John S. C. (John Stevens Cabot) Abbott.

The empire of Austria: its rise and present power online

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CHARLES THE FIFTH.



The Monarchies of Continental Europe,



THE



EMPIRE OF AUSTRIA



RISE AND PRESENT POWER.



BY ^

JOHN S. C. ABBOTT.



\''



WITH AN APPENDIX BY ANOTHER HAND,
CONTINUING THE HISTORY TO DATE.



fS£P 291882^1




IK:

DODD, MEAD, AND COMPANY,
751 Broadway.



of^



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^ .4>



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1858, by

MASON BROTHERS,

In the Clerk's Office of the Bistrict Court for the Southern District of New York.

Copyright, 1877,
By estate of JOHN S. C. ABBOTT.



Copyright by Dodd, Mead, and Company, 1882.



Stereotyped and Printed by

Rand, Avery, and Company,

iiy Franklin Street,

Boston.



PREFACE.

The studies of the author of this work, for the last ten
years, in writing the "History of Napoleon Bonaparte," and
"The French Revolution of 1789," have necessarily made
him quite familiar with the monarchies of Europe. He has
met with so much that was strange and romantic in their
career, that he has been interested to undertake, as it were, a
hiography of the Monarchies of Continental Europe — their
birth, education, exploits, progress and present condition. He
has commenced with Austria.

There are abundant materials for this work. The Life of
Austria embraces all that is wild and wonderful in history ;
her early struggles for aggrandizement — the fierce strife with
the Turks, as wave after wave of Moslem invasion rolled up
the Danube — the long conflicts and bloody persecutions of the
Reformation — the thirty years' religioas war — the meteoric
career of Gustavus Adolphus and Charles XII. shooting
athwart the lurid storms of battle — the intrigues of Popes — ■
the enormous pride, power and encroachments of Louis XIV.
— the warfare of the Spanish succession and the Polish dis-
memberment — all these events combine in a sublime tragedy
which fiction may in vain attempt to parallel.



VI PREFACE.

It is affecting to observe in the history of Germany, through
what woes humanity has passed in attaining even its present
position of civilization. It is to be hoped that the human
family may never a^ain suffer what it has already endured.
We shall be indeed insane if we do not gain some wisdom
from the struggles and the calamities of those who have gone
before us. The narrative of the career of the Austrian Em-
pire, must, by contrast, excite emotions of gratitude in every
American bosom. Our lines have fallen to us in pleasant
places ; we have a goodly heritage.

It is the author's intention soon to issue, as the second of
this series, the History of the Empire of Russia.

JOHN S. C. ABBOTT.

Beunswick, Maine, 1869.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

EHODOLPH OF HAPSBUKG.
Fkom 1232 TO 1291.

PAOI

Hawk's Castle.— Albeet, Count of Hapsbueg.— Ehodolph of Hapsbtteg.— His
Makeiagb and Estates.— Excommunication and its Ebsults.— His Peinoi-

PLES OF HONOE.— A CONFEDEEACT OP BaKONS.— THEIR EOUTB.— EhODOLPH'S

Election as Empekoe of Geemany.— The Bishop's Waeninq.— Dissatisfac-
tion AT THE EeSULT OF THE ELECTION.— ADVANTAGES ACCEUING FROM THE POS-
SESSION OF AN INTEEESTING FAMILY.- CONQUEST.— OtTOOAE ACKNOWLEDGES THS

Empeeoe ; YET beeaks HIS Oath of Allegiance.— Gathering Clouds.— Won-
BEBFUL Escape.- Victory of Ehodolph.— His Ebfoems 1^



CHAPTER II.

