John S. C. (John Stevens Cabot) Abbott.

The empire of Austria; its rise and present power online

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THE EMPIRE OF AUSTRIA.




RKW YCn-?K MAfiOTSI. BROS



THE MONARCHIES

OF

CONTINENTAL EUROPE.



THE



EMPIRE OF AUSTRIA;



EISE AND PRESENT POWER.



BY

>^V5 JOHN S. C. ABBOTT. ' - ~"x^



NEW YORK.

PUBLISHED BT MASON BROTHERS.
CINCINNATI : RICKEY, MALLORY & CO.



1859.







Enterod, acoording to Act of Congress, in the year ISoS, by

MASON BROTHERS,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the SoTithorn District of New York.



STEKEOTrrED By
T II O JI A 8 li . B M I T n ,

82 & 84 Ecekman St.



PEINTKD BT
O, A. ALVOKD.

15 Vandcvrater St.



j-n



PREFACE.

The studies of the author of this work, for the last ten
years, in writing the " History of Napoleon Bonaparte," and
"The French Revolution of 1789," have necessarily made
him quite familiar with the monarchies of Europe. He has
met with so much that was strange and romantic in their
career, that he has been interested to undertake, as it were, a
hiograjpliy of the Monarchies of Continental Europe — their
birth, education, exploits, progress and present condition. He
has commenced with Austria.

There are abundant materials for this work. The Life of
Austria embraces all that is vrild and wonderful in history ;
her early struggles for aggrandizement — the fierce strife with
the Turks, as wave after wave of Moslem invasion rolled up
the Danube — the long conflicts and bloody persecutions of the
Reformation — the thirty years' religious war — the meteoric
career of Gustavus Adolj)hus and Charles XH. shooting
athwart the lurid storms of battle — the intrigues of Popes —
the enormous pride, power and encroachments of Louis XIV.
— the warfare of the Spanish succession and the Polish dis-
memberment — all these events combine in a sublime tragedy
which fiction may in vain attempt to parallel.



VI PREFACE.

It is affecting to observe in the history of Germany, through
what woes humanity has passed in attaining even its present
position of civilization. It is to be hoped that the human
family may never again suffer what it has already endured.
We shall be indeed insane if we do not gain some wisdom
from the struggles and the calamities of those who have gone
before us. The narrative of the career of the Austrian Em-
pire, must, by contrast, excite emotions of gratitude in every
American bosom. Our lines have fallen to us in pleasant
places ; we have a goodly heritage.

It is the author's intention soon to issue, as the second of
this series, the History of the Empire of Russia.

JOHN S. C. ABBOTT.

Brunswick, Maine, 1859.



COJ^TENTS.



CHAPTER I.

EHODOLPII OF HAPSBURG.
From 1232 to 1291.

PAGE

Hawk's Castle. — Albert, Count of Hapsbueg. — EnoDOLPii of Hapsbtjkg. — His
Mareiagb and Estates. — Excommunication and its Kesults. — His Princi-
ples OP Honor. — A Confederacy of Barons. — Their Eoute. — Eiiodolph's
Election as Emperor of Germany.— The Bishop's Warning.- — Dissatisfac-
tion AT THE EeSULT OF THE ELECTION. — ADVANTAGES ACCRUING FROM THE POS-
SESSION OF AN INTERESTING FAMILY.— CONQUEST. — OtTOCAR ACKNOWLEDGES THE

Emperor ; yet breaks uis Oath of Allegiance. — Gathering Clouds. — "Won-
derful Escape. — Victory of Ehodolph. — His Ekforms IT



CHAPTER II.

