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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

RIVERSIDE



BEQUEST OF




EMPEROR XAPOLEON



OF



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE



BY

JOHN S. C. ABBOTT
TKUtb /Dbaps ant> THumerous 1lllu0tration0

IN FOUR VOLUMES
VOLUME III.



" La verite, rien qne (a verite "
" Magna est veritas et prevalent*



NEW EDITION




NEW YOKK AND LONDON
HARPER & BROTHERS PUBLISHERS



,2.



Entered, according to Art of Congress, in the year one thousand eight
hundred and fifty-five, by

HARPER & BROTHERS.

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District of
New York.



Copyright, 1883, by SUSAN ABBOT MEAD.



CONTENTS TO TOLS. Ill, AND IV.



CHAPTER I.

ITALY AND SPAIN.

Tour of the 1 Emperor and Empress through Italy Reception in Venice Interview with Lucien
The Milan Decree Magnificent Plans Testimony of Burke Affairs of Portugal Flight of the
Court The Spanish Bourbons Arrest of Ferdinand Appeal of Charles and Ferdinand to Na-
poleon Conversation with Savary Letter to the King of Holland Letter to Murat Reply to
Ferdinand Interview with the Spanish Bourbons Proclamation to the Spaniards Entrance of
Joseph Bonaparte into Spain Important Queries Remarks to O'Meara Page 13

CHAPTER II.

ACCUMULATING PERILS.

Thiers's Testimony to the universal Popularity of the Emperor His unsullied Morality His Vig-
ilance at. the Canal of Langucdoc Renewed Threatenings of Austria Interview with Metter-
nich Influence of the Monks in Spain Insurrection in Spain and Portugal Trying Position of
Joseph Bonaparte The Bulls and Bears 38

CHAPTER III.

THE EMPEROKS AT ERFURTH.

Meeting of the Emperors at Erfurth Homage of Napoleon to Men of Science and Genius
Character of Alexander Letter to the Emperor of Austria The Divorce alluded to Minute
and' accurate Information of Napoleon His prodigious Application His Affection for Alex-
ander Letter to the King of England Chilling Repulse of England Napoleon's Remarks to
O'Meara Napier's Admission 51

CHAPTER IV.

A MARCH INTO SPAIN.

England renews Assistance to Spain Address of Napoleon to the French Legislature Proclama-
tion to the Army Untiring Efforts of the Emperor The French at Vittoria, Burgos, Espinosa
Storming the Pass of Somisierra Napoleon's Clemency to the People of Madrid Interview
with General Morla Surrender of the City Testimony of Lamartine Wild Passes of the
Guadarrama Conduct of the English Soldiery Reception of Dispatches at Astorga 64

CHAPTER V.

A NEW COALITION.

Retreat of Sir John Moore Dreadful Condition of Spain Siege of Saragossa Perilous Position
of the Emperor Austrian Alliance with England Views of Alexander Vigorous Preparations
of the French The Emperor and Empress leave Paris ? 83

CHAPTER VI.

ECKMUHL.

Napoleon and Washington compared The Archduke crosses the Inn Error of Berthier Spir-
ited Dispatches The Emperor's Bivouac Battle of Eckmuhl General Cervoni Retreat of
the Austrians Napoleon Wounded Extraordinary Achievements 96

CHAPTER VII.

DESCENDING THE DANUBE.

The Traveling-carriage of Napoleon Address to the Army at Ratisbon The Syrian Soldier-^
Napoleon repairs Ratisbon Bridge of Ebersberg Dierstein Vienna summoned to Surrender
Maria Louisa Andreossi Governor of Vienna Conversation with Savary Letter to Eugene
The disgraced Surgeon 107



i v CONTENTS.



CHAPTER VIII.

ISLAND OF LOBAU.

Preparations of the Emperor Essling and Aspern Rising of the Danube Loss of the Bridge
Death of Lannes The French retire to Lobau Lofty Character of Napoleon Council of War
New Bridge, and the Manner of its Construction Narrow Escape of the Emperor and Ou-
dinot Page 123

CHAPTER IX.

WAGRAM.

The Archduke unconscious of Danger Macdonald's Charge Bessieres Wounded The Battle-field
of Wagram Testimony of Savary Descent of the English on the Belgian Coast The Emperor
Francis seeks Peace Interview between Napoleon and M Bubna Fourth Treaty with Austria
The young Assassin Coolness of Alexander Defeat of the French at Talavera Proclama-
tion to Hungary War in Spain Want of Discipline of the English Soldiers in Spain Letter to
the Pope Hostility of the Papal Court Rome annexed to France Expenditures in Italy . 136

CHAPTER X.

