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The Monarchies of Continental Europe

THE EMPIRE OF AUSTRIA; ITS RISE AND PRESENT POWER

by

JOHN S. C. ABBOTT

New York;
Published by Mason Brothers,
Cincinnati: Rickey, Mallory & Co.
Stereotyped by
Thomas B. Smith,
82 & 84 Beekman St.
Printed By
C. A. Alvord.
15 Vandewater St.

1859







PREFACE


The studies of the author of this work, for the last ten years, in
writing the "History of Napoleon Bonaparte," and "The French Revolution
of 1789," have necessarily made him quite familiar with the monarchies
of Europe. He has met with so much that was strange and romantic in
their career, that he has been interested to undertake, as it were, a
_biography_ of the Monarchies of Continental Europe - their birth,
education, exploits, progress and present condition. He has commenced
with Austria.

There are abundant materials for this work. The Life of Austria embraces
all that is wild and wonderful in history; her early struggles for
aggrandizement - the fierce strife with the Turks, as wave after wave of
Moslem invasion rolled up the Danube - the long conflicts and bloody
persecutions of the Reformation - the thirty years' religious war - the
meteoric career of Gustavus Adolphus and Charles XII. shooting athwart
the lurid storms of battle - the intrigues of Popes - the enormous pride,
power and encroachments of Louis XIV. - the warfare of the Spanish
succession and the Polish dismemberment - all these events combine in a
sublime tragedy which fiction may in vain attempt to parallel.

It is affecting to observe in the history of Germany, through what woes
humanity has passed in attaining even its present position of
civilization. It is to be hoped that the human family may never again
suffer what it has already endured. We shall be indeed insane if we do
not gain some wisdom from the struggles and the calamities of those who
have gone before us. The narrative of the career of the Austrian Empire,
must, by contrast, excite emotions of gratitude in every American bosom.
Our lines have fallen to us in pleasant places; we have a goodly
heritage.

It is the author's intention soon to issue, as the second of this
series, the History of the Empire of Russia.

JOHN S. C. ABBOTT.

Brunswick, Maine, 1859.




CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.
RHODOLPH OF HAPSBURG.
From 1232 to 1291.

Hawk's Castle. - Albert, Count of Hapsburg. - Rhodolph of Hapsburg. - His
Marriage and Estates. - Excommunication and its Results. - His Principles
of Honor. - A Confederacy of Barons. - Their Route. - Rhodolph's Election
as Emperor of Germany. - The Bishop's Warning. - Dissatisfaction at the
Result of the Election. - Advantages accruing from the Possession of an
interesting Family. - Conquest. - Ottocar acknowledges the Emperor; yet
breaks his Oath of Allegiance. - Gathering Clouds. - Wonderful
Escape. - Victory of Rhodolph. - His Reforms. Page 17


CHAPTER II.
REIGNS OF ALBERT I., FREDERIC, ALBERT AND OTHO.
From 1291 to 1347.

Anecdotes of Rhodolph. - His Desire for the Election of his Son. - His
Death. - Albert. - His Unpopularity. - Conspiracy of the Nobles. - Their
Defeat. - Adolphus of Nassau chosen Emperor. - Albert's Conspiracy. -
Deposition of Adolphus and Election of Albert. - Death of Adolphus. - The
Pope Defied. - Annexation of Bohemia. - Assassination of Albert. - Avenging
Fury. - The Hermit's Direction. - Frederic the Handsome. - Election of
Henry, Count of Luxemburg. - His Death. - Election of Louis of
Bavaria. - Capture of Frederic. - Remarkable Confidence toward a
Prisoner. - Death of Frederic. - An early Engagement. - Death of
Louis. - Accession of Albert. Page 34


CHAPTER III.
RHODOLPH II., ALBERT IV. AND ALBERT V.
From 1389 to 1437.