EEIGNS OF ALBEET I., FEEDEEIC, ALBEET AND OTHO.
From 1291 to 1S4T.
Anecdotes of Ehodolph. — His Desiee for the Election of his Son. — His
Death. — Albeet.- His Unpopularity. — Conspiracy of the Nobles. — Their
Defeat. — Adolphus of Nassau chosen Empeeoe.— Albeet's Conspiracy. — De-
position op Adolphus and Election op Albert. — Death op Adolphus. — The
Pope Defied. — Annexation of Bohemia. — Assassination op Albert. — Ateno-
iNG Fury. — The Hbemit's Direction. — Feedbeio the Handsome. — Election
of Henry, Count op Luxemburg.- His Death. — Election op Louis of Bava-
ria. — Capture of Feedeeio. — Ebmaekable Confidence towaed a Peisonbb.
— Death of Frederic. — An early Engagement. — Death of Louis.— Accession
op Albert - 84

CHAPTER III.

EHODOLPH II., ALBEET IV. AND ALBEET V.

Feom 1339 to 143T.
Ehodolph II. — Marriage of John to Margaret. — Inteiguing foe the Tyrol. —
Death of Ehodolph. — Accession of Powbe to Austria. — Dividing the Em-
pire. — Delight of the Empeeoe Charles. — Leopold. — His Ambition and Suc-
cesses. — Hedwigb, Queen op Poland. — "The Course op true Love nevee did
RUN smooth." — Unhappy Maeeiagb op Hedwige. — Heeoism op Arnold of

WiNKELREID. — DeATH OF LEOPOLD. — DeATH OF ALBERT IV. — ACCESSION OF AL-
BERT V. — Attempts op Sigismond to bequeath to Albert V. Hungary and

Bohemia 48

1*



VIU CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.

ALBERT, LADISLAUS AND FEEDEEIC.
From 1440 to US9.

FAGB

Inckbasing Honors of Albert V. — Encroachments op the Turks. — The Chris-
tians EotTTED. — Terror of the Hungarians. — Death of Albert. — Magnani-
mous Conduct op Albert of Bavaria. — Internal Troubles. — Precocity op
Ladislaus. — Fortifications raised by the Turks. — John Capistrun. — Rescue
OP Belgrade. — The Turks Dispersed. — Exultation over the Victory. —
Death of Hunniades. — Jealousy of Ladislaus. — His Death. — Brotherly
Quarrels. — Devastations by the Turks. — Invasion of Austria. — Repeal op
THE Compromise. — The Emperor a Fugitive 63



CHAPTER V.

THE EMPERORS FREDERIC IL AND MAXIMILIAN L
From 147T to 1500.
Wanderings of the Emperor Frederic. — Proposed Alliance with the Dukk
OP Burgundy. — Mutual Distrust. — Marriage of Mary.^The Age of Chiv-
alry. — The Motive inducing the Lord of Praunstein to declare War. —
Death of Frederic II. — The Emperor's Secret. — Designs of the Turks. —
Death of Mahomet II. — First Establishment of Standing Armies. — Use op
Gunpowder. — Energy of Maximilian. — French Aggressions. — The League
TO expel the French. — Disappointments of Maximilian. — Bribing the Pope.
Invasion of Italy Capture and Recapture. — The Chevalier de Bayard. 77



CHAPTER VI.

MAXIMILIAN I.
From 1500 to 1519.
Base Treachery op the Swiss Soldiers. — Perfidy of Ferdinand op Arragon.
— Appeals by Superstition. — Coalition with Spain. — The League of Cam-
bray. — Infamy of the Pope. — The King's Apology. — Failure of the Plot.— .
Germany aroused. — Confidence of Maximilian. — Longings for the Pontifi-
cal Chair. — Maximilian Bribed. — Leo X. — Dawning Prosperity. — Matri-
monial Projects. — Commencement of the War op Reformation. — Sickness
op Maximilian. — His last Directions. — His Death. — The Standard by which
his Character is to be Judged 91



CHAPTER VII.

CHARLES V. AND THE REFORMATION.
From 1519 to 1531.
Oharles V. OP Spain.— His Election as Emperor op Germany. — His Corona-
tion. — The First Constitution. — Progress of the Reformation. — The Pope's
Bull against Luther. — His Contempt for his Holiness. — The Diet at
Worms. — Feederio's Objection to the Condemnation op Luther by the Diet,



CONTENTS. IX

_ T -r, VAas

— He obtains foe liTTTHEE THE ElGHT OF DEFENSE. — LuTHER'S TEITJMPHAI,

March to the Tribttnal. — Charles urged to Violate his Safe Conduct. —
Ltjther's Patmos. — Marriage op Sister Catharine Bora to Luthee. — Tee-
EiBLE Insurrection.— The Holt League. — The Protest of Spires. — Confes-
sion of Augsburg. — The Two Confessions.— Compulsory Measures 106



CHAPTEE VIII.