EEIGNS OF ALBERT I., FREDERIC, ALBERT AND OTHO.
From 1291 to 134T.
Anecdotes of" Euodolpii. — IIis Desire for the Election op his Son. — His
Death. — Albert. — His Unpopularity. — Conspiracy of the Nobles. — Their
Defeat. — Adolpiius op Nassau chosen Emperor. — Albert's Conspiracy. — De-
position of Adolphus and Election of Albert. — Death of Adolphus.- — The
Pope Defied. — Annexation op Bohemia. — Assassination op Albert. — Aveng-
ing Fury. — The Hermit's Direction. — Frederic the Handsome. — Election
op Henry, Count of Luxemburg. — His Death. — Election op Louis of Bava-
ria. — Capture of Frederic. — Eemarkable Confidence toward a Prisoner.
— Death of Frederic. — An early Engagement. — Death of Louis. — Accession
of Albert 84

CHAPTER III.

EHODOLPH II., ALBEET IV. AND ALBEET V.
From 1839 to 143T.
Euodolpii II. — Marriage op John to Margaret. — Intriguing foe the Tyrol. —
Death of Euodolpii. — Accession op Power to Austria. — Dividing the Em-
pire. — Delight of the Emperor Charles.— Leopold.— His A,mbition and Suc-
cesses. — Hedwige, Queen op Poland. — "The Course of true Love never did
run smooth." — Unhappy Marriage op Hedwige. — Herois.m of Arnold of
Winkeleeid. — Death op Leopold. — Death of Albert IV. — Accession op Al-
bert V. — Attempts of Sigismond to bequeath to Albert V. Hungary and
Bohemia 43

1*



Vm CONTENTS.

OHAPTEE IV.

ALBERT, LADI3LAUS AND FBEDEEIC.
From 1440 to 14S9.

PAGE

Inckeasing Hojioks of Albert V. — Enckoachments of tiie Tubes. — Tire Ciikis-
TiANS Routed. — Terror of the Hungarians. — Death op Albert. — Magnani-
mous Conduct of Albert op Bavaria. — Internal Troubles. — Precocity of
Ladislaus. — Fortifications raised by the Turks. — John Capistrun. — Rescue
or Belgrade. — The Turks Dispersed. — Exultation oter the Victory. —
Death of IIunniades. — Jealousy of Ladislaus. — His Death. — Brotherly
Quarrels. — Devastations by the Turks. — Inv.\sion of Austria. — Repeal of

THE CO-MPEOMISE. — ThE EmPEEOR A FUGITIVE 63



CHAPTEK V.

THE EMPERORS FREDERIC II. AND MAXIMILIAN L
From 147T to 1500.
"Wanderings of the Emperor Frederic. — Proposed Alliance with the Ditkb
OF Burgundy. — Mutual Distrust. — Marriage op Maky. — The Age of Cniv-
alky. — The Motive inducing the Lord of Peaunstein to declare "War. —
Death op Frederic II. — The Emperor's Secret.— Designs of the Turks. —
Death of Mahomet II. — First Establishment of Standing Armies. — Use of
Gunpowder. — Energy of Maximilian. — Feench Aggeessions. — The League
to expel the Feench. — Disappointments of Maximilian. — Bribing the Pope.
— Invasion of Italy. — Captuee and Recapture. — The Chevalier de Bay'aed.



OHAPTEE VI.

MAXIMILIAN I.

From 1500 to 1519.
Base Treachery of the Swiss Soldiers. — Perfidy of Ferdinand op Aeeagon.
— Appeals by Superstition. — Coalition with Spain.— The League op Cam-
BKAY. — Infamy of the Pope. — The King's .A.pology. — Failure of the Plot.—
Geemany aroused. — Confidence of Maximilian. — Longings foe the Pontifi-
cal Chair. — Maximilian Bribed. — Leo X. — Dawning Prosperity.— Matri-
monial Projects. — Com.mence.ment of the War of Reformation. — Sickness
op Maximilian. — His last Dieections. — His Death.— The Standard by which

HIS CuAEACTEK is to BE JuDGED



CHAPTER VII.

CHARLES V. AND THE REFORMATION.
From 1510 to 1531.
Charles V. op Spain.— His Election as Emperor op Germany.— His Corona-
tion. — TnE First Constitution.— Progress of the Reformation.— The Pope's
Bull against Luther. — His Contempt for his Holiness. — T«r Diet at
Worms. — Feedeeio's Objection to the Condemnation of Luther by the Diet.