Rhodolph II. - Marriage of John to Margaret. - Intriguing for the
Tyrol. - Death of Rhodolph. - Accession of Power to Austria. - Dividing the
Empire. - Delight of the Emperor Charles. - Leopold. - His Ambition and
successes. - Hedwige, Queen of Poland. - "The Course of true Love never
did run smooth." - Unhappy Marriage of Hedwige. - Heroism of Arnold of
Winkelreid. - Death of Leopold. - Death of Albert IV. - Accession Of Albert
V. - Attempts of Sigismond to bequeath to Albert V. Hungary and Bohemia.
Page 48


CHAPTER IV.
ALBERT, LADISLAUS AND FREDERIC.
From 1440 to 1489.

Increasing Honors of Albert V. - Encroachments of the Turks. - The
Christians Routed. - Terror of the Hungarians. - Death of Albert. -
Magnanimous Conduct of Albert of Bavaria. - Internal Troubles. - Precocity
of Ladislaus. - Fortifications Raised by the Turks. - John Capistrun. -
Rescue of Belgrade. - The Turks Dispersed. - Exultation over the
Victory. - Death of Hunniades. - Jealousy of Ladislaus. - His
Death. - Brotherly Quarrels. - Devastations by the Turks. - Invasion of
Austria. - Repeal of the Compromise. - The Emperor a Fugitive. Page 68


CHAPTER V.
THE EMPERORS FREDERIC II. AND MAXIMILIAN I.
From 1477 to 1500.

Wanderings of the Emperor Frederic. - Proposed Alliance with the Duke of
Burgundy. - Mutual Distrust. - Marriage of Mary. - The Age of
Chivalry. - The Motive inducing the Lord of Praunstein to Declare
War. - Death of Frederic II. - The Emperor's Secret. - Designs of the
Turks. - Death of Mahomet II. - First Establishment of Standing
Armies. - Use of Gunpowder. - Energy of Maximilian. - French
Aggressions. - The League to Expel the French. - Disappointments of
Maximilian. - Bribing the Pope. - Invasion of Italy. - Capture and
Recapture. - The Chevalier de Bayard. Page 77


CHAPTER VI.
MAXIMILIAN I.
From 1500 to 1519.

Base Treachery of the Swiss Soldiers. - Perfidy of Ferdinand of
Arragon. - Appeals by Superstition. - Coalition with Spain. - The League of
Cambray. - Infamy of the Pope. - The King's Apology. - Failure of the
Plot. - Germany Aroused. - Confidence of Maximilian. - Longings for the
Pontifical Chair. - Maximilian Bribed. - Leo X. - Dawning Prosperity. -
Matrimonial Projects. - Commencement of the War of Reformation. - Sickness
of Maximilian. - His Last Directions. - His Death. - The Standard by which
his Character is to be Judged. Page 91


CHAPTER VII.
CHARLES V. AND THE REFORMATION.
From 1519 to 1581.

Charles V. of Spain. - His Election as Emperor of Germany. - His
Coronation. - The First Constitution. - Progress of the Reformation. - The
Pope's Bull against Luther. - His Contempt for his Holiness. - The Diet at
Worms. - Frederic's Objection to the Condemnation of Luther by the
Diet. - He obtains for Luther the Right of Defense. - Luther's triumphal
March to the Tribunal. - Charles urged to Violate his Safe Conduct. -
Luther's Patmos. - Marriage of Sister Catharine Bora to Luther. - Terrible
Insurrection. - The Holy League. - The Protest of Spires. - Confession of
Augsburg. - The Two Confessions. - Compulsory Measures. Page 106


CHAPTER VIII.
CHARLES V. AND THE REFORMATION.
From 1531 to 1552.

Determination to crush Protestantism. - Incursion of the Turks. - Valor of
the Protestants. - Preparations for renewed Hostilities. - Augmentation of
the Protestant Forces. - The Council of Trent. - Mutual Consternation. -
Defeat of the Protestant Army. - Unlooked-for Succor. - Revolt in the
Emperor's Army. - The Fluctuations of Fortune. - Ignoble Revenge. - Capture
of Wittemberg. - Protestantism apparently crushed. - Plot against
Charles. - Maurice of Saxony. - A Change of Scene. - The Biter Bit - The
Emperor humbled. - His Flight. - His determined Will. Page 121


CHAPTER IX.
CHARLES V. AND THE TURKISH WARS.
From 1552 to 1555.