CHARLES Y. AND THE REFORMATION.
From 1531 to 1552.

Dbtbkmination to crush Protestantism. — Incursion of the Turks. Valor op

THE Protestants. — Preparations for renewed Hostilities. — Augmentation
OF THE Protestant Forces.— The Council of Trent.— Mutual Consterna-
OTON.— Defeat of the Protestant Army.— Unlooked-for Succor.— Revolt m
THE Emperor's Army.— The Fluctuations of Fortune.— Ignoble Revenge.—
Capture of "Wittemberg. — Protestantism apparently crushed. — Plot
against Charles. — Maurice of Saxony.— A Change of Scene.- The Biter
BIT— The Empeeoe humbled.— His Flight.— His determined Will 121



CHAPTER IX.

CHARLES V. AND THE TURKISH "WARS.
From 1552 to 1555.
The Treaty of Passau. — The Emperor yields.— His continued Reverses. — The
Toleration Compromise. — Mutual Dissatisfaction. — Remarkable Despon-
dency of the Emperor Charles. — His Address to the Convention at Brus-
sels.— The Convent of St. Justus. — Charles returns to Spain. — His Convent
Life.— The Mock Burial.— His Death.— His Traits of Character.— The
King's Compliment to Titian. — The Condition of Austria. — Rapid Advance
of the Turks. — Reasons for the Inaction of the Christians. — The Sultan's
Method of Overcoming Difficulties. — The little Fortress of Guntz. —
"What it accomplished 138



CHAPTER X.

FERDINAND I. — HIS "WARS AND INTRIGUES.
From 1555 to 1562.
John of Tapoli.— The Instability op Compacts.— The Sultan's Demands.— A
Reign of "War.— Powers and Duties of the Monarchs of Bohemia. — The
Diet.— The King's Desire to crush Protestantism. — The Entrance to
Prague. -Terror of the Inhabitants. — The King's Conditions.- The
Bloody Diet. — Disciplinary Measures. — The establishment of the Ordee
of Jesuits. — Abdication of Charles V. in Favor op Ferdinand, — Power op
THE Pope.— Paul IV. — A quiet but powerful Blow. — The Progress of the
Ebpormers. — Attempts to reconcile the Protestants.- The unsuccessfui
Assembly 151



X CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XI.

DEATH OF FERDINAND I.— ACCESSION OF MAXIMILIAN IL

From 1562 to 15T6,

PJiQB

The CotmciL of Trent. — Spkbad of the Refoemation. — Ferdinand's Attempt
, to infutenoe the Pope. — His Arguments against Celibacy. — Stubbornness
OF the Pope. — Maximilian II. — Displeasure of Ferdinand. — Motives foe
NOT abjuring the Catholio Faith. — Religious Strife in Europe. — Maximil-
ian's Address to Charles IX. — Mutual Toleration. — Romantic Pastime op
War. — Heroism op Nicholas, Count of Zrini. — Accession of Power to Aus-
tria. — Accession op Rhodolph III. — Death of Maximilian 166



CHAPTER XII.

CHARACTER OF MAXIMILIAN.— SUCCESSION OF RHODOLPH III.
From 1576 to 1604.
Character of Maximilian. — His Accomplishments. — His Wife. — Fate of his
Children. — Rhodolph III. — The Liberty of Worship. — Means of Emancipa-
tion. — Rhodolph's Attempts against Protestantem. — Declaration op a
HIGHER Law. — Theological Differences. — The Confederacy at Heilbrun.
— The Gregorian Calendar. — Intolerance in Bohemia. — The Trap of the
Monks. — Invasion of the Turks. — Their Defeat. — Coalition with Sigismond.
— Sale op Transylvania. — Rule of Basta. — The Empire captured and re-
captured. — Devastation of the Country. — Treatment of Stephen Botskoi 182



CHAPTER XIII.

