of the Church should be
appointed by the French Government, and not
by the Pope. He deemed it not befitting the
dignity of France, or in accordance with her
interests, that a foreign potentate, by having
the appointment of all the places of ecclesiasti-
cal power, should wield so immense an influ-
ence over the French people.

But to re-establish the Catholic religion, and
to invest it with the supremacy which it had
gained over the imaginations of men, it was
necessary to bring the system under the pater-
nal jurisdiction of the Pope, who throughout
all Europe was the recognized father and head
of the Church.

But the Pope was jealous of his power. He
would be slow to consent that any officers of
the Church should be appointed by any voice
which did not emanate from the Vatican. It
was also an established decree of the Church
that heresy was a crime, meriting the severest
punishment, both civil and ecclesiastical. The


The Concordat.

Pope, therefore, could not consent that any-
where within his spiritual domain freedom of
conscience should be tolerated. Under these
circumstances, nothing could be more difficult
than the accomplishment of the plan which.
Napoleon had proposed for the promotion oi
the peace and prosperity of France.

The eyes of the First Consul were imme-
diately turned to his brother Joseph, as the most
fitting man in France to conduct negotiations
of so much delicacy and importance. He con-
sequently was appointed, in conjunction with
M. Crete t, Minister of the Interior, and the
abbe' Bernier, subsequently Bishop of Orleans
as commissioner on the part of France to a
conference with the Holy See. The Pope sent,
as his representatives, the cardinals Consalvi
and Spina, and the father Caselli. Here again
Joseph was entirely successful, and accomplish-
ed his mission by securing all those results
which theFirst Consul so earnestly had de-

The celebrated Concordat 1 was signed July

1 "I hold it for certain that in 1802 the Concordat was, on
the part of Napoleon, an act of superior intelligence, much
more than of a despotic spirit, and for the Christian religion
in France an event as salutary as it was necessary. After
the anarchy and the revolutionary orgies, the solemn recog-


The Re-ertablishment of Christianity.

15th, 1801, at the residence of Joseph in Far-
is, in the Rue Faubourg St. Honord It was
two o'clock in the morning when the signa-
tures of the several commissioners were affixed
to this important document

" At the same hour," writes Joseph, " I be-
came the father of a third infant, whose birtb
was saluted by the congratulations of the plen-
ipotentiaries of the two great powers, and
whose prosperity was augured by the envoys
of the vicar of Christ Their prayers have not
been granted. A widow at thirty years of
age, separated from her father, proscribed, as
has been all the rest of her family, there only
remains to her the consolation of reflecting
that she has not merited her misfortunes." 1

Thus did Napoleon re-establish the Chris-
tian religion throughout the whole territory of
France. In this measure he was strenuously
opposed by many of his leading officers, and by

nition of Christianity by the State could alone give satisfac-
tion to public sentiment, and assure to the Christian influ-
ence the dignity and the stability which it was needful that
it should recover." Meditations sur I'e'tat Actuel de la Re-
ligion Chretienne, par M. Guizot, p. 5.

1 This daughter subsequently married her cousin, the
brother of the Emperor Napoleon III., the second son of
Louis Bonaparte. He died at an early age, in a campaign for
the liberation of Italy.


The Re-establishment of Christianity.

the corrupt revolutionary circles of France, yet
throughout all the rural districts the restora-
tion of religion was received with boundless

" The sound of the village bells," writes
Alison, " again calling the faithful to the house
of God, was hailed by millions as the dove with
the olive-branch, which first pronounced peace
to the green, undeluged earth. The thought-
ful and religious everywhere justly considered
the voluntary return of a great nation to the
creed of its fathers, from the experienced im-
possibility of living without its precepts, as the
most signal triumph which has occurred since
it ascended the imperial throne under the ban-
ners of Constantine."

Nearly all the powers upon the Continent
of Europe were now at peace with France.
England alone still refused to sheathe the
sword. But the people of England began to
remonstrate so determinedly against this end-
less war, which was openly waged to force
upon France a detested dynasty, that the Eng-
lish Government was compelled, though with
much reluctance, to listen to proposals for

The latter part of the year 1801, the pleni-


Peace of Amiens.

potentiaries of France and England met at
Amiens, an intermediate point between Lon
don and Paris. England appointed, as her am
bassador, Lord Cornwallis, a nobleman of ex-
alted character, and whose lofty spirit of honor
was superior to every temptation. " The First
Consul," writes Thiers, " on this occasion made
choice of his brother Joseph, for whom he had
a very particular affection, and who, by the
amenity of his manners, and mildness of his
character, was singularly well adapted for a
peace-maker, an office which had been con
stantly reserved for him."

