John S. C. (John Stevens Cabot) Abbott.

The history of Napoleon III, emperor of the French. Including a brief narrative of all the most important events which have occured in Europe since the fall of Napoleon I until the present time online

. (page 1 of 89)
Online LibraryJohn S. C. (John Stevens Cabot) AbbottThe history of Napoleon III, emperor of the French. Including a brief narrative of all the most important events which have occured in Europe since the fall of Napoleon I until the present time → online text (page 1 of 89)
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I



.,.1 THE HISTORY



OF






NAPOLEON




EMPEROR OF THE FRENCH.



INCLUDING A BRIEF

NARRATIVE OF ALL THE MOST IMPORTANT EVENTS WHICH HAVE

OCCURRED IN EUROPE SINCE THE FALL OF NAPOLEON I.

UNTIL THE PRESENT TIME.



BY



JOHN S. C. ABBOTT,

AUTHOR OF "HISTORY OF NAPOLEON I.," "THE FRENCH REVOLUTION,'
"THE CIVIL WAR IN AMERICA," ETC.



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS.



BOSTON:
B. B. RUSSELL, PUBLISHER, 55 CORNHILL.

CINCINNATI.: WHITE, CORBIN, BOUVE, & CO.

SAN FRANCISCO : H. H. BANCROFT & CO.

1868.



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868, by

B. B. RUSSELL,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.






Geo. C. Rand & Avery,

Electrotypers and Printers,
3 CoRNHiLL, Boston.



ILLUSTRATIONS.



-*-



I. A FULL-LENGTH PORTRAIT OF THE Emperor Napoleon III. . . Frontispiece. ■

II. A portrait of the father of the Emperor, — Louis Bonaparte, King

OF Holland 22

III. A portrait of the mother of the Emperor, — Hortense, the daugh-

ter of Josephine, — with Louis Napoleon, eight years of age,
standing at her side . . . 33.

IV. The Chateau of Arenemberg, the beautiful residence of Queen

Hortense during the childhood and youth of Louis Napoleon . 133

V. The Castle of Ham, where the Prince was imprisoned for six years, 184

VI. The Chateau of Fontainebleau, the favorite rural residence of

THE Emperor 367

VII. The Palace of the Tuileries, the city residence of the Emperor . 504

VIII. The Imperial Family, consisting of the Emperor, the Empress Eugenie,

and the young Prince Imperial * . . . 574

IX. A bird's-eye view of the Palace of the Great Exposition . . . 668

8



) I



PREFACE.




N writing the history of the estaUishraent of the French
Empire under Napoleon I., and its overthrow by the alHed
dynasties of Europe, the author spent four years of severe
labor. Fully aware that the jmlgment of America upon
these themes had been formed mainly from the represen-
tations of the Tory writers of England, and that Napoleon had been
denounced as a tyrant and a usurper by nearly the uncontradicted voice
of English literature, the writei* felt the necessity of scrupulous exactness
in every statement. He visited England and the Continent to collect the
works of all the leading writers upon the subject. He endeavored care-
fully and impartially to examine upon every point the opinions of the
different parties. Few books have been more severely assailed ; and yet
the writer is not aware that a single error of statement has yet been
pointed out, calling for correction.

In now writing the history of the restoration of the empire nnd er Nap o-^ jo
leon III., the writer has been equally laborious in investigation, and consci-
entious in statement. From the commencement of the restored empire, in
1852, until the present time, he has carefully studied all its movements.
Twice he has visited France to observe the practical operations of the
government. He has conversed with distinguished French gentlemen of
the different political and religious parties, and has carefully listened to the
observations of intelligent foreigners from the different nationalities of
Europe and America residing in Paris. He has also collected from Lon-
don and Paris every book and pamphlet he could find upon the subject
of the empire, whether from the pen of friend or foe. Thus furnished, he
has written this book with as honest and earnest a desire to present the
truth as it is possible for him to possess. It has been his ^great aim that
every statement should be so accurate as to stand the test of the severest
scrutiny.