THE DIVORCE OF JOSEPHINE.

Duty of the Historian Deeds and Sayings Announcement to Josephine Interview between the
Emperor and Eugene Consummation of the Divorce Departure of the Empress Letters of
the Emperor Interview at Malmaison of Napoleon and Josephine Remarks of Napoleon at
St. Helena 158

CHAPTER XI.

MARIA LOUISA.

Assembling of the Privy Council Noble Reply to the Wishes of Alexander Napoleon's Over-
tures at the Austrian Court accepted The Marriage solemnized at Vienna Celebration of the
civil Marriage in Paris Letters from Josephine Unavailing Efforts for Peace with England
Correspondence of the Emperor and the King of Holland Von der Sulhn Baron Kolli Birth
of the King of Rome Letter of Josephine Note of the Emperor Letter of Josephine after
seeing the Child Testimony of Baron Meneval Anecdote Justice of the Emperor 170

CHAPTER XII.

THE RUSSIAN WAR.

Testimony of Napier to the Character of Napoleon Remarks of Hazlitt Admissions of Castle-
reagh, Scott, and Lockhart Nature of the Strife Napoleon's Application to his Allies Hostile
Movements of Alexander Rendezvous at Dresden Confidence of the Emperor Testimony of
Savary Reluctance of Napoleon's Generals Mission of the Abbe de Pradt Striking Remarks
to the Duke of Gaeta Magnificent Designs of the Emperor 192

CHAPTER XIII.

MOSCOW.

Hostility of England to Napoleon Of the Bourbonists in France Impartiality of the American
People Departure from Dantzic Movement of the Grand Army Crossing the Niemen Wil-
na Witepsh Smolensk Borodino Moscow The Conflagration Anxiety of Napoleon Ef-
forts for Peace Financial Skill 216

CHAPTER XIV.

THE RETREAT.

The Approach of Winter The Snow Preparations for retiring to Poland Duty of the Rear
Guard Eugene's Conflict with the Russians The Pass at Kalouga The Retreat commenced
Dreadful Anxiety of the Emperor Alarm of the Russians Aspect of Borodino Viasma
Marshal Ney in command of the Rear Guard The Midnight Storm Arrival at Smolensk
Alarming News from France Adventures of Eugene Krasnoe Adventures of Ney Passage
of the Bercsina Smorgoni Interview with the Abbe de Pradt Return to Paris Heroism of
Ney 240



CONTENTS. T

CHAPTER XV.

LUTZEN AND BAUTZEN.

Report of the Minister of the Interior Testimony of Enemies Noble Devotion of Napoleon's Al-
lies New Coalition Confession of Metternich Death of Bessieres Battle of Lutzen Enter-
ing Dresden Battle of Bautzen Death of Duroc Armistice Renewal of Hostilities Caulain-
court's Interview with the Emperor Striking Remarks of Napoleon Page 268

CHAPTER XVI.

RETROSPECT.

Testimony of Alison Napoleon not responsible for the Wars which succeeded the French Revo-
lution Napoleon not a Usurper State of the French Republic The Consular Throne The
Imperial Throne Political Views of Sir Walter Scott Napoleon not a Tyrant Proof of the
Love of the People Admissions of Sir Walter Scott Testimony of the Abbe de Pradt Hon-
esty of the Elections State of Europe now 295

CHAPTER XVII.

TRIUMPHS AT DRESDEN.

Exultation of the Allies March to the Elbe The Attack of the Allies upon Dresden Sangui-
nary Battle Scene at a Battery Gloomy Night The Fall of Moreau Testimony of Caulain-
court The Soldier rewarded Sudden Sickness of Napoleon Unexpected Disasters Energy
of the Emperor 306

CHAPTER XVIII.

DISASTER AT LEIPSIC.

Renewed Discomfiture of the Allies Extraordinary Plan of the Emperor Defection of his Gen-
erals Anguish of Napoleon The Retreat to Leipsic Battle of Leipsic Proposals for an Ar-
mistice Sickness of the Emperor Second Day of Battle Desertion of the Saxon Troops
Failure of Ammunition The Retreat Last Interview with the King of Saxony Extraordinary
Magnanimity of the Emperor Battle of Hanau Surrender of Fortresses False Faith of the
Allies Napoleon's Return to Paris 321

CHAPTER XIX.