Napoleon, who had nothing to gain by war,
was exceedingly anxious for peace with all the
world, that he might reconstruct French soci-
ety from the chaos into which revolutionar}'
anarchy had plunged it, and that he might
develop the boundless resources of France.
Lord Cornwallis was received in Paris, with
the utmost cordiality by Napoleon. Joseph
Bonaparte gave, in his honor, a magnificent
entertainment, to which all the distinguished
Englishmen in France were invited, and also
such Frenchmen of note as he supposed Lonf
Cornwallis would be glad to meet.

La Fayette was not invited. Cornwallis had


Anecdote of Lord Cornwallig,

commanded an army in America, where he had
met La layette on fields of blood, and where
he subsequently, with his whole army, had been
token prisoner. Joseph thought that painful as-
sociations might be excited in the bosom of his
English guest by meeting his successful antag-
onist. He therefore, from a sense of delicacy,
avoided bringing them together. But Corn-
wallis was a man of generous nature. As he
looked around upon the numerous guests as-
sembled at the table, he said to Joseph,

" I know that the Marquis de la Fayette is
one of your friends. It would have given me
much pleasure to have met him here. I do
not, however, complain of your diplomatic cau-
tion. I suppose that you did not wish to in-
troduce to me at your table the general of
Georgetown. I thank you for your kind in-
tention, which I fully appreciate. But I hope
that when we know each other better, we shall
banish all reserve, and not act as diplomatists,
but as men who sincerely desire to fulfill the
wishes of their governments, nnd to arrive
promptly at a solid peace. Moreover, the
Marquis de la Fayette is one of those men
whom we can not help loving. During his
captivity I presented myself before the Em-



peror (of Germany) to implore his liberation,
which I did not have the happiness of obtain-

Cornwallis left Paris for Amiens. Joseph
immediately after proceeded to the same place.
As he alighted from his carriage in the court-
yard of the hotel which had been prepared for
him, one of the first persons whom he met was
Lord Cornwallis. The English lord, disregard-
ing the formalities of etiquette, advanced, and
presenting his hand to Joseph, said,

"I hope that it is thus that you will deal
with me, and that all our etiquette will not re-
tard for a single hour the conclusion of peace.
Such forms are not necessary where frankness
and honest intentions rule. My Government
would not have chosen me as an ambassador,
if it had not been intended to restore peace to
the world. The First Consul, in choosing his
brother, has also proved his good intentions.
The rest remains for us."

Louis Napoleon gives the following rather
amusing account of this incident. "When
Joseph, plenipotentiary of the French Kepub-
lic, journeyed with his colleagues toward Ami-
ens, to conclude peace with England, in 1802,
they were much occupied, he said, during the



Hostility of the English Government.

route, as to the ceremonial which should be
observed with the English diplomatists. In
the interests of their mission they desired not
to fail in any proprieties. Still, being repre-
sentatives of a republican state, they did not
wish to show too much attention, prevenance,
to the grand English lords with whom they
were to treat.

"The French ambassadors were therefore
much embarrassed in deciding to whom it be-
longed to make the first visit. Quite inexpe-
rienced, they were not aware that foreign diplo-
matists always conceal the inflexibility of their
policy under the suppleness of forms. Thus
they were promptly extricated from their em-
barrassment ; for, to their great astonishment,
they found, upon their arrival at Amiens, Lord
Cornwallis waiting for them at the door of his
hotel, and who, without any ceremony, him-
self opened for them the door of their carriage,
giving them a cordial grasp of the hand." 1

Lord Cornwallis, however, found himself in-
cessantly embarrassed by instructions he was
receiving from the ministry at London. They
were very reluctantly consenting to peace, be-
ing forced to it by the pressure of public opin-
1 GEuvres de Napoleon III. tome ii. p. 456.


