John S. C. (John Stevens Cabot) Abbott.

The French revolution of 1789, as viewed in the light of republican institutions online

. (page 1 of 54)
Online LibraryJohn S. C. (John Stevens Cabot) AbbottThe French revolution of 1789, as viewed in the light of republican institutions → online text (page 1 of 54)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


m^i*sr^ K '"J r > '' ^ i . ^



" .1 ,1 "3. t

*' •^ >"^ "it > '



j^ ^







1 ,r.





^^^E^i>ie^2^^^^H






^^m^^^^^^^H








1 'V v'


s


Bm


/^




i




Wt




1 *•'.';>




^^u^^^^^^^^ii




4,














cbid



V .^<*








THE



FRENCH REVOLUTION



OF 17 8 9



AS VIEWED IN THE LIGHT OF REPUBLICAN INSTITUTIONS.



JOHN S. C. ABBOTT.



itli (^u Mnnlnl (!FiigrflDiBg0.



NEW YORK :
HARPER & BEOTHEES, PUBLISHERS,

FRANKLIN SQUARE.
18 5 9.






^)3^'



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eight hundred
and fifty-nine, by

HARPER & BROTHER S,

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District of New York.



PREFACE.



For some years the author of this work has been collecting materials for
writing the history of the French Eevolution. With this object in view he
has visited Paris, wishing also to become familiar with the locahties rendered
immortal by the varied acts of this drama — the most memorable tragedy,
perhaps, which has as yet been enacted upon the theatre of time. In addi-
tion to the aids which he has thus derived from a brief sojourn in Paris, he
has also found the library of Bowdoin College peculiarly rich in all those
works of religious and pohtical philosophizings which preceded and ushered
in these events, and in the narratives of those contemporary historians who
recorded the scenes as they occurred, or which they themselves witnessed.
Governor Bowdoin, whose library was the nucleus of the present college li-
brary, seems to have taken a special interest in collecting all the writings of
the French philosophers and all the works of contemporary authors bearing
upon the French Eevolution, including — the most important of all — full files
of the Moniteur.

The writer would not take up his pen merely to repeat the story which
has so often and so graphically been told before. But it is expecting too
much of human nature to imagine that the struggles of an oppressed people
to emancipate themselves from feudal despotism can be impartially narrated
in the castles of nobles or in the courts of kings. It is inevitable that the
judgment which is pronounced upon the events which such a struggle in-
volves will be biased by the political principles of the observer. Precisely
the same transaction will by one be condemned and by another applauded.
He who beheves in the divine right of kings to reign and in the divine obli-
gation of the people unquestioning to obey, must condemn a people who
endeavor to break the shackles of despotic power, and must applaud kings
and nobles who, with all the energies of bomb-shells, sabres, and iron hoofs,
endeavor to crush the spirit of democratic freedom. On the contrary, he
who accepts the doctrine that sovereignty resides in the people must com-
mend the efforts of an inthralled nation to sever the chains of servitude, and
must condemn the efforts of kings and nobles to rivet those chains anew.
Thus precisely the same facts wiU be regarded with a very different judg-
ment according as the historian is influenced by political principles in favor

692558



Vi • PREFACE.

of equality of rights or of aristocratic privilege. The author of this ^vork
views the scenes of the French Kevolution from a repubhcan stand-point.
His sympathies are strongly with an oppressed people struggling for pohti-
cal and religious liberty. All writers, all men profess to love hberty.

" Despots," says Do Tocqueville, " acknowledge that liberty is an excel-
lent thing. But they want it all for themselves, and maintain that the rest
of the world is unworthy of it. Thus there is no difference of opinion in
reference to liberty. "We differ only in our appreciation of men."*

To conmaence the history of the French Eevolution with the opening of
the States-General in 1789 is as unphilosophical as to commence the history
of the American Eevolution with the battle of Lexington. No man can
comprehend this fearful drama who does not contemplate it in the light of
those ages of oppression which ushered it in. It is in the horrible despot-
ism of the old monarchy of France that one is to see the efficient cause of
the subsequent frantic struggles of the people.