The Treaty of Passau. - The Emperor yields. - His continued Reverses. - The
Toleration Compromise. - Mutual Dissatisfaction. - Remarkable Despondency
of the Emperor Charles. - His Address to the Convention at Brussels. -
The Convent of St. Justus. - Charles returns to Spain. - His Convent
Life. - The Mock Burial. - His Death. - His Traits of Character. - The
King's Compliment to Titian. - The Condition of Austria. - Rapid Advance
of the Turks. - Reasons for the Inaction of the Christians. - The Sultan's
Method of Overcoming Difficulties. - The little Fortress of Guntz. - What
it accomplished. Page 186


CHAPTER X.
FERDINAND I. - HIS WARS AND INTRIGUES.
From 1555 to 1562.

John of Tapoli. - The Instability of Compacts. - The Sultan's Demands. - A
Reign of War. - Powers and Duties of the Monarchs of Bohemia. - The
Diet. - The King's Desire to crush Protestantism. - The Entrance to
Prague. - Terror of the Inhabitants. - The King's Conditions. - The Bloody
Diet. - Disciplinary Measures. - The establishment of the Order of
Jesuits. - Abdication of Charles V. in Favor of Ferdinand. - Power of the
Pope. - Paul IV. - A quiet but powerful Blow. - The Progress of the
Reformers. - Attempts to reconcile the Protestants. - The unsuccessful
Assembly. Page 151


CHAPTER XI.
DEATH OF FERDINAND I. - ACCESSION OF MAXIMILIAN II.
From 1562 to 1576.

The Council of Trent. - Spread of the Reformation. - Ferdinand's Attempt
to influence the Pope. - His Arguments against Celibacy. - Stubbornness of
the Pope. - Maximilian II. - Displeasure of Ferdinand. - Motives for not
abjuring the Catholic Faith. - Religious Strife in Europe. - Maximilian's
Address to Charles IX. - Mutual Toleration. - Romantic Pastime of
War. - Heroism of Nicholas, Count of Zeini. - Accession of Power to
Austria. - Accession of Rhodolph III. - Death of Maximilian. Page 166


CHAPTER XII.
CHARACTER OF MAXIMILIAN. - SUCCESSION OF RHODOLPH III.
From 1576 to 1604.

Character of Maximilian. - His Accomplishments. - His Wife. - Fate of his
Children. - Rhodolph III. - The Liberty of Worship. - Means of
Emancipation. - Rhodolph's Attempts against Protestantism. - Declaration
of a higher Law. - Theological Differences. - The Confederacy at
Heilbrun. - The Gregorian Calendar. - Intolerance in Bohemia. - The Trap of
the Monks. - Invasion of the Turks. - Their Defeat. - Coalition with
Sigismond. - Sale of Transylvania. - Rule of Basta. - The Empire captured
and recaptured. - Devastation of the Country. - Treatment of Stephen
Botskoi. Page 182


CHAPTER XIII.
RHODOLPH III. AND MATTHIAS.
From 1604 to 1609.

Botskoi's Manifesto. - Horrible Suffering in Transylvania. - Character of
Botskoi. - Confidence of the Protestants. - Superstition of Rholdoph. - His
Mystic Studies. - Acquirements of Matthias. - Schemes of Matthias. - His
increasing power. - Treaty with the Turks. - Demands on Rhodolph. - The
Compromise. - Perfidy of Matthias. - The Margravite. - Fillisbustering. -
The People's Diet. - A Hint to Royalty. - The Bloodless Triumph. - Demands
of the Germans. - Address of the Prince of Anhalt to the King. Page 198


CHAPTER XIV.
RHODOLPH III. AND MATTHIAS.
From 1609 to 1612.