THE STRUGGLE RENEWED.

French Equality Remarks of the Emperor Advance of the Allies Conspiracies in France The
Emperor's Address to the Senate Object of the Allies Testimony of Napier ; of Caulaincourt
Patriotism of Carnot Offer of Gustavus Remarks of the Emperor Character of Joseph
Strength of the Allies 345

CHAPTER XX.

THE CAPITULATION OF PARIS.

The Empress invested with the Regency The Emperor's Departure from Paris Battle of Brienne
Directions to Caulaincourt Unrelenting Hostility of the Allies Their atrocious Demands
Unparalleled Efforts of the Emperor Battle of Montereau Interview with Josephine Bold Re-
solve of the Emperor Plan of the Allies The Attack on Paris Capitulation Napoleon at
Fontainebleau 356

CHAPTER XXL

THE ABDICATION.

The Mission of Caulaincourt The Allies enter Paris Adventures of Caulaincourt Interview
with Alexander Caulaincourt returns to Napoleon Abdication in favor of the King of Rome
Defection of Marmont Mission of Macdonald, Ney, and Caulaincourt to Paris The Allies de-
mand Unconditional Abdication The Abbe de' Pradt Speech of Pozzo di Borgo ; of Talley-
rand Interview between Caulaincourt and Napoleon The Unconditional Abdication Libel of
Chateaubriand Comments of Dr. Charming 378



v i CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXII.

DEPARTURE FOR ELBA.

Deliberations of the Allies Generosity of Alexander Napoleon recalls his Abdication The Treaty
Unworthy Conduct of the English Government Interview between Caulaincourt and the Em-
peror Illness of Napoleon Testimony of Antommarchi Parting with Macdonald Napoleon's
Impatience to leave Fontainebleau Departure of Berthier The Cuirassier of the Guard Situa-
tion of Maria Louisa Conversation with Beausset Grief of the Emperor Napoleon takes
leave of Caulaincourt Noble Address to his Officers Affecting Adieu to the Old Guard De-
parture for Elba Page 403

CHAPTER XXIII.

THE EMPEROR AT ELBA.

Equanimity of the Emperor Affection of Josephine Her Death Napoleon's Arrival at Elba
His Devotion to the Interests of the Island Rural Enjoyments Measures of the Bourbons in
France Comical Appearance of Louis XVIII. Plans for the Abdication of the Emperor The
Income of the Emperor withheld Conversation with Lord Ebrington Distracted State of
France Conversation with M. Chabouillon Napoleon decides to leave Elba Testimony of the
Duke of Rovigo 420

CHAPTER XXIV.

THE RETURN FROM ELBA.

Preparations for Departure The Embarkation The Announcement Dictating Proclamations
Passing the Enemy First Meeting with the Troops Entering Grenoble Alarm of the Bour-
bons Magnanimity of the Emperor 438

CHAPTER XXV.

.

TRIUMPHAL MARCH TO PARIS.

Honorable Conduct of Macdonald Reception at Lyons Interview with Baron Fleury Marshal
Ney Approaching Auxerre Attempt to Assassinate the Emperor Anxiety of the Emperor
that no Blood should be shed Arrival at Fontainebleau Extraordinary Scene at Melun
Entering the Tuileries Enthusiasm of France The Duchess of Angouleme Death of Mu-
rat 452

CHAPTER XXVI.

UNRELENTING HOSTILITY OF THE ALLIES.

The Cabinet of Louis Organization of the Government Benjamin Constant Address of the
Council of State The School at Ecouen Quarrel among the Allies Their Consternation
Talleyrand Eloquent Speech of Talleyrand Decision of the Allies Infamous Outlawry of the
Emperor Duplicity of Wellington and Castlereagh Opposition in the British House of Com-
mons Sympathy of the British People with Napoleon Napoleon's Letter to the Allied Sover-
eigns His Appeal to Europe 471

CHAPTER XXVII.

WATERLOO.

Preparations for War The Emperor's Departure from the Tuileries Position of Wellington and
Blucher Plan of the Emperor Desertion of Bourmont Charleroi Disaster of Quatre-Bras
Wellington at Brussels Waterloo Night Reconnoissance The Storm The Battle Hopelest
Condition of Wellington The Arrival of Blucher The French Overwhelmed Return of Napo-
leon to Paris 493

CHAPTER XXVIII.

