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thing, how rich a prize for the expense of a man's whole
life, were it to be the instrument of rescuing one soul ! "
He lived with a family in which he acted as chaplain, when
Cromwell's intolerant decree of 1655 disturbed his peace.
Roused to righteous indignation, he wrote his ' ' Parssnesis, ' '
in which "he resented with the highest passion" the
Protector's edict ; at the same time he looked, as he
says, upon this dispensation of Providence as if God
pronounced him unworthy to do any service, and as if He
reproached him of former unprofitableness, by casting him
out now like straw upon a dunghill. Hammond being

' Walton's Li res 405 — 408.



330 The Church of the Commonwealth. o.ms-i65s

one who made the best of circumstances — sa}ang, with
Epictetns, "that everything has two handles: if the one
prove hot, and not to be touched, we may take the other
that is more temperate" — always advocated quiet sub-
mission to Providence during what he considered to
be afflictive times. ^

Several of his letters are preserved in the British
Museum. In one of these, addressed to Sheldon, after-
wards Bishop of London, so early as October the 14th,
1649, he remarks, respecting his friend : "I think, when
I saw Dr. S[anderson] last, certainly he told me he used the
Common Prayer, otherwise I wonder not that he that
disuses it, should think fit to go to their churches that
do omit it. When you meet with him, endeavour to
infuse some courage into him, the want of which may
betray his reason. His opinion expressed will betray
many. "2 The method pursued by Sanderson, of using
the Liturgy with verbal alterations, so as to give the
appearance of not adopting it, when he employed it in .
substance, displeased and perplexed some of his episcopal
acquaintance ; but beyond this — as it appears from another
letter by Hammond — his companion once thought of
becoming associated in public religious ministrations
** with the Grantham Lecturers." To do such a thing,
Hammond, altogether a stififer Churchman than Sander-
son, regarded as illegal — as not allowed by the authority
of the Bishop, who was still alive, and might be con-
sulted — as countenancing schismatics, and therefore an
act of schism — and as not right, even if the end were
good. The rest of the letter is so indicative of the
temper of the best High Churchmen in those days, that
it deserves to be quoted at length. "I cannot believe

' Fell's Life of Hammond, 241, 262, 203, 279.
* Quoted in Thorndikc'a Wo-rhs, vi. 212.



chap.xn.] Hammond's Letters. 331

that the end, by your letter mentioned, is good for
to sweeten them by complying with them in schisma-
tical acts ; and making them believe themselves pardon-
able, whilst they continue and remain imreformed
in their schism, is. to conj&rm them in their course
and so to scandalize them as well as others, to
put a stumbling-block in their way to reformation.
Certainly the greater charity to those moderate reform-
able Presbyters were to assist, and hasten the perfecting
of their repentance, and renouncing of their erroneous
practices, and then if the Bishop give leave to Dr.
Sa[nderson] to erect some other lecture, they will sure
come and combine with him. And for those that mean
not this, 'tis certain that they are not to be persuaded,
that if the laws regain their powder, they shall be tole-
rated (their way being so unreconcilable with Prelacy),
and as certain that instead of serving Dr. Sanderson's
end they desire to serve themselves of him, and by his
presence and joining with them, to have him thought
such as they — and so hath Mr. Baxter already divided
the Prelatical Clergy into two parts, one exemplified by
Dr. Ussher and Dr. Sanderson ; the other styled, in gross,
Cassandrian, Grotian Papists ; and several of his friends
marked out by some circumstances to be of that number.
Lastly, he may do well to consider whether, if from
writing for the Engagement first and then the laying
aside the Liturgy, he proceed farther to this, it will not
be after more easy to superstruct on these beginnings
more suitable practices than it hath been to reconcile these
to his former writings [and ?] persuasions. And w^hether,
on the other side, this be not a season much better for him
to appear in upholding the truth by answering the London
Presbyters' vindication (in sixty sheets shortly coming
out) of their government ordination, &c., than to seem (a



332 The Church of the Commomccalth. [i6i9-i653.

person of such authority) to consent to it by practising
with them."^ From tliis communication it appears how
strongly such men as Hammond opposed the idea of any
scheme of ecclesiastical comprehension — how determined
they were to maintain the exclusive system of the Epis-
copal Church, and how honestly they did so, when by
relaxing a little the bonds so strictly drawn, they might have
gained some freedom for themselves. Their integrity in
that respect deserves credit, but it also shews how
hopeless was any idea of union between Episcopalians
and Presbyterians after the Restoration, when men who
were really so good were also so narrow-minded.