RHODOLPH III. AND MATTHIAS.

From 1604 to 1609.
BoTSKOi's Manifesto. — Horrible Suffering in Transylvania. — Character op
Botskoi. — Confidence op the Protestants. — Superstition op Rhodolph. —
His Mystic Studies. — Acquirements of Matthias. — Schemes of Matthias. —
His increasing Power. — Treaty with the Turks. — Demands on Rhodolph.—
The Compromise. — Perfidy of Matthias. — The Maegravitb. — Fillibusterino.
— The People's Diet. — A Hint to Royalty. — The Bloodless Triumph. — De-
mands OF the Germans. — Address of the Prince of Anhalt to the King 196



CHAPTER XIV.

RHODOLPH III. AND MATTHIAS.
From 1609 to 1612.
Difficulties as to the Succession. — Hostility of Henry IV. to the House of
Austria. — Assassination of Henry IV. — Similarity in Sully's and Napo-
leon's Plans. — Exultation of the Catholics. — The Brother's Compact.—
Ho-w Rhodolph kept it. — Seizure of Prague. — Rhodolph a Prisoner. — Thb



CONTENTS. XI

FAGH

King's Abdication. — Conditions attached to the Crown. — "Ra-Qk of Riio-
DOLPH. — Matthias elected King. — The Emperok's Eesidenob. — Ebjoicings op
THE Protestants. — Reply of the Ambassadors. — The Nuremberg Diet. — The
TiNKiNDEST Cut op all. — Khodolph's Humiliation and Death 213



CHAPTER XV.

MATTHIAS.
From 1612 to 1619.
Matthias elected Emperor of Germany. — His despotic Character. — His
Plans thwarted.— Mulhbim.— Gathering Clouds.— Family Intrigue.— Cor-
onation of Ferdinand.- Hb Bigotry.— Henry, Count of Thubn.— Conven-
tion AT Prague.- The King's Reply.— The Die cast.- Amusing Defense of
AN Outrage.- Ferdinand's Manifesto.- Seizure of Cardinal Klesis.— The
King's Rage.— Retreat of the King's Troops.— Humiliation of FeedinaiO).
— The Difficulties ebfeebed. — ^Dbath of Matthias .... , . . ^ . .- . 229



CHAPTER XVI.

FERDINAND II.

From 1619 to 1621.
I'ossESSiONS of the Emperor. — Power of the Protestants of Bohemia. — Gen-
eral Spirit of Insurrection. — Anxiety of Ferdinand. — Insurrection led bt
Count Thurn. — Unpopularity of the Emperor. — Affecting Declaration of
the Emperor. — Insurrection in Vienna. — The Arrival op Succor. — Ferdi

NAND SEEKS THE IMPERIAL ThEONB. — REPUDIATED BY BOHEMIA. — ThE PaLATIN-

iTB. — Frederic offered the Crown of Bohemia. — Frederic crowned. —
Revolt in Hungary. — Desperate Condition op tub Emperor. — Catholic
League. — The Calvinists and the Puritans. — Duplicity op the Emperor. —
Foreign Combinations. — Truce between the Catholics and the Protest-
ants. — The Attack upon Bohemia. — Battle of the White Mountain 24d



CHAPTER XVII.

FERDINAND II.
From 1621 to 1629.
Pusillanimity op Frederic. — Intrbatibs op the Citizens of Prague. — Shame-
ful Flight of Frederic. — Vengeance inflicted upon Bohemia. — Protest-
antism and civil Freedom. — ^Vast Power op the Emperor. — Alarm of Eu-
rope. — Jambs I. — Treaty of Marriage for the Prince of Wales. — Cardinal
Richelieu. — ^New League op the Protestants. — Desolating War. — Defeat
OP the King of Denmark. — Energy of Wallenstbin. — Triumph op Ferdi-
Hand. — ^Nbw Acts of Intolerance. — Severities in Bohemia. — Desolation op
THE Kingdom. — Dissatisfaction of the Duke op Bavaria. — ^Meeting of the
Catholic Princes. — ^The Emperor Humbled 261



XU CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XVIII.