THE SECOND ABDICATION^

Anguish of the Emperor Peril of France Council Convened Stormy Session of the Chambers
Treachery of Fouche Tumult at the Elysee The Abdication Napoleon retires to Malmai-
son Enthusiasm of the Army Magnanimous Offer of the Emperor His Embarrassments
Brutality of Blucher . $10



CONTENTS. yfi

CHAPTER XXIX.

THE EMPEROR A CAPTIVE.

Departure from Malmaison Journey to Rochefort Embarkation The Blockade The Emperor
seeks Refuge in the Bellerophon Voyage to England Enthusiasm of the English people Im-
placability of the Government The British Ministry trampling upon British Law The Doom of
St. Helena Departure of the Squadron Perfidy of the Allies The Death of Ney. . . . Page 529



CHAPTER XXX.

ST. HELENA.



Adieu to France The Voyage St. Helena Ride to Longwood Description of " The Briers"
Mrs. Abell Emperor's mode of Life Destitution of the Emperor Earnest Protest Petty An-
noyances Interesting Conversations The Imperial Title refused Anecdote The Slave The
Social Character of the Emperor His Candor Poor Toby Striking Remarks 556



CHAPTER XXXI.

FIRST YEAR AT LONGWOOD.



Removal to Longwood The dilapidated Hut The Emperor's Household Annoyances Libels
upon the Emperor The New Year Enthusiasm of the English Sailors Serenity of the Em-
peror The Emperor's Comments upon his Career Arrival of Sir Hudson Lowe His Atrocities
Increasing Wretchedness of the Emperor 576



CHAPTER XXXII.

THE SECOND AND THIRD YEAR OF CAPTIVITY.



New Vexations from Sir Hudson Lowe Napoleon's Views of Toleration Remarks on the Rup-
ture of the Treaty of Amiens upon the Congress at Chatillon upon Russia The Removal of
Las Casas Vulgarity of Sir Hudson Lowe Libels upon the Emperor Dilapidated Condition
of Longwood Interview with Lord Amherst Energetic Protest 593

CHAPTER XXXIII.

THE FOURTH AND FIFTH YEAR OF CAPTIVITY.

The Medical Attendance of Dr. Stockoe New Vexations of Sir Hudson Lowe Religious Conver.
sations of the Emperor Gardening The Emperor's Apartments Increasing Debility Napo-
leon's Love for Children The Fish Basin Amusing Incident The Emmets The Emperor's
Filial Affection Traits of Domestic Character 609

CHAPTER XXXIV.

THE LAST DAYS OF NAPOLEON.

Remarks of the Emperor upon his Career The Death of the Fishes Tidings of the Death of the
Princess Eliza Remarks upon Spain and Italy Cruelty of Sir Hudson Lowe Anecdotes
The Emperor's Letter to his Son Receives the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper His Will
The Dying Scene Death and Burial 628

CHAPTER XXXV.

FRANCE DEMANDS THE REMAINS OF THE EMPEROR.

Rejection of the Bourbons Petitions from the People The Emperor's Statue France applies to
the British Government The Response Frigates dispatched for the Remains The Exhuma-
tion The Return Voyage Triumphal Ascent of the Seine The Reception in Paris Entomb-
ed at the Invalides 651



ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLS, IIL AND IV.