"The Eevolution," says De Tocqueville, "will ever remain in darkness
to those who do not look beyond it. Without a clear view of society in the
olden time, of its laws, its faults, its prejudices, its sufferings, its greatness,
it is impossible to understand the conduct of the French during the sixty
years which have followed its fall."t

There is often an impression that the Eevolution was a sudden outbreak
of blind unthinking passion — a tempest bursting from a serene sk}^ ; or like
a battle in the night — masses rushing blindly in all directions, and friends
and foes in confusion and phrensy smiting each other. But, on the con-
trary, the Eevolution was of slow growth, a storm which had been for cen-
turies accumulating. The gathering of the clouds, the gleam of its embo-
somed fires, and the roar of its approaching thunders arrested the attention
of the observing long before the storm in all its fury burst upon France.
A careful historic narrative evolves order from the apparent chaos, and ex-
hibits, running through the tumultuous scene of terror and of blood, the
operation of causes almost as resistless as the operation of physical laws.

The writer has freely expressed his judgment of the transactions which
he has narrated. " The impartiality of histoiy," says Lamartine, " is not
that of a mirror which merely reflects objects ; it should be that of a judge
who sees, listens, and decides.":}: The reader wUl not be surjirised to find
that some occurrences which historians caressed in regal courts and baronial
halls have denounced as insolent and vulgar are here represented as heroic-
and noble.

Evei^ generous heart will respond to the sentiment uttered, in this con-

• The Old RcRimc and the Revolution, by Alexis de Tooriucville, Introduction, p. xi.

t lb., p. 2r.3. t Lamartine, History of the Girondists, i., 10.



PREFACE. Vii

nection, by TMers. " I have endeavored to stifle," lie says, " within my
own bosom every feeling of animosity. I alternately figured to myself that,
born in a cottage, animated with a just ambition, I was resolved to acqmre
what the pride of the liigber classes had unjustly refused me ; or that, bred
in palaces, the heir to ancient privileges, it was painful to me to renounce a
possession which I regarded as a legitimate property. Thenceforth I could
no longer harbor enmity against either party. I pitied the combatants, and
I indemnified myself by admiring generous deeds wherever I found them."*

One simple moral this whole awful tragedy teaches. It is, that the laws
must be so just as to command the assent of every enlightened Christian
mind, and the masses of the people must be trained to such intelligence and
virtue as to be able to appreciate good laws and to have the disposition to
maintain them. Here lies the only hope of our republic.

The illustrations which embellish these pages are from the artistic pencil
of Mr. C. E. Doepler, who went to Paris that he might with more historical
accuracy dehneate both costumes and localities. To the kindness of Messrs.
Goupil & Co. we are indebted for the privilege of copying the exquisite en-
graving of Marie Antoinette at the Eevolutionary tribunal, which forms the
Frontispiece.

John S. C. Abbott.

Brunswick, Maine, Nov., 1858.

* Thiers, French Revolution, Introduction.



CONTENTS,



CHAPTER I.

ORIGIN OF THE FRENCH MONARCHY.

Extent of France. — Character of its early Inhabitants. — Conquest of Gaul. — Barbarian Invasion.
— The Franks. — Pharamond. — Clovis. — Introduction of Christianity. — Clotilda. — Merovin-
gian Dynasty. — Fields of March. — Anecdote of Clovis. — The Parish. — Strife with the Nobles.
— Moorish Invasion. — Charles Martel. — Pepin. — Fields of May. — Charlemagne. — His Policy.
— Feudal System. — The Church. — Rolls. — Louis V. — Hugh Capet. — Parliament established
by Philip the Fair Page 17

CHAPTER II.

THE HOUSES OP VALOIS AND BOURBON.

The House of Valois. — Luxury of the Court and the Nobles. — Insurrection. — Jaques Bonhomme.
— Henry III. — Henry IV., of Navarre. — Cardinal Richelieu. — French Academy. — Regency
of Anne of Austria. — Palaces of France. — The Noble and the Ennobled. — Persecution of the
Protestants. — Edict of Nantes. — Its Revocation. — Distress of the Protestants. — Death of Louis
XIV 25

CHAPTER III.

THE REGENCY AND LOUIS XV.

State of France. — The Regency. — Financial Embarrassment. — Crimes of the Rulers. — Recoin-
ing the Currency. — Renewed Persecution of the Protestants. — Bishop Dubois. — Philosophy
of Voltaire. — Anecdote of Franklin. — The King's Favorites.— Mademoiselle Poisson. — Her
Ascendency. — Pai-c aux Cerfs. — Illustrative Anecdote. — Letter to the King. — Testimony of
Chesterfield. — Anecdote of La Fayette. — Death of Pompadour. — Mademoiselle Lange. —
Power of Du Barry. — Death of Louis XV 34

CHAPTER IV.