CONTENTS. IX



Makch to tue Tkibunal. — Charles iteged to Violate his Safe Conduct. —
Luther's Pat.mos. — Marriage op Sister Catharine Bora to Luthee.— Ter-
rible Insurrection. — The Holt League. — The Protest of Spires. — Confes-
sion of Augsburg. — The Two Confessions.— Compulsory Measurf^ 106



CHAPTER VIII.

CHAKLES V. AND THE EEFOEMATION.
From 1531 to 1552.
Determination to crush Protestantism. — Incursion of the Turks. — Valok op
THE Protestants. — Preparations for renewed Hostilities.— Augmentation
OF THE Protestant Forces. — The Council of Trent. — Mutual Consterna-
tton. — Defeat of the Protestant Army. — Unlooked-for Succor. — Revolt in
the Emperor's Army. — The Fluctuations op Fortune. — Ignoble Keyenge. —
Capture of "Wittembeeg. — Protestantism apparently crushed. — Plot
against Charles. — Maurice op Saxony. — A Change op Scene. — The Bitek
BIT — The Emperor humbled. — His Flight. — His determined Will 121



CHAPTER IX.

CHAELES V. AND THE TUEKISH WAES.
From 1552 to 1555.
The Treaty of Passau. — The Emperor yields. — His continued Eeverses. — The
Toleration Compromise. — Mutual Dissatisfaction. — Eemaekable Despon-
dency OF the Emperor Charles. — His Address to the Convention at Brus-
sels .The Convent of St. Justus. — Charles returns to Spain. — His Convent

Life. — The Mock Burial. — His Death. — His Traits op Character. — The
King's Compliment to Titian. — The Condition of Austria. — Eapid Advance
op the Turks. — Eeasons for the Inaction op the Christians. — ^The Sultan's
Method of Overcoming Difficulties. — The little Fortress op Guntz. —
"What it accomplished 136



CHAPTER X.

• FEEDINAND I. — his WAES AND INTEIGUE8.
From 1555 to 1562.
John op Tapoli. — The Instability of Compacts. — The Sultan's Demands. — A
Eeign op War. — Powers and Duties op the Monarohs of Bohemia. — The
Diet. — The King's Desire to crush Protestantism. — The Entrance to
Prague. — Terror of the Inhabitants. — The King's Conditions. — The
Bloody Diet. — Disciplinary Measures. — The establishment of the Order
OF Jesuits. — Abdication op Charles V. in Favor op Ferdinand. — Power op
the Pope. — Paul IV. — A quiet but powerful Blow. — The Progress op the
Reformers. — Attempts to reconcile the Protestants. — The unsuccessful
Assembly 151



X CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XI.

DEATH OF FEEDINAND I.— ACCESSION OF MAXIMILIAN II.
Fkom 1562 TO 15T6.

PAGE

The Council op Trent. — Speead of the Eeforjiation. — Ferdinand's Attempt
to influence the pope. — hls arguments against celibacy. — stubbornness
OP THE Pope. — Maximilian II. — Displeasure op Ferdinand. — Motives fok
NOT abjuring the Catiiolic Faith. — Eeligious Stripe in Europe. — Maximil-
ian's Address to Charles IX. — Mutual Toleration. — Eomantic Pastime op
War. — Heroism OF Nicholas, Count of Zrini. — Accession op Power to Aus-
tria. — Accession of Euodolph III.— Death of Maximilian 160



CHAPTER XII.

CHAEACTEE of MAXIMILIAN.— SUCCESSION OP EHODOLPH III.
From 15T6 to 1604.
Character op Maximilian. — IIis Accomplishments. — IIis Wife. — Fate op uis
Children. — Ehodolph III. — The Liberty op 'Worship. — Means op Emancipa-
tion. — EiiODOLPu's Attempts against Protestantism. — Declaration of a
HIGHER Law. — Theological Differences. — The Confederace Prince of Wales. — Cardinal
EiciiELiEu. — New League of the Protestants. — Desolating War. — Defeat
of the King of Denmark. — Energy op Wallenstein. — Teiumph op Ferdi-
nand. — New Acts of Intolerance.— Severities in Bohemia.- Desolation of
THE Kingdom. — Dissatisfaction of the Duke op Bavaria. — Meeting of the
Catholic Princes. — The Emperor Humbled 261



XH CONTENTS.