. Treaty of Amiens Concluded.

ion. They were, therefore, hoping that obsta-
cles would arise which would enable them,
with some plausibility, to renew the war. Na-
poleon continually wrote to his brother urging
him to do every thing in his power to secure
the signing of the treaty. In a letter on the
10th of March, he writes,

"The differences at Amiens are not worth
making such a noise about. A letter from
Amiens caused the alarm in London by assert-
ing that I did not wish for peace. Under
these circumstances delay will do real mischief,
and may be of great consequence to our squad-
rons and our expeditions. Have the kindness,
therefore, to send special couriers to inform me
of what you are doing, and of what you hear;
for it is clear to me that, if the terms of peace
are not already signed, there is a change of
plans in London."

The treaty was signed on the 25th of March,
1802. Joseph immediately prepared to return
to Paris. Lord Cornwallis, in taking leave of
Joseph, said,

" I must go as soon as possible to London, in
order to allay the storm which will there be
gathering against me."

"When I arrived in Paris," writes Joseph,


Bernardin de St. Pierre.

"the First Consul was at the opera; he
caused me to enter into his box, and presented
me to the public in announcing the conclusion
of the peace. One can easily imagine the emo-
tions which agitated me, and also him, for he
was as tender a friend, and as kind a brother,
as he was prodigious as a man and great as a

Bernardin de St. Pierre, in his preface to
" Paul and Virginia," renders the following
homage to the character of Joseph at this time:

" About a year and a half ago I was invi-
ted by one of the subscribers to the fine edi-
tion of Paul and Virginia to come and see him
at his country-house. He was a young father
of a family, wh/>se physiognomy announced
the qualities of his mind. He united in him-
self every thing which distinguishes as a son,
a brother, a husband, a father, and a friend to
humanity. He took me in private, and said,
4 My fortune, which I owe to the nation, af-
fords me the means of being useful. Add to
my happiness by giving me an opportunity of
contributing to your own.' This philosopher,
so worthy of a throne, if any throne were
worthy of him, was Prince Joseph Napoleon


Talleyrand. Madame de Stael.

While the treaty of Amiens was under dis-
cussion, Talleyrand wrote to Joseph : " Your lot
will indeed be a happy one if you are able to
secure for your brother that peace which alone
his enemies fear. I embrace you, and I love
you. I think that this affair will kill me un-
less it is closed as we desire."

At the conclusion of the treaty, Talleyrand
again wrote: "Mr DEAR JOSEPH, Citizen
Dupuis has just arrived. He has been re-
ceived by the First Consul as the bearer of
such good, grand, glorious news as you have
just sent by him should be received. Your
brother is perfectly satisfied (parfaitement con-

Madame de Stael wrote to Joseph : " Peace
with England is the joy of the world. It adds
to my joy that it is you who have promoted it.
and that every year you have some new occa-
sion to make the whole nation love and ap-
plaud you. You have terminated the most
important negotiation in the history of Franco.
That glory will be without any alloy."


Rupture of the Peace of Amiens.



THE peace of Amiens was of short duration.
In May, 1803 but fourteen months after
the signing of the treaty England again re-
newed hostilities without even a declaration of
war. This was the signal for new scenes of
blood and woe. Napoleon now resolved to as-
sail his implacable foe by carrying his armies
into the heart ot England. Enormous prep-
arations were made upon the French coast to
transport a resistless force across the Channel.
Joseph Bonaparte was placed in command of
a regiment of the line, which had recently re-
turned, with great renown, from the fields of

In the midst of these preparations, which
excited fearful apprehensions in England, the
British Government succeeded in organizing
another coalition with Austria and Russia, to
fall upon France in the rear. The armies of


Rupture of the Peace of Amiens.

these gigantic Northern powers commenced
their march toward the Rhine. Napoleon
broke up the camp of Boulogne and advanced
to meet them. The immortal campaigns of
Ulm and Austerlitz were the result. Incredi-
ble as it may seem, England represented this
as an unprovoked invasion of Germany by
Napoleon. This incessant assault of the Al-
lies upon France was a great grief to the Em-
peror. In the midst of all the distractions
which preceded this triumphant march, he
wrote to his Minister of Finance :

"I am distressed beyond measure at the ne-
cessities of my situation, which, by compelling
me to live in camps, and engage in distant ex-
peditions, withdraw my attention from what
would otherwise be the chief object of my
anxiety, and the first wish of my heart a
good and solid organization of all which con-
cerns the interests of banks, manufactures, and

While Napoleon was absent upon this cam-
paign, Joseph was left in Paris, to attend to the
administration of home affairs. This he did,

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