1. The Reception at Venice 15

2. Return from Italy 19"

3. Flight of the Portuguese Court 21

4. Interview with the Spanish Princes ... 31

5. Departure of Joseph into Spain 34

6. Napoleon and Metternich 43

7. The Monks arousing the Peasants .... 45

8. Meeting of the Emperors 52

9. Soiree at Erfurth 54

10. The Present of the Sword 60

11. Last Interview between the Emperors . 61

12. Napoleon at the Inn at Vittoria 67

13. Storming the Pass of Somosierra 70

14. Napoleon and the Daughter of St. Simon 77

15. The Passage of the Guadarrama 79

16. Reception of Dispatches 81

17. Posting for Paris 88

18. The Emperor's Bivouac 100

19. Cavalry Charge at Eckmuhl 102

20. Napoleon Wounded at Ratisbon 105

21. The Ruins of Dierstein 113

22. Bombardment of Vienna 115

23. The Surgeon Disgraced 121

24. The Church Tower at Essling 126

25. Napoleon and Lannes 129

26. Massena holding the Position 130

27. The Council of War 132

28. Napoleon at Wagram 140

29. Napoleon and the dying Officer 142

30. The Young Assassin 148

31. The Announcement 161

32. Sundering the Tie 164

33. Departure of Josephine 167

34. Fac simile of a Letter 168

35. Entrance into Paris 174

36. The Emperor and Young Napoleon . . 181

37. Napoleon and his Child 188

38. March of Conscripts 274

39. After the Battle 279

40. Approach to Dresden 280

41. Asleep on the Field of Battle 284

42. Death of Duroc 286

43. Napoleon and Metternich in Council . . 290

44. The Reconnoissance 309

45. The Battery 312

46. Visit to the Outposts 313

47. The Fall of Moreau 315

48. The Soldier Rewarded 318

49. The Council of War 331

50. Destruction of the Bridge 335

51. Death of Poniatowski 336

52. The Bomb-shell .341



53. Interview with Maria Louisa 343

54. The Empress invested with the Regency 357

55. The Attack upon Napoleon 359

56. The Russians Surprised 363

57. The Bursting of the Bomb 371

58. The Cossacks Repulsed 372

59. Tidings of the Capitulation 375

60. Napoleon at Fontainebleau 377

61. Caulaincourt and the Grand Duke Con-

stantine 381

62. Caulaincourt in the Cabinet of Napoleon 384

63. Caulaincourt returning to Fontaine-

bleau 386

64. The last Review at Fontainebleau 389

65. Marmont arresting the Return of the

Troops 392

66. Caulaincourt and the Abbe de Pradt. . 394

67. The Abdication 399

68. Fac simile of the Abdication 400

69. The Convention 404

70. Marshal Macdonald 409

71. Napoleon in the Garden of Fontaine-

bleau 412

72. Adieu to the Guard 419

73. Josephine 422

74. Arrival at Elba 423

75. Napoleon at the Farm-house 426

76. Residence at Elba 430

77. The Announcement 440

78. Copying the Proclamation 443

79. Passing the Enemy 444

80. Napoleon at Grenoble 448

81. Marshal Lefebvre 451

82. Approaching Auxerre 458

83. Meeting of Napoleon and Ney 459

84. Napoleon at Fontainebleau 461

85. Napoleon at Melun 462

86. Entering the Tuileries 463

87. The Death of Murat 470

88. Murat 471

89. NapoleonintheCabinetofLouisXVIII. 472

90. Napoleon at the School of Ecouen . . . 477

91. The Announcement to Talleyrand 478

92. Talleyrand 480

93. The Field of Mars 488

94. Eugene Beauharnais 493

95. Napoleon leaving the Tuileriea 494

96. Napoleon Addressing his Troops 495

97. Marshal Soult 496

98. Reconnoitering the Field 500

99. Napoleon at Waterloo 506

100. Retreat from Waterloo 508



ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS.



Page

101. The Return to Paris 509

102. The Emperor and Lucien in the Gar-

den of the Elysee 515

103. The Emperor and the Page 518

104. Napoleon receiving the Thanks of the

Chambers 520

105. Napoleon leaving the Elysee 522

106. The Emperor in the Library at Mal-

maison 530

107. The Departure from Malmaison 533

108. Embarking in the Boats 536

109. Napoleon confiding in the Hospitality

of England 540

1 10. Napoleon at Plymouth 543

111. Admiral Keith eluding the Execution

of the Laws 547

112. Passing to the Northumberland 550

113. Sailing of the Convoy 552

1 14. Execution of Marshal Ney 554

115. Marshal Ney 555

116. The Emperor's Adieu to France 557

117. The Emperor's Gun 559

118. St. Helena ., .560



P&GT6

119. The Briers 562

120. Napoleon's Room at the Briers 564

121. " Respect the Burden, Madam" 571

122. The two Captives 575

123. The House at Longwood 576

124. Plan of Longwood 577

125. Napoleon receiving the Portrait of his

Son .. 619

126. Napoleon's Apartment at Longwood. . 620

127. The Emperor a Gardener 623

128. The Fish Basin 627

129. The new House 635

130. The Emperor dictating his last Letter . 645

131. The Emperor receiving the Sacrament

of the Lord's Supper 647

132. The Dying Scene 648

133. Napoleon's Grave 650

134. The Invalides 654

135. The Barge on the Seine 660

136. The Funeral Car 662

137. Interior of the Invalides 664

139. The Sanctuary 665

138. The Sarcophagus 666



MAPS.