Being himself a republican, he is not in danger of being biassed in favor
of imperial form's. Being a Protestant clergyman, he is not liable to look
with too favorable an eye upon the Roman-Catholic religion. The theme



6 PREFACE.

upon which he writer is one of the grandest in the annals of time. The
career of Napoleon III. presents one of the most eventful scenes, and per-
haps the closing scene, in the sublime drama of the French Revolution ; and
that drama has agitated the minds and the hearts of men as they never
were agitated before.

The Revolution of 1789, sweeping away in blood and flame the throne
of the ancient kings ; the republic, with its convulsions, its anarchy, its
reign of terror, over whose wOes even angels might weep ; the empire of
Napoleon I., dazzling the world with its power and glory ; the alliance of
all the dynasties of Europe to crush that republican empire ; the long and
bloody struggle ; the overthrow of Napoleon ; the restoration of the throne
of the Bourbons by foreign armies ; the expulsion of Charles X. ; the rise
and fall of the throne of Louis Philippe ; the transient republic ; the recall
of the exiled Bonapartes ; the election to the presidency of Louis Napo-
leon ; the coup d ''etat ; the#estored empir'^ ; the brilliant reign of Napoleon
III. ; his internal policy ; his foreign policy ; the Roman question ; the
Crimean campaign; the Mexican invasion ; the liberation of Italy ; the
re-organization of Germany, — such are the subjects which are involved
in the career of Napoleon III. No secular scenes more momentous can
employ the pen.

These subjects are so intimately blended with men's most firmly cher-
ished principles of politics and religiouj that it is not to be supposed that
any writer can frankly and boldly discuss them, however candid and modest
he may be, without exciting the angry passions of some, at least, of those
who differ from him. The frailty of humanity is such, that diversity of
opinion upon historical facts is often regarded as a crime, meriting the
sternest reprobation ; and he who undertakes the arduous task of writing
upon such exciting themes should examine himself to ascertain if he can
maintain that perfect honesty which historic truth demands, and if he can
serenely bear the contumely which he must inevitably encounter.

It has been the great aim of the writer, not to make this book merely
the expression of his personal opinions, but a faithful record of historic
facts. The reader is here presented with a brief narrative of those great
events in France which preceded and ushered in the restored empire ;
and, though no intelligent man will probably question these statements,
the writer has judged that 'the importance of the subject demanded that he
should give documentary proof of them all.

He has also, with great care, presented to the reader a report of the
speeches, an examination of the writings, and an account of the deeds, of
Napoleon III. There can be no question whatever that these words have
been spoken, that these sentiments have been written, that these actions
have been performed, as here related. In all the varied incidents of the
emperor's wonderful pareer, — - in his youth, his early manhood, and while



4 PREFACE. 7

seated upon the imperial throne, — the writer has been careful to substantiate
every statement by unquestionable authority.

It is saddening to reflect, but the whole history of the world attests the
fact, that no man of commanding powers can energetically endeavor to do
good without being fiercely assailed, not merely by bad men, but by
good men, by sincere philanthropists, by those who are willing to labor and
suffer and to make the greatest sacrifices for the welfare of humanity. A
sovereign who is placed by popular choice at the head of a nation of forty
millions of people, and such a nation as the French, -r- long agitated by the
struggles of antagonistic parties, and situated in the midst of powerful mon-
archies, strongly armed, ambitious and encroaching, : — merits a generous
and charitable construction of his actions.

Perhaps no man has been more unscrupulously assailed than Napoleon
III. There is scarcely a crime of which he has not been accused. All
the epithets in the vocabulary of vituperation have been exhausted in
application to him ; and* yet you may search all his mvdtiplied addresses
and his voluminous writings in vain to find one angry word in reply. He
is always the refined and courteous gentleman. The instincts of his nature
seem to render it impossible for him ever to lay aside the calm cogency of
argument, to grasp the weapons of vulgar abuse.

It is a remarkable fact that Napoleon III. occupies a space in the journals
of Christendom, larger, probably, than that of all the other sovereigns of
earth united. One can scarcely take up a newspaper, in Europe or Amer-
ica, which does not contain some allusion to the Emperor of the French ;
and the writer submits the question, whether there is not found in this
narrative a more reasonable explanation of the fact than in the popular
rumors which are floating iji the air.