FERDINAND II. AND GUSTAVU8 ADOLPHUS.

Fkom 1629 TO 1632.

TAon
Texation or Ferdinand. — Gtjstavus Adolphus. — Address to the Nobles op

Sweden. — March op Gtjstavus. — Appeal to the Protestants. — Magdeburs
JOINS GusTAVus. — Destruction op the City. — Consternation op the Protest-
ants. — Exultation op the Catholics. — The Elector op Saxony driven prom
HIS Domains. — Battle op Leipsio. — The Swedes penetrate Bohemia. — Free-
dom OP Conscience established. — ^Dbath op Tilly. — The Retirement op Wal-
lenstein. — The Command resumed by Wallbnstein. — Capture op Prague. —
Encounter between Wallenstein and Gustavus. — Battle op Lutzbn. —
Death of Gustavus 279



CHAPTER XIX.

FERDINAND II., FERDINAND III. AND LEOPOLD 1.

From 1632 to 1662.
Character op Gustavus Adolphus. — Exultation op the Imperialists. — ^Dis-
grace OP "Wallenstein. — He oppees to surrender to the Swedish General.
— His Assassination. — Ferdinand's Son elected as his Successor. — ^Death op
Ferdinand. — Close op the War. — Abdication op Christina. — Charles Gus-
tavus. — Preparations por War. — Death op Ferdinand III. — Leopold
elected Emperor.^Hostilities Renewed. — Death op Charles Gustavus. —
Diet convened. — Invasion op the Turks 293



CHAPTER XX.

LEOPOLD I.

From 1662 to 1697.
Invasion op the Turks. — A Treaty concluded. — Possessions op Leopold. — In-
vasion OP THE French. — League op Augsburg. — Devastation op the Palati-
nate. — Invasion op Hungary. — Embric Tekeli. — Union op Emerio Tbkbli
WITH THE Turks. — Leopold applies to Sobieskl — He immediately marches
to his Aid. — ^The Turks conquered. — Sobieski's triumphal Receptions. —
Meanness op Leopold. — Revenge upon Hungary. — Peace concluded. — Con-
test FOR Spain 81



CHAPTER XXI.

LEOPOLD I. AND THE SPANISH SUCCESSION
From 1697 to 1710.
The Spanish Succession. — The Impotence op Charles II. — Appeal to the Pope.
— His Decision. — ^Dbath op Charles II. — Accession op Philip V. — Indigna-
tion of Austria. — The Outbreak op War. — Charles III. crowned. — Insub-
EKOTioN in Hungary. — ^Defection op Bavaria. — ^The Battle op Blenheim.—



CONTENTS. XIU

PAOH

Death of Lkopold I. — ^Eleonoka. — Accession of Joseph I.— i3harle8 XII. of
Sweden. — Charles III. of Spain. — Battle of Malplaquet. — Chaklbs at
Bakoelona. — Chaeles at Madeid S2b



CHAPTEE XXII.

JOSEPH I. AND CHARLES VI.

Fkom ITIO to ITIT.

I'eeplexities in Madkid. — ^Plight op Charles. — Retreat op the Aitsteiaii
Army. — Stanhope's Division cut off. — Capture of Stanhope. — Staeembeks
ASSAILED. — Retreat to Barcelona. — Attempt to pacify Hungary. — The Hun-
garian Diet. — Baronial crowning of Ragotsky. — Renewal of the Hunga-
rian War. — Enterprise of Herbeville. — The Hungarians crushed. — Lenity
OF Joseph. — Death of Joseph. — Accession of Charles VI. — His Career in
Spain. — Capture of Barcelona. — The Siege. — The Rescue. — Character of
Charles. — Cloisters of Montseerat. — Increased Efforts for the Spanish
Crown. — Charles crowned Emperor of Austria and Hungary. — ^Bohemia. —
Deplorable Condition of Louis XIV 345



CHAPTER XXIII.