1. Spain and Portugal 68

2. Eckmuhl, Aspern, and Wagram 98

3. Vienna, Island of Lobau and Vicinity 124

4. Mouth of the Scheldt 144

5. Vicinity of Dresden 203

6. Country between Paris and Moscow. . 217

7. Map of Krasnoe 250

8. The Retreat from Moscow 256

9. Campaign in Saxony 276



10. Dresden and Vicinity 282

11. Dresden and Vicinity 307

12. Dresden and Leipsic 325

13. Environs of Paris 358

14. Elba 424

15. Route from Elba to Paris 439

16. Map of Waterloo 497

17. France under the Empire 555J

18. St. Helena ., ... 570



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE.



VOLUME III.



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE.



CHAPTER I.

ITALY AND SPAIN.

Tour of the Emperor and Empress through Italy Reception in Venice Interview with Lucien
The Milan Decree Magnificent Plans Testimony of Burke Affairs of Portugal Flight of the
Court The Spanish Bourbons Arrest of Ferdinand Appeal of Charles and Ferdinand to Na-
poleon Conversation with Savary Letter to the King of Holland Letter to Murat Reply to
Ferdinand Interview with the Spanish Bourbons Proclamation to the Spaniards Entrance of
Joseph Bonaparte into Spain Important Queries Remarks to O'Meara.

A BOUT this time Napoleon left Paris for a tour through Italy. He passed
** from city to city with his accustomed celerity, allowing himself no time
for repose. With a glance of the eye he decided, and decided wisely, upon
the most important public works. He left Paris the 16th of November,
1807. Josephine accompanied him. At midnight of the 15th, at the close
of a brilliant assembly in the Tuileries, Napoleon said, in retiring, to an at-
tendant, " Carriages at six, for Italy." This was the only announcement of
his journey. Even Josephine had received no previous notice. On tho
morning of the 21st, his chariot wheels were rattling over the pavements of
Milan. Eugene was taken by surprise. Immediately on the morning of his
arrival, Napoleon visited the Cathedral of Milan, where a Te Deum was
chanted. His pensive and impassioned spirit ever enjoyed the tolling of
bells, the peal of the organ, the swell of the anthem, the dim religious
light struggling through aisles and groined arches, and amid the pillars and
gorgeous adornings of the most imposing temples of worship. His serious
and earnest nature was never attuned to mirthmlness. In no scene of mid'
night wassail or bacchanalian revelry was he ever found. Napoleon seldom
smiled. A gentle melancholy overshadowed him. Intense earnestness per-
vaded his being. In the afternoon he visited the vice-queen, the young and
noble bride of Eugene. In the evening he went to the theatre to show him-
self to the Italians. For comedy he had no relish. The soul-stirring inci-
dents of the most exalted tragedy he richly enjoyed. The Legislative As'
sembly was immediately called together. Napoleon thus addressed them :
" Gentlemen ! It is with pleasure that I see you around my throne. After
an absence of three years, I am much gratified to observe the progress which
has been made by my people. But there are still many things to be done
ere the errors of our fathers can be effaced, and Italy rendered worthy of the
high destiny reserved for her. The intestine divisions of our ancestors, occa-
sioned by their miserable egotism and love of individual localities, led to the
gradual loss of all their rights. The country was disinherited of its rank and



14 NAPOLEON BONAPARTE. [CHAP. I.

dignity, bequeathed by those who, in remote ages, had spread afar the re*
nown of their arms and the fame of their manly virtues. To restore that
renown and those virtues will be the object and the glory of my reign." The
Italians had not listened to such noble words for ages.

The three next days were devoted to business. Innumerable orders were
dispatched. In crossing Mont Cenis by the new road which he had con-
structed, he was- impressed with the deficiency of accommodation for travel-
ers on those bleak and snow-drifted heights. He gave orders for the crea-
tion of three hamlets. One upon the summit of the mountain, and one at
the commencement of the ascent on each side. On the summit he ordered
the erection of a church, an inn, a hospital, and a barrack. He granted ex-
emption from taxes for all the peasants who would settle in these hamlets.
A population was commenced by establishing bands of soldiers at each of
these points, charged to keep the road over the difficult mountain pass in re-
pair, and to assemble, in case of accident, wherever their assistance might be
needed. Having in a few days accomplished works w r hich would have oc-
cupied most minds for months, on the 1 Oth of December he set off for Ven-
ice, taking the road by Brescia, Verona, and Padua. He was greeted, wher-
ever he appeared, by the most enthusiastic acclamations of the people.

On the road he met the King and Queen of Bavaria, whose daughter Eu-
gene had married, his sister Eliza, and his brother Joseph, whom he most



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