DESPOTISM AND ITS FRUITS.

Assumptions of the Aristocracy.— Moliere. — Decay of the Nobility. — Decline of the Feudal Sys-
tem. — DiiFerence between France and the United States. — Mortification of Men of Letters. —
Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau. — Corruption of the Church. — Diderot. — The Encyclope-
dists. — Testimony of De Tocqueville. — Frederic II. of Prussia. — Two Classes of Opponents of
Christianity. — Enormity of Taxation. — Misery of the People. — "Good old Times of the Mon-
archy !" 45

CHAPTER V.

THE BASTILLE.

Absolute Power of the King. — Lettres de Cachet. — The Bastille. — Cardinal Balue. — Harancourt.
— Charles of Armanac. — Constant de Renville. — Duke of Nemoiu's. — Dungeons of the Bas-
tille. — Oubliettes. — Dessault. — M. Massat. — M. Catalan. — Latude. — The Student. — Apostro-
phe of Michelet 53

CHAPTER VI.

THE COURT AND THE PARLIAMENT.

Death of Louis XV. — Edttcation of Louis XVI. — Maurepas, Prime Minister. — Turgot; Ms
Expulsion from Office. — Necker. — Franklin. — Sympathy with the Americans. — La Fayette. —
Views of the Court. — Treaty with America.— Popularity of Voltaire. — Embarrassment of
Necker. — Compte Rendu au Roi. — Necker driven into Exile. — Enslavement of France. — New
Extravagance. — Calonne 57



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER VII.

THE ASSEMni.Y OF THE NOTABLES.

Measures of Briennc. — The Bed of Justice. — Remonstrance of Parliament. — Parliament Exiled.

Submission of Parliament.— Duke of Orleans. — Treasonable Plans of the Duke of Orleans.

Anxietv of tlio Queen. — Tiic Diamond Necklace. — Monsieur, the Kind's Brother. — Baga-
telle. Desperation of Briennc. — Edict for al)olishing the Parliaments. — Enerpj- of the Court.

Arrest of D'Espremeiiil and Goislard. — Tumults in Grenoble. — Terrific IIaiI-storm..Page G7

CHAPTER VIII.

TOE APPEAL TO THE PEOPLE.

Recall of Necker.— Reassembling the Notables.— Pamphlet of the Abbe' Sibyes.— Vote of the
King's Brother.— Ilis supposed Motive.— The Basis of Representation.— Arrai^gements for
the Meeting of the States. — Statement of Grievances. — Mirabeau ; his Menace. — Sympathy
of the Curates with the People.— Remonstrance of the Nobles.— First Riot.— Meeting of the
States-General. — New Effort of the privileged Classes 77

CHAPTER IX.

ASSEMBLING OF THE ST.\TES-GESERAL.

Opening of the States-General.— Sermon of the Bishop of Nanc}-.— Insult to the Deputies of the
People.— Aspect of Mirabeau.— Boldness of the Third Estate.- Journal of Mirabeau. —Com-
mencement of the Conflict. — First Apjicarance of Robespierre. — Decided Stand taken by the
Commons. — Views of the Curates. — Dismay of the Nobles. — Excitement in Paris.— The Na-
tional Assembly. — The Oath B5

CHAPTER X.

THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY.

First Acts of the Assembly. — Confusion of the Court. — Hall of the Assembly closed. — Adjourn-
ment to the Tennis-court. — Cabinet Councils. — Desjwtic Measures. — The Tennis-court dosed.
—Exultation of the Court.— Union with the Clergy.— Peril of the Assembly.— The Royal Sit-
ting. — Speech of the King 92

CHAPTER XI.

KEVOLUTIONARY MEASURES.

Speech of Mirabeau. — Approach of tlie Soldiers and Peril of the Assembly. — Elation of the
Queen. — Triumph of Necker. — Embarrassment of the Bishops and the Nobles. — Letter of the
King. — The Bishops and Nobles join the Assembly. — Des])eratc Resolve of the Nobles. — The
Troops sympathizing with the People 09

CHAPTER XII.

THE TUMULT IN PARIS.