Difficulties as to the Succession. - Hostility of Henry IV. to the House
of Austria. - Assassination of Henry IV. - Similarity in Sully's and
Napoleon's Plans. - Exultation of the Catholics. - The Brother's
Compact. - How Rhodolph kept it. - Seizure of Prague. - Rhodolph a
Prisoner. - The King's Abdication. - Conditions Attached to the
Crown. - Rage of Rhodolph. - Matthias Elected King. - The Emperor's
Residence. - Rejoicings of The Protestants. - Reply of the Ambassadors. -
The Nuremberg Diet. - The Unkindest cut of all. - Rhodolph's Humiliation
and Death. Page 213


CHAPTER XV.
MATTHIAS.
From 1612 to 1619.

Matthias Elected Emperor of Germany. - His Despotic Character. - His Plans
Thwarted. - Mulheim. - Gathering Clouds. - Family Intrigue. - Coronation of
Ferdinand. - His Bigotry. - Henry, Count of Thurn. - Convention at
Prague. - The King's Reply. - The Die Cast. - Amusing Defense of an
Outrage. - Ferdinand's Manifesto. - Seizure of Cardinal Klesis. - The
King's Rage. - Retreat of the King's Troops. - Humiliation of
Ferdinand. - The Difficulties Deferred. - Death of Matthias. Page 229


CHAPTER XVI.
FERDINAND II.
From 1619 to 1621.

Possessions of the Emperor. - Power of the Protestants of Bohemia. -
General Spirit of Insurrection. - Anxiety of Ferdinand. - Insurrection led
by Count Thurn. - Unpopularity of the Emperor. - Affecting Declaration of
the Emperor. - Insurrection in Vienna. - The Arrival of Succor. - Ferdinand
Seeks the Imperial Throne. - Repudiated by Bohemia. - The Palatinate. -
Frederic Offered the Crown of Bohemia. - Frederic Crowned. - Revolt in
Hungary. - Desperate Condition of the Emperor. - Catholic League. - The
Calvinists and the Puritans. - Duplicity of the Emperor. - Foreign
Combinations. - Truce between the Catholics and the Protestants. - The
Attack upon Bohemia. - Battle of the White Mountain. Page 245


CHAPTER XVII.
FERDINAND II.
From 1621 to 1629.

Pusillanimity of Frederic. - Intreaties of the Citizens of
Prague. - Shameful Flight of Frederic. - Vengeance Inflicted upon
Bohemia. - Protestantism and Civil Freedom. - Vast Power of the
Emperor. - Alarm of Europe. - James I. - Treaty of Marriage for the Prince
of Wales. - Cardinal Richelieu. - New League of the Protestants. -
Desolating War. - Defeat of the King of Denmark. - Energy of
Wallenstein. - Triumph of Ferdinand. - New Acts of Intolerance. -
Severities in Bohemia. - Desolation of the Kingdom. - Dissatisfaction of
the Duke of Bavaria. - Meeting of the Catholic Princes. - The Emperor
Humbled. Page 261


CHAPTER XVIII.
FERDINAND II. AND GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS.
From 1629 to 1632.

Vexation of Ferdinand. - Gustavus Adolphus. - Address to the Nobles of
Sweden. - March of Gustavus. - Appeal to the Protestants. - Magdeburg joins
Gustavus. - Destruction of the City. - Consternation of the
Protestants. - Exultation of the Catholics. - The Elector of Saxony Driven
from His Domains. - Battle of Leipsic. - The Swedes penetrate
Bohemia. - Freedom of Conscience Established. - Death of Tilly. - The
Retirement of Wallenstein. - The Command Resumed by Wallenstein. - Capture
of Prague. - Encounter between Wallenstein and Gustavus. - Battle of
Lutzen. - Death of Gustavus. Page 279


CHAPTER XIX.
FERDINAND II., FERDINAND III. AND LEOPOLD I.
From 1632 to 1662.