The same institutions are manifestly not adapted to all countries and to
all peoples, whatever their tastes, their habits, and their surroundings.
England loves her monarchy ; America loves her republic ; France loves
her emjl^ire. Nothing is more certain than that the people of neither of
these nations wish to exchange their government for that of either of the
others. Each of these governments has its merits, and each its defects.
•Nations as well as individuals may be courteous. It is neither in good
taste, nor is it poKtic, that any one nation should assume that it is the
celestial empire, and that all others are outside barbarians. America,
France, and England are all-powei-ful nations, — powerful in intellect, in
culture, in wealth, in arts, in arms. It is surely the teaching of wisdom
that they should respect each other, and that they should regard Avith
courtesy the institutions under which each has risen to greatness.

It will be said that this history is a romance. It is a romance of more
thrilling interest than almost any creation of fiction. It is the romance of
real life, not merely founded on fact, but in which every statement is



8 PEEFACE.

confirmed by indisputable authority. In view of the proof upon every
page, it is scarcely conceivable that any one should deny that this is a
truthful representation of what the Empero'r Napoleon III. has written
and said and done.

From this record individuals will draw different inferences, in accordance
with their political views and their preconceived opinions. Still the writer
— cheere'd by the conviction that the majority of his countrymen seek only
for truth ; that there is not a statement in this volume which is not sustained
by documentary proof; and that, when the passions of the present hour
shall have passed away, this record will be sustained by the verdict of pos-
terity — calmly submits the work to that stormy sea of criticism upon which
it is sure to be buffeted.

In the illustrations, the seader is presented with as' accurate a hkeness
as art can give of the emperor in his prime ; a portrait of his father, —
Louis, King of Holland; a portrait of Queen Hortense, his mother, and
the young Louis Napoleon, a child about seven years of age, at her side.
No one can fail to remark the very striking resemblance between the father
and the child. We have also the imperial family — the emperor, the
empress, and the prince imperial — in the quietude of home; the Chateau
of Arenemberg, in whose retirement the emperor spent most of the years
of his early youth ; the Castle of Ham, where he languished in captivity
for six years ; the Palace of the Tuileries, the city residence of the
emperor, as seen from the court of the Louvre; the Palace of Fontaine-
bleau, the favorite country retreat of the royal family ; and a bird's-eye
view of the Great Exposition, in its central buildings and surroundings.

The fidelity of the likenesses may be rehed upon. The portraits are
taken from paintings in the private collection of the emperor at the
Tuileries. The engravings have been executed by the best artists in Paris.

JOHN S. C. ABBOTT.
New Haven, Conn., July, 1868.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

THE PARENTAGE OP LOUIS NAPOLBO:



y



Early Life of Josephine. — Marriage of Josephine and Viscount Beauhamais. — Life in
Paris. — Separation. — Josephine and Hortense in Martinique. — Eeturn to Paris. —
Sufferings there. — Marriage of Josephine with General Bonaparte. — Love. — Disap-
pointment of Hortense ; of Louis Bonaparte. — The Unhappy Marriage. — Death
of the First-born. — Birth of Louis Napoleon. — Anecdotes of the Empire. — Early
Developments of Chai-acter 17



CHAPTER II.

CHIIiDHOOD AND YOUTH.



y



Abdication of Napoleon. — His Prediction. — The Allies in Paris. — Their Fear of the Bona-
parte Name. — Expulsion of Hortense and her Sons. — Wanderings and Persecutions.
— Residence at Lake Constance. — Studies of Louis Napoleon. — Purchase of Arenem-
berg. — Anecdotes. — Cultured Society. — The Reconciliation. — Military Taste of the
Young Prince. — Visits to Rome. — The Princess Pauline. — Calumnious Reports. —
Petition of Pauline 32

CHAPTER III.

THE TREATIES OP 1815, AND THE ATTEMPTS TO OVERTHROW THEM.