OHAPTEK XVIII.

FEKDINAND II. AND GUSTAYUS ADOLPHUS.
Feoji 1629 TO 16S2.

PAGE

Vexation op Ferdinand. — Gustaycs ADOLPnus. — Address to the Nobles or
Sweden. — Makch of Gustavus. — Appeal to the Protestants. — Magdeburg
JOINS Gustavus.— Destruction of the City. — Consternation of the Protest-
ants. — Exultation op the Catholics. — The Electob of Saxony driven from
ms Domains. — Battle op Leipsic. — Tue Swedes penetrate Bohemia. — Free-
dom OF Conscience established. — Death of Tillt. — ^The Eetieement or Wal-
LENSTEiN. — The Command resumed by "Wallenstein. — Capture of Prague. —
Encounter between Wallenstein and Gustavus. — Battle op Lutzen. —
Death op Gustavus 2T9



CHAPTEK XIX.

FERDINAND II., FERDINAND III. AND LEOPOLD I.
From 1632 to 1663.

CnAEAOTER OF GuSTAVUS AdOLPHUS. — ^EXULTATION OF TUB IMPERIALISTS. — DIS-
GRACE OP "Wallenstein. — He offers to surrender to the Swedish General.
— ^His Assassination. — Ferdinand's Son elected as his Successor. — ^Death op
Ferdinand. — Close of the War. — ^Abdication op Christina. — Charles Gus-
tavus. — Preparations fob War. — Death op Ferdinand III. — Leopold
elected Emperor. — ^Hostilities Renewed. — Death of Charles Gustavus. —
Diet convened. — Invasion of the Turks 295



CHAPTER XX.

LEOPOLD I,

From 1662 to 1697.
Invasion op the Turks. — A Treaty concluded. — Possessions op Leopold. — In-
vasion op the French.— League op Augsburg. — ^Devastation of the Palati-
nate. — Invasion op Hungary. — Emeric Tekeli. — Union op Emeric Tekeli
■with the Turks. — ^Leopold applies to Sobieskl— He immediately marches
to his Aid. — The Turks conquered. — Sobieski's triumphal Receptions. —
Meanness op Leopold. — Revenge upon Hungary. — Peace concluded. — Con-
XEST FOR Spain 811



CHAPTER XXI.

LEOPOLD I. AND THE SPANISH SUCCESSION
From 169T to 1710.
The Spanish Succession. — The I.mpotence op Charles II. — Appeal to the Pope.
— His Decision. — Death op Charles II. — Accession op Philip V. — Indigna-
tion OP Austria. — The Outbreak op War. — Charles III. crowned. — Insur-
rection in Hungary. — Defection op Ravari A. — ^The Battle op Blenheim. —



CONTENTS. XUl

PAGE

Death op Leopold I. — Eleonoea. — Accession of Joseph I. — Gharles XII. op
Sweden. — Charles III. of Spain. — Battle of Malplaquet. — Charles at
Barcelona. — Charles at Madrid 323



CHAPTER XXII.

JOSEPH I. AND CHARLES VI.

From 1710 to 1T17.