CHARLES VI.

From 1T16 to 1727.

Heroic Decision of Eugene. — Battle of Belgrade. — Uttek Rout of thb
Turks. — Possessions of Charles VI. — The Elector of Hanover succeeds to
the English Throne. — Preparations for War. — State of Italy. — Philip V.
op Spain. — Diplomatic Agitations. — Palace op St. Ildefonso. — Order of the
Golden Fleece. — Rejection of Maria Anne. — Contest for the Rock of Gib-
BALTAK. — Dismissal op Ripperda. — Treaty of Vienna. — Peace concluded. . . . :



CHAPTER XXIV.

CHARLES VI. AND THE POLISH "WAR.

From 1727 to 1735.

Sardinal Fleury. — The Emperor of Austria urges the Pragmatic Sanction.
— He promises his two Daughters to the two Sons op the Queen op Spain.
— France, England and Spain unite against Austria. — Charles VI. issues
Orders to prepare for War. — His Perplexities. — Secret Overtures to En-
gland. — The Crown of Poland. — Meeting of the Polish Congress. — Stanis-
laus goes to Poland. — Augustus III. crowned. — War. — Charles sends an
Army to Lombaedy. — Difficulties of Prince Eugene.— Charles's Displeas-
tTEE with England. — Letter to Count Kinsky. — Hostilities renewed 879



nV CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXV.

CHARLES VI. AND THE TUEKISH "WAR RENEWED.

From 1735 to 1739.

PAGH

Anxiety op AtrsxEiAN Officb-holdeks. — Maria. Thbkesa. — The Duke op Loe-
EAiNE. — Distraction op the Emperor. — Tusoant assigned to the Duke op
Lorraine. — Death of Eugene. — Rising Greatness of Russia. — New War
iFiTH the Turks. — Condition of the Armt. — Commencement of Hostilities* —
Capture of Nissa. — Inefficient Campaign. — Disgrace of Seckendorf. — The
Duke of Lorraine placed in Command.— Siege of Orsota. — Belgrade be-
sieged by the Turks. — The third Campaign. — Battle op Ceotzka. — Defeat
op the Austrians. — Consternation in Vienna. — Barbarism op the Turks. —
The Surrender of Belgrade 394



CHAPTER XXVI.

MARIA THERESA.
From 1739 to 1741.
aNGUiBH OP the King. — ^Letter to the Queen of Russia. — The imperial Circu-
lar. — Deplorable Condition op Austria. — Death op Charles VI. — Acces-
8I0N of Maria Theresa. — Vigorous Measures of the Queen. — Claim op the
Duke op Bavaria. — Responses from the Courts. — Coldness op the French
Court. — Frederic of Prussia. — His Invasion op Silesia. — March of the Aus-
triaks. — Battle of Molnitz. — Firmness of Maria Theresa. — Proposed Divis-
ion of Plunder. — Villainy of Frederic. — Interviewwith the King. — Char

ACTEE of FkEDEEIO. — COMMENCEMENT OF THE GENERAL INVASION 411



CHAPTER XXVII.

MARIA THERESA.
From 1741 to 1743.
Chara^^teb op Francis, Duke of Lorraine. — Policy of European Courts. —
Pla a of the Allies. — Siege of Prague. — Desperate Condition of the Queen
— H»CR Coronation in Hungary. — Enthusiasm of the Barons. — Speech op Ma-
EiA Theresa. — Peace with Frederic of Prussia. — His Duplicity. — Militaey
Motement op the Duke of Lorraine. — Battle of Chazleau. — Seoond Treaty
•wiTii Frederic. — Despondency op the Duke of Bavaria. — March op Malle-
Bois — Extraordinary Retreat op Belleisle. — Recovery op Prague by the
Queen 421



CHAPTER XXVIII.