Marshal Broglic. — Gatherings at the Palais Royal. — Disaffection of the Soldiers. — Imprisonment
and Rescue. — Fraternization. — Petition to the Assembly. — Wishes of the Patriots. — Move-
ment of tlie Troops. — Si)eech of Mirabeau. — New Menaces. — Declaration of Rights. — Dismis-
sal of Necker. — Commotion in Paris. — Camille Desmoulins. — The French Guards join the
People. — Terror in Paris. — Character of the King 103

CHAPTER XIII.

BTOUMINO THE BA.STILLE.

The Assembly petitions the King. — Resolves of the Assembly. — Narrative of M. Dumont.—
Scenes in Paris. — The I'eoplc organize for Self-defense. — The new Cockade. — The Abbe Le-
febvre d'Ormesson. — Trcacliery of tlie Mayor, Flesselles. — Character of De Launey, (Governor
of the Bastille. — Sackitig the Invalides. — The Bastille Assailed. — Assassination of Do Lau-
ney and of Flesselles 112

CHAPTER XIV.

THE KINO RECOONIZES THE NATIONAL AS.'«EMni,Y.

Rout of the Cavalry of Lambese.— Tidings of the Capture of the Bastille reach Versailles.—
Consternation of the Court. — Midnight Interview between the Duku of Liancourt and the



CONTENTS. xi

King. — New Delegation from the Assembly. — The King visits the Assembly. — The King es-
corted back to his Palace. — Fickleness of the Monarch. — Deputation sent to the Hotel de Ville. —
Address of La Fayette. — La Fayette appointed Commander of the National Guard.. .Page 122

CHAPTER XV.

THE KING VISITS PAEIS.

Views of the Patriots. — Pardon of the French Guards. — Religious Ceremonies. — Recall of
Necker. — The King ^-isits Paris. — Action of the Clergy. — The King at the Hotel de Ville. —
Return of the King to Versailles. — Count d'Artois, the Polignacs, and others leave France. —
Insolence of the Servants. — Sufferings of the People. — Persecution of the Corn-dealers. —
Berthier of Toulon. — M. Foulon. — Their Assassination. — Humane Attempts of Necker. —
Abolition of Feudal Rights 127

CHAPTER XVI.

FORMING THE CONSTITUTION.

Arming of the Peasants. — Destruction of Feudal Charters. — Sermon of the Abbe Fauchet.—
Three Classes in the Assembly. — Declaration of Rights. — The Three Assemblies. — The Power
of the Press. — Efforts of William Pitt to sustain the Nobles. — Questions on the Constitution.
— Two Chambers in one? — The Veto. — Famine in the City. — The King's Plate melted. — The
Tax of a Quarter of each one's Income. — Statement of Jefferson 141

CHAPTER XVIL

THE ROTAL FA3IILT CARRIED TO PARIS.

WaningPopularity of La Fayette.— The King contemplates Flight.— Letter of Admiral d'Estaing.
— The Flanders Regiment called to Versailles. — Fete in the Ball-room at Versailles. — Insur-
rection of the Women ; their March to Versailles. — HoiTors of the Night of October 5th. — The
Royal Family conveyed to Paris 155

CHAPTER XVni.

FRANCE REGENERATED.

Kind Feelings of the People. — Emigration receives a new Impulse. — The National Assembly
ti-ansferred to Paris. — The Constituent Assembly. — Assassination of Francois. — Anxiety of
the Patriots. — Gloomy Winter. — Contrast between the Bishops and the laboring Clergy. —
Church Funds seized by the Assembly. — The Church responsible for the Degradation of the
People.— New Division of France.— The Right of Suffrage.- The Guillotine.— Rabaud de
St.Etienne 165

CHAPTER XIX.

THE KING ACCEPTS THE CONSTITUTION.

The King visits the Assemblj-.— His Speech.— The Priests rouse the Populace.— The King's
Salary.— Petition of Talma.— Views of Napoleon.— Condemnation and Execution of the Mar-
quis of Favrus. — Spirit of the New Constitution. — National Jubilee. — The Queen sympathizes
with the Popular Movement. — Writings of Edmund Bm-ke 175

CHAPTER XX.

FLIGHT OF THE KING.