Character of Gustavus Adolphus. - Exultation of the
Imperialists. - Disgrace of Wallenstein. - He offers to Surrender to the
Swedish General. - His Assassination. - Ferdinand's son Elected as his
Successor. - Death of Ferdinand. - Close of the War. - Abdication of
Christina. - Charles Gustavus. - Preparations for War. - Death of Ferdinand
III. - Leopold Elected Emperor. - Hostilities Renewed. - Death of Charles
Gustavus. - Diet Convened. - Invasion of the Turks. Page 295


CHAPTER XX.
LEOPOLD I.
From 1662 to 1697.

Invasion of the Turks. - A Treaty Concluded. - Possessions of
Leopold. - Invasion of the French. - League of Augsburg. - Devastation of
the Palatinate. - Invasion of Hungary. - Emerio Tekeli. - Union of Emerio
Tekeli with the Turks. - Leopold Applies to Sobieski. - He Immediately
Marches to his Aid. - The Turks Conquered. - Sobieski's Triumphal
Receptions. - Meanness of Leopold. - Revenge upon Hungary. - Peace
Concluded. - Contest for Spain. Page 311


CHAPTER XXI.
LEOPOLD I. AND THE SPANISH SUCCESSION
From 1697 to 1710.

The Spanish Succession. - The Impotence of Charles II. - Appeal to the
Pope. - His Decision. - Death of Charles II. - Accession of Philip
V. - Indignation of Austria. - The Outbreak of War. - Charles III.
Crowned. - Insurrection in Hungary. - Defection of Bavaria. - The Battle of
Blenheim. - Death of Leopold I. - Eleonora. - Accession of Joseph
I. - Charles XII. of Sweden. - Charles III. of Spain. - Battle of
Malplaquet. - Charles at Barcelona. - Charles at Madrid. 328


CHAPTER XXII.
JOSEPH I. AND CHARLES VI.
From 1710 to 1717.

Perplexities in Madrid. - Flight of Charles. - Retreat of the Austrian
Army. - Stanhope's Division cut off. - Capture of Stanhope. - Staremberg
assailed. - Retreat to Barcelona. - Attempt to pacify Hungary. - The
Hungarian Diet. - Baronial crowning of Ragotsky. - Renewal of the
Hungarian War. - Enterprise of Herbeville. - The Hungarians
crushed. - Lenity of Joseph. - Death of Joseph. - Accession of Charles
VI. - His career in Spain. - Capture of Barcelona. - The Siege. - The
Rescue. - Character of Charles. - Cloisters of Montserrat. - Increased
Efforts for the Spanish Crown. - Charles Crowned Emperor of Austria and
Hungary. - Bohemia. - Deplorable Condition of Louis XIV. Page 845


CHAPTER XXIII.
CHARLES VI.
From 1716 to 1727.

Heroic Decision of Eugene. - Battle of Belgrade. - Utter Rout of the
Turks. - Possessions of Charles VI. - The Elector of Hanover succeeds to
the English Throne. - Preparations for War. - State of Italy. - Philip V.
of Spain. - Diplomatic Agitations. - Palace of St. Ildefonso. - Order of
the Golden Fleece. - Rejection of Maria Anne. - Contest for the Rock of
Gibraltar. - Dismissal of Rippeeda. - Treaty of Vienna. - Peace Concluded.
Page 362


CHAPTER XXIV.
CHARLES VI. AND THE POLISH WAR.
From 1727 to 1735.

Cardinal Fleury. - The Emperor of Austria urges the Pragmatic
Sanction. - He promises his two Daughters to the two Sons of the Queen of
Spain. - France, England and Spain unite against Austria. - Charles VI.
issues Orders to Prepare for War. - His Perplexities. - Secret Overtures
to England. - The Crown of Poland. - Meeting of the Polish Congress. -
Stanislaus goes to Poland. - Augustus III. crowned. - War. - Charles sends
an Army to Lombardy. - Difficulties of Prince Eugene. - Charles's
Displeasure with England. - Letter to Count Kinsky. - Hostilities Renewed.
Page 878


CHAPTER XXV.
CHARLES VI. AND THE TURKISH WAR RENEWED.
From 1735 to 1739.