Invasion of France. — Congress of Vienna. — Anecdote. — Parcelling out of Italy. — Plans
of Napoleon I. — Carbonari. — Insurrection in Italy. — The Insurrection crushed by
the Austrians. — Louis XVIII. : his Character. — The Countess de Cala. — Expulsion
of Charles X. — Battles and Diplomacy. — Abdication of the King in Favor of the
Duke de Bordeaux as Henry V. — Flight of the Royal Family. — Assassination of
the Duke de Berri. — Strife of Parties. — Interview of Chateaubriand with the Orleans
Family. — Speech of Chateaubriand. — Anecdote. — Enthronement of Louis Philippe . 42

CHAPTER IV.

UNSUCCESSFUL INSURRECTIONS.

Excitement caused by the Overthrow of the Bourbon Dynasty. — • The Napoleonic Princes
join the Italian Insurgents. — Letter of Louis Napoleon to the Pope. — Death of Napo-
leon Louis. — Letter from Prof S. F. B. Morse. — Perils of Louis Napoleon. — Devotion
of his Mother. — Their Flight. — Incognito Entrance to France. — Visit to England. —
Return to Arenemberg. — " Political Reveries." — Madame Rccamicr. — Chateaubriand.
— ^ Death of General Lamarque. — Republican Insurrection 62

a 9



10 CONTENTS.



CHAPTER V.

THE ADVENTURES OF THE DUCHESS DE BEEEI.

Claims of the Legitimists. — Narrative of the Assassination of the Duke de Berri. — Noble
Conduct of the Duchess de Berri. — The Dying Scene. — Birth of the Duke de Bor-
deaux. — Efforts of the Duchess to reclaim the Crown for her Son. — Her Romantic
Adventures. — Disappointments and Persistence. — Her Capture and Imprisonment. —
Deplorable Development. — Moral Ruin of the Duchess. — Death of the Duke of Reich-
stadt. — His Attractive Character and Melancholy History. — Decree of the Senate of
France creating the Napoleonic Dynasty. — Its Ratification by the People. — Response
of Napoleon 82

CHAPTER VI.

LIFE AT AKENEMEEEG, AND NAPOLEONIC SYMPATHIES.

Views of Lafayette ; of M. Carrel ; of Chateaubriand. — The Poles desire Nouis Napoleon
for their King. — His Reply. — Retirement at Arenemberg. — Studies. — " Considera-
tions, Political and Military, upon Switzerland." — Opinions of the Press. — Extracts.

— Letters to the Poet Belmontet. — Letter from Queen Hortense. — The Prince offered
the Crown of Portugal. — His Reply. — Mode of Life at Arenemberg. — "Manual of
Artillery." — The Liberal Party look to Louis Napoleon. — French Sympathy for Na-
poleon I. — Honors conferred upon his Memory. — Plan for restoring the Empire. —
Colonel Vaudrey 93

CHAPTER VIL

STEASBURG.

Letter to his Mother. — Leaves Arenemberg. — Incidents at Strasburg. — Speeches and
Proclamations. — Success. — Reverses. — The Capture. — His Expression of his Feel-
ings. — Anxiety for his Companions. — Disregard of Himself. — Taken to Paris. —
Condemned Untried. — Fears of the Government. — Transported to America. — Scenes
on the Voyage 106

CHAPTER VIII.

EXILE AND STUDIES.

Life in America. — Return to Europe. — False Report. — Return to Arenemberg. — Death
of Queen Hortense. — Studious Habits of the Prince. — "Political Reveries." — The
Dynasties demand his Expulsion. — Heroism of the Swiss Government. — Retirement to
England. — Noble Conduct. — Studious Life in London. — " Idees Napole'oniennes." —
Extracts from the Work . 125

CHAPTER IX.

PEINCE LOUIS IN LONDON.

"Les Idees Napoleoniennes." — Habits of Louis Napoleon. — Testimony of Acquaintances.

— Views of Government. — Severe Studies. — Unpopularity of Louis Philippe. — At-
tempts at Assassination. — The Napoleonic Idea. — pieschi. — Narrow Escape of the
Royal Family. — Secret Societies. — Virulence of the Press. — Inauguration of the
Arc de I'Etoile. — Seclusion of the King. — Napoleonic Sympathies. — The Emperor's
Statue restored to the Column in the Place Vendome. — Letter from Joseph Bonaparte.