Riot at Nancy. — Prosecution of Mirabeau. — Issue of Assignats. — Mirabeau's Interview with the
Queen.— Four political Parties.— Bishops refuse to take the Oafi to the Constitution.— Char-
acter of the Emigrants. — The King's Aunts attempt to leave France. — Debates upon Emigra-
tion. — Embarrassment of the Assembly. — Death of Mirabeau. — His Funeral. — The King pre-
vented from vdsiting St. Cloud. — Duplicity of the King. — Conference of the Allies. — Their
Plan of Invasion. — Measures for the Escape of the King. — The Flight 188

CHAPTER XXI.

ARREST OP THE ROTAL FUGITIVES.

Arrival at Varennes. — The Party arrested. — Personal Appearance of the King. — The Guards
fraternize with the People.— Indignation of the Crowd.— The Captives compelled to return to
Paris.— Dismay of M. de Bouille'.— Excitement in Paris.— The Mob ransack the Tuileries.—
Acts of the Assembly. — Decisive Action of LaFayette. — Proclamation of the King. — The Jac-
obin Club. — Unanimity of France 200



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XXII.

RETTRN OF THE ROYAL FAMILY FHOM VARENNE8.

Proclamation of Marat. — Three Commissioners sent to meet the King. — Address to the Nation
from the Assembly. — Tiie slow and painful Return. — Conversation between Barnave and the

Queen. Brutality of Pction. — Sufferings of the Royal Family. — Reception of the King in

Paris. Conduit of the Queen. — Noble Avowal of La Fayette. — Statement of the King. —

Menace of Bouille Page 214

CHAPTER XXIII.

COMMOTION IN PARIS.

The Remains of Voltaire removed to the Pantheon. — Decision of the Assembly on the Flight
of the King. — Thomas Paine. — Views of the Constitutional Monarchists. — Message from La
Fayette to the King of Austria. — The Jacobins summon the Populace to the Field of Mars. —
Mandate of the Jacobins. — The Crowd on the Field of Mars disjiersed by the Military.—
Completion of the Constitution.— Remarkable Conversation of Naiwleon. — The King formally
accepts the Constitution. — Great, but transient, Popularity of the Royal Family 222

CHAPTER XXIV.

THE APPROACH OF WAR.

Sentiments of the King and Queen upon the Constitution. — The Legislative Assembly. — Its dem-
ocratic Spirit. — The King's Speech. — Painful Scene. — The Queen plans Escape. — Riot in the
Theatre. — Infatuation of the Aristocrats. — Insult to the Duke of Orleans. — Embarrassment
of the Allies. — Replies to the King from the European Powers. — The Emigrants at Coblentz.
— The King's Veto. — Letters of the King to his Brothers. — Their Replies. — Cruel Edicts. —
Pe'tion chosen Mayor. — The King visits the Assembly. — Rise of the Republican Party.... 23G

CHAPTER XXV.

AGITATION IN PARIS, AND COMMENCEMENT OF nOSTILmES.

Death of Leopold. — Assassination of Gustavus. — Interview between Dumouriez and the Queen.
— Discussion in the Assembly. — The Duke of Brunswick. — Inten-iew of Barnave with the
Queen. — Interview between Dumouriez and the King. — Dismissal of M. Roland. — The Palace
invaded. — Fortitude of the King. — Pe'tion, the Mayor. — Affecting Interview of the Royal Fam-
ily. — Remarks of Napoleon 246

CHAPTER XXVL

THE THRONE ASSAILED.

Angry Inten-iew between the King and the Mayor. — Decisive Action of La Fayette. — Expecta-
tions of the Queen. — Movement of the Prussian Army. — Efforts of the Priests. — Secret Com-
mittee of Royalists. — Terror in the Palace. — The Queen's View of the King's Chai-acter. —
Parties in France. — Energetic Action of the Assembly. — Speech of Vcrgniaud 262

CHAPTER XXVII.

THE THRONE DEMOLISHED.

The Country proclaimed in Danger. — Plan of La Fayette for the Safety of the Royal Family. —
Measures of the Court. — Celebration of the Demolition of the Bastille. — Movement of the Allied
Army. — Conflicting Plans of the People. — Letter of the Girondists to the King. — Manifesto of
the Duke of Brunswick. — Unpopularity of La Fayette. — 'The Attack ujRin the Tuileries, Aug.
10th. — The Royal Family take Refuge in the As.sembly 271

CHAPTER XXVIII.

, THE ROA'AL FAMILY IMPRISONED.