I'erplexities in Madrid. — Flight op Charles. — Ketkeat op the Austrian
Ar:my. — Stanhope's Division cut off. — Capture op Stanhope. — Starbmbebg-

ASSAILED. — KeTEEAT TO BARCELONA. — ATTEMPT TO PACIFY HUNGARY. — ThE HUN-
GARIAN Diet. — ^Baronial crowning op Eagotsky. — Renewal op the Hunga-
rian "War. — Enterprise op Herbeville. — The Hungarians crushed. — Lenity
OF Joseph. — Death op Joseph. — Accession of Charles VI. — His Career in
Spain. — Capture op Barcelona. — The Siege. — The Rescue. — Character of
Charles. — Cloisters of Montserrat. — Increased Efforts for the Spanish
Crown. — Charles crowned Emperor of Austria and Hungary. — Bohemia. —
Deplorable Condition of Louis XIV 345



CHAPTER XXIII.

CHARLES VI.

From 1T16 to 172T.

Heroic Decision of Eugene.— Battle op Belgrade. — Utter Rout op the
Turks. — Possessions op Charles VI. — The Elector op Hanover succeeds to
the English Throne. — Preparations for War. — State op Italy'. — Philip V.
OP Spain. — Diplomatic Agitations. — Palace op St. Ildefonso. — Order op the
Golden Fleece. — Rejection of Maria Anne. — Contest for the Rock of Gib-
raltar. — Dismissal op Ripperda. — Treaty of Vienna. — Peace concluded. ...



CHAPTER XXIV.

CHARLES VI. AND THE POLISH WAR.

From 1727 to 1735.

Cardinal Fleurt. — The Emperor of Austria urges the Pragmatic Sanction.
— He promises nis two Daughters to the two Sons of the Queen op Spain.
— France, England and Spain unite against Austria.— Charles VI. issues
Orders to prepare foe War. — His Perplexities. — Secret Overtures to En-
gland. — The Crown of Poland. — Meeting of the Polish Congress. — Stanis-
laus goes to Poland. — Augustus III. crowned. — War.— Charles sekds an
Army to Lombardy. — Difficulties op Prince Eugene.— Charles's Displeas-
ure WITH England. — Lrtter to Count Kinsky. — Hostilities renewed 87S



nV CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXV.

CHAELES VI. AND THE TUEKISH WAE EENETVED.
Fbom 1T35 TO 1T39.

PAGE

Ansiett of ArsTEiAN Office-iioldees. — Maeia Theresa. — The DrEns of Loe-

EAINE. — DlSTEACTIOX OF THE EmPEROE. — TuSCANY ASSIGNED TO THE DuKE OF

L0EEAI^^:. — Death op Ecgexe. — EisrsG GEEAT^-Ess of Eussia. — New Was
"mth the tttrks. — coxditios of the aeilt.— comxtexcement of hostilities' —
Captl-ee of Nissa. — Inefficeext Cajipaigx. — ^Disgrace op Seckexdoef. — The
Duke op Loebaixe pl.\ced ix CoiniAXD. — Siege op Oesota. — Belgeade be-
sieged BY THE TUEKS. — TUE THtED CaMP-UGX". — BATTLE OF CeOTZKA. — ^DEFEAT
OF THE AUSTEIAXS. — COXSTERXATIOX IX ViEXSA. — BAEBAEISil OF THE TrEKS. —
The STTKEEIfDEK OP BELGRADE 394



CHAPTEE XXVI.

M A E I A T U E E E S A .
Ekom 1739 TO 1741.
AxGuisn OP THE King. — ^Letter to the Queex of Eussia. — The lmpeeial Ciecu-
LAE. — Deplorable Coxditiox of Austria. — ^Deatii of Chaeles TI. — Acoes-
siox of ^Iaria Theresa. — Vigorous Measurf.s of the Queex. — Claim of toe
Duke of BATARi.i. — Eespoxses feom tue Courts. — Coldxess of the Feexcii
Couet. — Feedeeic of Prussia. — IIis Ixvasiox of Sileslv. — M^vech of the Aus-
TKiAXS. — Battle of Molxitz. — ^Firmxess of Maria Theresa. — Proposed Ditis-
lox OF Pluxdee. — Villaixy op Feedeeic. — Ixteevtew -svith the Kixg. — Chak
ACTEE OF Feedeeic. — Commexcemest of the gexeeal Ixvasiox 41 1



CHAPTEE XXVII.