— The Bourbon Law of Proscription. — Justification for the Efforts of the Prince, — ■
Death of Charles X. — Socialist Insurrection. — M. Thiers Prime Minister. — Demand

for the Remains of Napoleon. — Preparation for their Removal 147



CONTENTS. 11

CHAPTEE X.

BOULOGNE.

'The City of Edinburgh" steams to Boulogne. — The Landing and the- Straggle. — Nar-
row Escape of the Prince from Death. — The Capture. — ^Letter from the Father of
Louis Napoleon. — Confinement in the Conciergerie. — Visit from Chateaubriand. —
Habits of Study. — The Trial. — The Defence of the Prince. — Interesting Incident. —
Sentenced to Pei-petual Captivity. — Fortitude of the Prince 166



CHAPTER XL
• t

THE NEPHEW AT HAM ,* THE UNCLE AT THE INVALIDES.

Description of Ham. — Devotion of the Friends of the Prince. — Prison-Life. — Manifesta-
tions of Sympathy. — The Arms of Napoleon I. — Demand for the Remains of the
Emperor. — Their Removal from St. Helena., — Their Arrival in France. — Funeral
Solemnities. — Testimony of Napier. — Apostrophe of Louis Napoleon. — Correspond-
ence and Remonstrance 184



CHAPTER Xn.

PRISON-LABOES.

Sympathy for the Pi'ince. — Letter to M. Barrot. — Guizot's History of the French Revolu-
tion. — Historical Fragments. — Letter from Chateaubriand. — Invariable Courtesy of
the Prince. — Policy of the Stuarts, — Profound Political Views. — Increasing Sympa-
thy for the Captive. — Thoughts of Amnesty. — Letter from the Prince. — His Political
Principles ^nd Conduct . . . . . . 202



CHAPTER Xin.

POLITICAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND HISTORICAL WRITINGS.

Analysis of the Sugar-Question. — Letter from Beranger. — Testimony of Renault. — Let-
ter to Viscount Chateaubriaijd. — Letter from Sismondi. — Life of Charlemagne. —
Political Articles. — Attack upon Napoleon I. by Lamartine. — Response of Louis
Napoleon »• 217



CHAPTER XIV.

SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PRINCIPLES OP THE CAPTIVE OF HAM.

Rhetorical Skill. — " Project of Law upon the Recruitment of the Army." — " The Prussian
Organization." — "Military Necessities of France." — "Mathematical Studies of Na-
poleon." — Anecdotes of the Emperor. — Philosophic Views. — "The Extinction of
Pauperism." — Character of the Treatise. — Testimony of Bc'ranger. — " The Past and
Future of Artillery." — "The Canal of Nicaragua." — Interesting Correspondence . 235



CHAPTER XV.

FAMILY REMINISCENCES.

The Death of Joseph Bonaparte. — Sketch of his Career. — Anecdote of Napoleon. — Peti-
tions for the Release of the Prince. — Sickness of his Father, King Louis. — His Dying
Plea to see his Son. — Efforts of the Prince to visit his Dying Father. — Correspond-
ence. — Measures of the Goverunient. — Public Dissatisfivction 250



12 ' CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XVI.

THE ESCAPE FKOM HAM.

Plans for Escape. — Devotion of Dr. Conneau and the Valet Thelin. — Rumors of Ap-
proaching Release. — The Plan adopted. — Difficulties and Embarrassments. — Details
of the Event. — Wonderful" Success ... 263

CHAPTER XVII.

EMPLOYMENT IN EXILE.

Heroism of Dr. Conneau. — Governmental Persecution. — Death of King Louis. — Funeral
Honors. — Letters from Prince Louis Napoleon. — His Character in Exile. — Testi-
mony of "Walter Savage Landor. — The Duke of Wellington. — Testimony of " The
Journal du Loriet." — Treatise upon the Canal of Nicaragua. — Noble Sentiments . 274

CHAPTER XVIII.

THE OVERTHROW OP THE THRONE OP LOUIS PHILIPPE.

Childhood and Youth of Louis Philippe. — Execution of the Duke of Orleans. — Flight of
the Family. — The Return of Louis Philippe with the Bourbons. — His Elevation to the
Throne. — Unpopularity. — The Banquets. — Their Prohibition. — Indignation and In-
surrection of the People. — Triumph of the Insurgents. — Flight of the King. — Hero-
ism of the Duchess of Orleans. — Her Perils and Final Escape 288

CHAPTER XIX.