Anxiety of Austrian Office-holders. - Maria Theresa. - The Duke of
Lorraine. - Distraction of the Emperor. - Tuscany assigned to the Duke of
Lorraine. - Death of Eugene. - Rising Greatness of Russia. - New War with
the Turks. - Condition of the Army. - Commencement of Hostilities - Capture
of Nissa. - Inefficient Campaign. - Disgrace of Seckendorf. - The Duke of
Lorraine placed in Command. - Siege of Orsova. - Belgrade besieged by the
Turks. - The third Campaign. - Battle of Crotzka. - Defeat of the
Austrians. - Consternation in Vienna. - Barbarism of the Turks. - The
Surrender of Belgrade.


CHAPTER XXVI.
MARIA THERESA.
From 1739 to 1741.

Anguish of the King. - Letter to the Queen of Russia. - The Imperial
Circular. - Deplorable Condition of Austria. - Death of Charles
VI. - Accession of Maria Theresa. - Vigorous Measures of the Queen. - Claim
of the Duke of Bavaria. - Responses from the Courts. - Coldness of the
French Court. - Frederic of Prussia. - His Invasion of Silesia. - March of
the Austrians. - Battle of Molnitz. - Firmness of Maria Theresa. - Proposed
Division of Plunder. - Villainy of Frederic. - Interview with the
King. - Character of Frederic. - Commencement of the General Invasion.
Page 411


CHAPTER XXVII.
MARIA THERESA.
From 1741 to 1743.

Character of Francis, Duke of Lorraine. - Policy of European
Courts. - Plan of the Allies. - Siege of Prague. - Desperate Condition of
the Queen - Her Coronation in Hungary. - Enthusiasm of the Barons. - Speech
of Maria Theresa. - Peace with Frederic of Prussia. - His
Duplicity. - Military Movement of the Duke of Lorraine. - Battle of
Chazleau. - Second Treaty with Frederic. - Despondency of the Duke of
Bavaria. - March of Mallebois. - Extraordinary Retreat of
Belleisle. - Recovery of Prague by the Queen. Page 427


CHAPTER XXVIII.
MARIA THERESA.
From 1743 to 1748.

Prosperous Aspect of Austrian Affairs. - Capture of Egea. - Vast Extent of
Austria. - Dispute with Sardinia. - Marriage of Charles of Lorraine with
the Queen's Sister. - Invasion of Alsace. - Frederic overruns
Bohemia. - Bohemia recovered by Prince Charles. - Death of the Emperor
Charles VII. - Venality of the old Monarchies. - Battle of
Hohenfriedberg. - Sir Thomas Robinson's Interview with Maria
Theresa. - Hungarian Enthusiasm. - The Duke of Lorraine Elected
Emperor. - Continuation of the War. - Treaty of Peace. - Indignation of
Maria Theresa. Page 444


CHAPTER XXIX.
MARIA THERESA.
From 1748 to 1759.

Treaty of Peace. - Dissatisfaction of Maria Theresa. - Preparation for
War. - Rupture between England and Austria. - Maria Theresa. - Alliance
with France. - Influence of Marchioness of Pompadour. - Bitter Reproaches
between Austria And England. - Commencement of the Seven Years' War. -
Energy of Frederic of Prussia. - Sanguinary Battles. - Vicissitudes of
War. - Desperate Situation of Frederic. - Elation of Maria Theresa. - Her
Ambitious Plans. - Awful Defeat of the Prussians at Berlin. Page 461


CHAPTER XXX.
MARIA THERESA.
From 1759 to 1780.