MAEIA THEEESA.
Feom 1741 to 1T43.
Chaeacter of Francis, Duke of Loreaise. — Policy of Eueopeax Courts. —
Plax of the Allies. — Siege of Prague. — Desperate Coxditiox of the Queex
— Her Corox.\tiox ix IIuxgary. — Exthusiasm oftheBaroxs. — Speech of Ma-
ria T11EKF.SA. — Peace with Feedeeic of Peussia.^IIis Duplicity. — Military
Movemf.xt of the Duke ofLoeeaixe. — Battle of Chazleau. — Seooxd Tre.vtv
with Feedeeic. — Despoxdexcy of the Duke of Bavaria. — March of Malle-
BOis. — Extraordinary Eeteeat of Belleisle. — Eecoverv op Prague by the
Queex 427



CHAPTE R XXVIII.

MAEIA THERESA.
From 1743 to 1743.
Prosperous Aspect of Austriax Affairs. — Capture of Ehra. — Vast Extex'^t of
Austria. — Dispute with Sardinia. — Marriage of Charles of Lorraine with



CONTENTS.



Bohemia kecoveked by Peince Charles. — Death of the Emperou Charles
VII.— Venality op the old Monarchies. — Battle of IIohenfriedberg. — Siu
Thomas Eobinson's Interview with Maria Theresa.— Hungarian Enthu-
siasm. — The Duke of Lorraine elected Emi>eror. — Continuation of the War.
— ^Treaty of Peace. — Indignation of Maria Theresa 444



CHAPTER XXIX.

M A E I A T H E E E S A .
From 1748 to 1759.

Treaty of Peace.— Dissatisfaction of Maria Theresa. — Preparation for
War. — EuPTURE between England and Austria.— Maria Theresa. — Al-

ULiANCE with France. — Influence of Marchioness op Pompadour. — Bittek
Eepro aches between Austria and England. — Commencement op the Seven
Years' War. — ^Energy of Frederic op Prussia.— Sanguinary Battles. —
Vicissitudes of War. — Desperate Situation of Frederi*. — Elation of Ma-
ria Theresa. — IIer ambitious Plans. — Awful Defeat of the Prussians at
Berlin 4G1



CHAPTER XXX.

M A K I A T II E E E S A .
From 1759 to 17S0.
Desolations of War. — Disasters of Prussia. — Despondency of Frederic. —
Death of the Empress Elizabeth. — Accession of Paul III. — Assassination
of Paul HI.^Accession of Catharine. — Discomfiture op the Austrians. —
Treaty op Peace. — Election of Joseph to the Throne of the Empire. — Death
op Francis. — Character op Francis. — Anecdotes.— .Energy of Maria The-
resa. — PoNiATowsKi. — Partition of Poland. — Maria Theresa as a Mother.
— ^War with Bavaria.— Peace. — Death op Maria Theresa.— Family of the
E.mpkess. — Accession op Joseph II.— His Character 478



CHAPTER XXXI.

JOSEPH II. AND LEOPOLD II.
From 1780 to 1792.
Accession of Joseph II. — His Plans of Eepqem. — Pius VI. — Emancipation op
THE Serfs. — Joseph's Visit to his Sister, Maria Antoinette. — Ambitious De-
signs. — The Imperial Sleigh Eide. — Barges on the Dneistee. — Excursion
TO the Crimea. — War with Turkey.— Defeat ofthe Austrians.^Great Suc-
cesses. — Death op Joseph. — -IIis Character. — Accession of Leopold II. — Ilis
Efforts to confirm Despotism. — The French Eevolution. — European Coali-
tion. — Death of Leopold. — His Profligacy. — Accession op Francis II. — Pres-
ent Extent and Power op Austria. — Its Army. — Policy op the Govern-
ment. , 493



CHAPTER I.