THE REPUBLIC.

The Two Provisional Governments. — Their Union. — Stormy Debates and Emeutes. —
Alarming Rumors. — Anecdotes. — The National Workshops. — Weakness of the Re-
publican Party. — The National Assembly. — Anecdotes of Lamartine. — The Assem-
bly dispersed by the Mob. — Louis Napoleon visits Paris. — Returns to London. — Let-
ter to the Assembly. — Chosen Deputy by Four Departments. — Excited Discussion. —
Received to the Assembly . . . • • .311

CHAPTER XX.

STORMY DEBATES AND INSURRECTIONS.

Address to the Electors. — Letter to the President of the Assembly. — Agitation in the As-
sembly. — The Debate. — Louis Napoleon declines his Election. — Discontent of the
People. — Disorder in the Government. — Closing the Workshops. — Anecdote. — Ter-
rible Excitement. — Dictatorship of Cavaignac. — The Four-Days' Battle . . .334

CHAPTER XXI.

REPRESENTATIVE AND PRESIDENT.

Louis Napoleon a Representative. — His Speech. — Attacks upon him. — Debate upon the
Constitution. — Election by the People. — Prudence of Louis Napoleon. — Speeches in
the Assembly. — Candidate for the Presidency. — His Popularity with the Masses. —
Address to the Electors. — Triumphant Election 350

CHAPTER XXII.

THE ROMAN QUESTION.

Character of the New Constitution. — Feelings in the Rural Districts. — Antagonism of the
Assembly to the President. — Instigations to Civil War. — Letter to Prince Napoleon.
— Excitement of the Revolutionaiy Spirit. — Insurrection in Rome. — Assassination
of M. Rossi. — Flight of the Pope. — French Intei'vention. — Its Necessity. — Capture
of Rome. — Socialist Insurrection in Paris. — Confirmed Strength of the Government . 369



CONTENTS. 13

CHAPTER XXIII.

THE WAR OP THE ASSEMBLY AGAINST THE PRESIDENT. '

Speech at Chartres, at Amiens, Angers, Nantes. — Sketch of Bonchamp. — Speech at Rouen.

— The Workmen at Elbcuf. — Incident At Eixin. — Speech at ^lEpernay. — Affairs at
Rome. — Letter to the President of the Assembly. — Refugees in Paris. — Universal
Suffrage suspended. — Socialist Triumph. — SjDeech of Thiers. — Salary of the Presi-
dent. — Combination against him. — His Imperturbable Se;fenity 388

CHAPTER XXIV.

DIPLOMATIC STRATEGY AND TACTICS.

Speech at the Opening of the Assembly. — Petitions for the Revision of the Constitution. — '
Assumptions of Changarnier. — His Removal from Command. — Excitement in the
Assembly. — Salary of the President curtailed. — Conciliatory Spirit of the President.

— The Speech at Dijon. — Conflict upon the Question of Universal Suffrage. ^Speech
at Poitiers ; at Chatellerault. — Doctrines of the Socii^jsts. — Opening of the Session in
1851. — Coalition against the President. — His Untroubled Spirit. — Conspiracy for
his Ruin 411

CHAPTER XXV.

THE COUP d'etat.

The only Measures Louis Napoleon could adopt. — Last Meeting of the Assembly. — Levee
at the Elysee. — Testimony of Hon. S. G. Goodrich. — The Decisive Step. — The
Proclamations. — The Arrests. — Changarnier, Cavaignac, Thiers, Lamoriciei'C, Bedeau,
Charras, La Grange, Roger, Baze. — The Insurrection. — Narrative of Hon. S. G. Good-
rich. — The Discomfiture of the Insurgents. — Proclamation of St. Arnaud . . •. 431



Online LibraryJohn S. C. (John Stevens Cabot) AbbottThe history of Napoleon III, emperor of the French. Including a brief narrative of all the most important events which have occured in Europe since the fall of Napoleon I until the present time → online text (page 1 of 89)