Desolations of War. - Disasters of Prussia. - Despondency of Frederic. -
Death of the Empress Elizabeth. - Accession of Paul III. - Assassination
of Paul III. - Accession Of Catharine. - Discomfiture of the Austrians. -
Treaty of Peace. - Election of Joseph to the Throne of the Empire. - Death
of Francis. - Character of Francis. - Anecdotes. - Energy of Maria
Theresa. - Poniatowski. - Partition of Poland. - Maria Theresa as a
Mother. - War with Bavaria. - Peace. - Death of Maria Theresa. - Family of
the Empress. - Accession of Joseph II. - His Character. Page 478


CHAPTER XXXI.
JOSEPH II. AND LEOPOLD II.
From 1780 to 1792.

Accession of Joseph II. - His Plans of Reform. - Pius VI. - Emancipation of
the Serfs. - Joseph's Visit to his Sister, Maria Antoinette. - Ambitious
Designs. - The Imperial Sleigh Ride. - Barges on the Dneister. - Excursion
to the Crimea. - War with Turkey. - Defeat of the Austrians. - Great
Successes. - Death of Joseph. - His Character. - Accession of Leopold
II. - His Efforts to confirm Despotism. - The French Revolution. - European
Coalition. - Death of Leopold. - His Profligacy. - Accession of Francis
II. - Present Extent and Power of Austria. - Its Army. - Policy of the
Government. Page 493




CHAPTER I.

RHODOLPH OF HAPSBURG.

From 1232 to 1291.

Hawk's Castle. - Albert, Count of Hapsburg. - Rhodolph of Hapsburg. - His
Marriage and Estates. - Excommunication and its Results. - His Principles
of Honor. - A Confederacy of Barons. - Their Route. - Rhodolph's Election
as Emperor of Germany. - The Bishop's Warning. - Dissatisfaction at the
Result of the Election. - Advantages Accruing from the Possession of an
Interesting Family. - Conquest. - Ottocar Acknowledges the Emperor; yet
breaks his Oath of Allegiance. - Gathering Clouds. - Wonderful
Escape. - Victory of Rhodolph. - His Reforms.


In the small canton of Aargau, in Switzerland, on a rocky bluff of the
Wulpelsberg, there still remains an old baronial castle, called
Hapsburg, or Hawk's Castle. It was reared in the eleventh century, and
was occupied by a succession of warlike barons, who have left nothing to
distinguish themselves from the feudal lords whose castles, at that
period, frowned upon almost every eminence of Europe. In the year 1232
this castle was occupied by Albert, fourth Count of Hapsburg. He had
acquired some little reputation for military prowess, the only
reputation any one could acquire in that dark age, and became ambitious
of winning new laurels in the war with the infidels in the holy land.
Religious fanaticism and military ambition were then the two great
powers which ruled the human soul.

With the usual display of semi-barbaric pomp, Albert made arrangements
to leave his castle to engage in the perilous holy war against the
Saracens, from which few ever returned. A few years were employed in the
necessary preparations. At the sound of the bugle the portcullis was
raised, the drawbridge spanned the moat, and Albert, at the head of
thirty steel-clad warriors, with nodding plumes, and banners unfurled,
emerged from the castle, and proceeded to the neighboring convent of
Mari. His wife, Hedwige, and their three sons, Rhodolph, Albert and
Hartman, accompanied him to the chapel where the ecclesiastics awaited
his arrival. A multitude of vassals crowded around to witness the
imposing ceremonies of the church, as the banners were blessed, and the
knights, after having received the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, were
commended to the protection of God. Albert felt the solemnity of the
hour, and in solemn tones gave his farewell address to his children.

"My sons," said the steel-clad warrior, "cultivate truth and piety; give
no ear to evil counselors, never engage in unnecessary war, but when you
are involved in war be strong and brave. Love peace even better than
your own personal interests. Remember that the counts of Hapsburg did
not attain their heights of reputation and glory by fraud, insolence or
selfishness, but by courage and devotion to the public weal. As long as
you follow their footsteps, you will not only retain, but augment, the
possessions and dignities of your illustrious ancestors."



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