RHODOLPH OP HAPSBURG.
From 1232 to 1291,

Hawk's Castle.— Albekt, Count op ITArsBXjEG. — EnoDOLPii op IIapsbitkg. — Tlia
Makriage and Estates. — Excommunication' and its Eesults. — IIis Peinciples
OP Honor. — A Confederacy op Barons. — Their Eoute.— Euodolph's Election
as Emperor op Germany. — The Bishop's Warning.— Dissatisfaction at tue
Eesult op the Election. — Advantages accruing from tub Possession op an

INTERESTING FAMILY. — CONQUEST. — OtTOCAE ACKNOWLEDGES THE EmPEEOK ; YET

BREAKS nis Oath op Allegiance.— Gatheking Clouds. — Wonderful Escape. —
VioTOEY of EiroDOLPn. — Ills Eefoems.

IS]" the small canton of Aargau, in Switzerland, on a rocky
bluff of the WuljDelsberg, there still remains an old baronial
castle, called Ilapsburg, or Hawk's Castle. It was reared in
the eleventh century, and was occupied by a succession of
warlike barons, who have left nothing to distinguish them-
selves from the feudal lords whose castles, at that period,
frowned upon almost every eminence of Europe. In the
year 1232 this castle was occupied by Albert, fourth Count
of Hai3sbui'g. He had acquired some little reputation for
military prowess, the only reputation any one could acquire
in that dark ago, and became ambitions of winning new lau-
rels in the war with the infidel? in the holy land. Religious
flxnaticism and military ambition were then* the two great
powers which ruled the human soul.

With the usual display of semi-barbaric pomp, Albert made
arrangements to leave his castle to engage in the periloi^s
holy war against the Saracens, from which fcAV ever returned.
A few years were employed iu the necessary preparations.
At the sound of the bugle the portcullis was raised, the draw-
ls



18 TPIE HOUSE OF AUSTRIA.

bridge S2>aimed the moat, and Albert, at the head of thirty
steel-clad warriors, with nodding plumes, and banners \m-
furled, emerged from the castle, and proceeded to the neigh-
boring convent of Mari. His wife, Hedwige, and their
three sons, Rhodolph, Albert and Hartman, accompanied
him to the chapel where the ecclesiastics awaited his arrival.
A multitude of vassals crowded around to witness the im-
posing ceremonies of the church, as the banners were blessed,
and the knights, after having received the sacrament of the
Lord's Supper, were commended to the protection of God.
Albert felt the solemnity of the hour, and in solemn tones
gave his farewell address to his children.

"My sons," said the steel-clad warrior, "cultivate truth
and piety; give no ear to evil counselors, never engage in
unnecessary war, but when you are involved in war be strong
and brave. Love peace even better than your own personal
interests. Remember that the counts of Hapsburg did not
attain their heights of reputation and glory by fraud, inso-
lence or selfishness, but by courage and devotion to the
public weal. As long as you follow their footsteps, you will
not only retain, but augment, the possessions and dignities
of your illustrious ancestors."

The tears and sobs of his wife and family interrupted him
while he uttered these parting words. The bugles then
sounded. The knights mounted their horses ; the clatter of
hoofs was heard, and the glittering cavalcade soon disappeared
in the forest. Albert had left his ancestral castle, never to re-
turn. He had but just arrived in Palestine, when he was
taken sick at Askalon, and died in the year 1240.

Rhodolph, his eldest son, was twenty-two years of age at
the tnne of his father's death. Frederic II., one of the most
renowned inonarchs of the middle ages, was then Emperor of
that conglomeration of heterogeneous States called Germany.
Each of these States had its own independent ruler and laws,
but they were all held together by a conuuon bond for mutual



KHODOLPn OF HAPSBUEG. 19

protection, and some one illustrious sovereign v/as chosen as
Emperor of Germany, to preside over their common affairs.
The Emperor of Germany, having influence over all these
States, was consequently, in position, the great man of the
age.

Albert, Count of Hapsburg, had been one of the favorite
captains of Frederic II. in the numerous wars which desolated



Online LibraryJohn S. C. (John Stevens Cabot) AbbottThe empire of Austria; its rise and present power → online text (page 1 of 43)