MARIA THERESA.
From 174-3 to 1748.
Prosperous Aspect op Austrian Affairs. — Capture of Egra. — Vast Extent or
AuBTEiA- — Dispute wna Sardinia. — Maeeiage op Charles of Loebaine ■with



CONTENTS. XV

THB QtJKBN'8 Sister. — Invasion op Alsace. — Feederio overruns Bohemia. —
Bohemia recovered by Prince Charles. — Death of the Emperor Charles
VII. — Venality op the old Monarchies. — Battle op HoHENPRiErBERG. — Sir
Thomas Eobinson's Interview with Maria Theresa.— Hungarian Enthu-
siasm. — ^The Duke op Lorraine elected Emperor. — Continuation op the War.
— ^Treaty op Peace. — Indignation op Maria Theresa 444



CHAPTER XXIX.

MARIA THERESA.
From 1748 to 1759.
Treaty op Peace. — Dissatisfaction of Maria Theresa. — Preparation poa
War. — Rupture between England and Austria. — Maria Theresa. — Al-
liance WITH France. — Influence op Marchioness op Pompadour. — Bitter
Reproaches between Austria and England.— Commencement of the Seven
Years' War. — ^Energy of Frederic op Prussia. — Sanguinary Battles. —
Vicissitudes of War. — Desperate Situation of Febderi*. — Elation of Ma-
ria Theresa. — Her ambitious Plans. — Awful Defeat op the Prussians ai
Beeuk *61



CHAPTER XXX.

MARIA THERESA.
From 1759 to 1780.
Desolations of "War.— Disasters of Prussia.- Despondency op Frederic. —
Death of the Empress Elizabeth.— Accession of Paul III.— Assassination
OP Paul III. — Accession op Gatiiaeine. — Discomfiture op the Austrians. —
Treaty of Peace. — Election op Joseph to the Throne of the Empire. — Death
OP Feanois. — Chaeactee op Francis.— Anecdotes.— Energy op Maria The-
resa. — PoNiATOwsKi. — Partition op Poland. — Maeia Thbeesa as a Mother.

"War with Bavaria. — Peace. — Death op Maria Theresa. — Family of the

Empress. — Accession op Joseph II. — His Character 478



CHAPTER XXXI.

JOSEPH II. AND LEOPOLD II.

From 1780 to 1792.
Acoission op Joseph II.— His Plans op Reform.- Pius VI.— Emanoitation of
the Serfs.— Joseph's Visit to his Sister, Maeia Antoinette. — Ambitious De-
signs.— The Imperial Sleigh Ride. — Barges on the Dneister.— Excursion

TO the Crimea Wae with Tuekey.— Defeat of the Austrians.— Great Suo-

OE33B3.— Death op Joseph.— His Character.- Accession of Leopold II.— His
Efforts to confirm Despotism.— The French Revolution.— European Coali-
tion.— Death OP Leopold.— His Profligacy.— Accession op Francis II.— Pres-
BNT Extent and Power op Austria.— Its Army.— Policy of the Govern-

MBMT. ^^^



XVI CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XXXII.

AUSTRIA AND THE FRENCH KEVOLUTIONS.
From 1792 to 1860.

A0CE88ION OP FEANCIS II.— CAMPAIGNS AGAINST NAPOLEON.— THE ITALIAN RE-
PUBLICS.— THE Kingdom op Italy. — Hostility of England to the Fbenoh
Revolittion, — The Downfall of Napoleon, and Consequent Downfall of
Fkee Institutions tiieougiiout Eueope. — The Conguess of Vienna. — Ex-
pulsion of tiieBoukbons fbom Feance. — Restoeation of the Empiee under
liOuis Napoleon.— Revolutions tiieoughout Eueope.— Hungarian Revolu-
tion. —Russian Intebvention.— Fall of Hun GABY.— Libebation of Italy.—

PBESENT PBOSPECTS fiOJ

CHAPTER XXXIII.

THE NEW CONSTITUTIOlSr, AND SEPARATION FROM GERMANTT.

The Reichsrath transformed into a National Legislature. — The
" Path of Constitutionalism." — Jealousy between Austria and
Prussia. — War with Denmark. — Quarrel between Austria and



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