Tumult and Dismay in the Assembly. — Storming the Tuileries. — Aspect of the Royal Family. —
The Decree of SusiKjnsion. — Night in the Cloister. — The second Day in the Assembly.— The
Royal Family I'risoners. — Third Day in the Assembly.— Tlic Temple. — The Royal Family
transferred to the Temple 28(5

CHAPTER XXIX.

THE MASSACUK OF THE ROYAL1.ST8.

Saprcmacy of the Jacobins. — Their energetic Measures. — The As-serably threatened. — Commis-
sioners sent to the Army. — Spirit of the Co)irt Party in England. — Speech of Edmund Burke.



CONTENTS. xiii

— Triumphant March of the Allies. — The Nation summoned en masse to resist the Foe. — Mur-
der of the Princess Lamballe. — Apology of the Assassins. — Eobespierre and St. Just. — Views
of Napoleon Page 295

CHAPTER XXX.

THE KING LED TO TRIAL.

Assassination of Eoyalists at Versailles. — Jacobin Ascendancy. — The National Conbention. —
Two Parties, the Girondists and the Jacobins. — Abolition of Royaltj-. — Madame Roland. —
Battle of Jemappes. — Mode of Life in the Temple. — Insults to the Royal Family. — New Acts
of Rigor. — Trial of the King. — Separation of the Royal Family. — The Indictment. — The King
begs for Bread 308

CHAPTER XXXr.

EXECUTION OF LOUIS XVI.

Close of the Examination. — The King's Counsel. — Heroism of Malesherbes. — Preparations for
Defense.— Gratitude of the King.— The Trial.— Protracted Vote.— The Result.— The King
solicits the Delay of Execution for three Days. — Last Interview with his Family. — Preparation
for Death.— The Execution 318

CHAPTER XXXII.

THE EEIGN OP TERROR.

Charges against the Girondists. — Danton. — The French Embassador ordered to leave England.
— War declared against England. — Na-\-y of England. — Internal War. — Plot to assassinate
the Girondists. — Bold Words of Vergniaud. — Insurrection in La Vendee. — Conflict bet«-een
Dumouriez and the Assembly. — Flight of Dumouriez. — The Mob aroused and the Girondists
arrested. — Charlotte Corday. — France rises en masse to repel the Allies. — The treasonable
Surrender of Toulon 331

CHAPTER XXXIII.

EXECUTION OF 5IARIE ANTOINETTE AND MADASIE ELIZABETH.

Marie Antoinette in the Temple. — Conspiracies for the Rescue of the Royal Family. — The young
Dauphin torn from his Mother. — Phrensy of the Queen. — She is removed to the Conciergerie.
— Indignities and Woes. — The Queen led to Trial. — Letter to her Sister. — The Execution of
the Queen. — Madame Elizabeth led to Trial and Execution. — Fate of the Princess and the
Dauphin 345

CHAPTER XXXIV.

THE JACOBESS TKIUMPHANT.

Views of the Girondists. — Anecdote of Vergniaud. — The Girondists brought to Trial. — Suicide
of Valaze'. — Anguish of Desmoulins. — Fonfrede and Duces. — Last Supper of the Girondists. —
Their Execution. — The Duke of Orleans ; his Execution. — Activity of the Guillotine. — Hu-
mane Legislation. — Testimony of Desodoards. — Anacharsis Cloots. — The New Era 353

CHAPTER XXXV.

FALL OF THE HEBEETISTS AND OF THE DAjnONISTS.

Continued Persecution of the Girondists. — Robespierre opposes the Atheists. — Danton, Souber-
bieUe, and Camille Desmoulins. — The Vieux Cordelier. — Tlie Hebertists executed. — Danton
assailed. — Inteiwiew between Danton and RobespieiTe. — Danton warned of his Peril. — Ca-
mille Desmoulins and others an-ested. — Lucile, the Wife of Desmoulins. — Letters. — Execution
of the Dantonists. — Arrest and Execution of Lucile. — Toidon recovered by Bonaparte 3C]

CHAPTER XXXVI.

FALL OF ROBESPIERRE.

Inexplicable Character of Robespierre. — Ce'cile Regnault. — Fete in honor of the Supreme Being.



Online LibraryJohn S. C. (John Stevens Cabot) AbbottThe French revolution of 1789, as viewed in the light of republican institutions → online text (page 1 of 54)