Another epistle from the same pen presents the
writer under another aspect. Zealous for the preser-
vation of Episcopacy, he proposed to contribute munificently
to a fund for the support of learned persons who might
advance its interests. The proposal was addressed to
Sheldon, who had been ejected from All Souls, when
Hammond had suffered expulsion from his Professorship.
"Let me mention to you an hasty undigested fancy of
mine suggested to me by reading the conclusion of Bishop
Bramhali's excellent book of schism, pages 276, 277.
It is this : What if you and Dr. Henchman and I should
endeavour to raise £600 per annum (each of us gaining
subscriptions for ;^2oo) for seven years, to maintain a
society of twenty exiled scholars ; and, when we discern
the thing feasible, communicate it to Bishop Bramhall,
and require of him a catalogue of twenty such, whose
wants and desires of such a recess, in some convenient
place (by him to be thought of also) might make it a fit
charity to recommend to pious persons ? Next, if this
be not unreasonable to be endeavoured, then, tell me

' liarl MSS., 6942, 77, British jMusoum.



ciiap.xn.] Hammond's Death. 333

whether it must be privately carried or raay be piibHcly
avowed, and what else you can think of to perfect and
form this sudden rude conceit ? which, when I have also
communicated to Dr. Henchman, I shall be content to
be laughed at by either of you."^

Dr. Hammond died before the Restoration. His
patience during his last sufferings, which were extremely
great, his reliance upon Jesus Christ as the Saviour of
sinners, his humility and thankfulness, and his dying
words, " Lord make haste," are duly recorded by his
biographer Fell. But, as some additional information
respecting his disease, and the temper in which he bore it,
is supplied by a letter of his widow, we venture to intro-
duce it here : — " It is my great misfortune I neither can
send to you as I would, nor hear from you as I desire, for
sometimes my friend is not here when your letters come,
then they are delivered to him, wheresoever he is, which
many times makes it very long before I can return an
answer ; but now my long silence was occasioned by my
dear husband's siclmess and death, which, though my loss
was very great, yet, when I consider God's mercy was so
infinitely shewed both to him and me, giving us, first,
many years of comfort together and life to a very great
age, and then a gentle correction to bring him home to Him,
and gave him the comfort of his children about him, and
he a great comfort and example to them of patience and
humihty, submitting to God's will in all. Indeed, I cannot
say he had better health at any time, since we came into
these parts, than he had the last very hard winter ; over-
coming it with so much life and spirit, I believed he
might have lived some years more, till this accident



Had. MSS., 6942, 18. April 30, 1654. This I find, since I copied
it from the original, is printed in the I^cch'siastic, April, 1853.



334 The Church of the Commoniveahh. [le^^-iess,

happened upon him, which proved an ulcer under his
tongue. At first I thought Httle of it, neither did he
much complain, I used such means as I had, and thought
good for that purpose, but he still continued ill ; then we
had a surgeon at least two months in hand, making no
difficulty at all of healing of it ; but I, seeing it continue
so long and no change to the better, I deshed him to deal
plainly with me, and what his opinion was. He told me,
he [could] see now he must use sharper medicines to it,
and cornise, {sic, cauterize?) which I would not suffer
without better advice. My son sent us a very excellent
surgeon, and a very honest man. As soon as he looked on
it, gave me little comfort by reason of my husband's age,
but approved of what I had done and gave me further
directions what to do ; and said no violence must he use
to it, for he feared, as the summer came on, it would grow
worse, which, indeed, it did, and eat till all his teeth came
out on that side, which was a great disheartening to him ;
but I comforted him as well as I could, though I much
feared his tongue would have been eaten out if he had con-
tinued long, which would have made his life unpleasant to
him, and a great grief to all his friends about him ; but my
gracious God was very merciful to both him and me, for
having prepared him with great patience and humihty to
submit either to life or death, and with St. Paul to say, that
death was gain. Our great God kept us from want, and
gave us the comfort of our children about us, and that
good man, as you say, which indeed hath been a great
comfort to me in all my afflictions. My many years tell
me I shall not be long after him ; I pray God I may
follow his good example, and then we shall meet in
perfect joy together. My good friend would not give me
the discomfort of your sickness till he heard you were
past danger, though I had many times enquired of him,



Chap. XII.] Tliormlike. 335

when he heard from you, but told me he did not use to
hear from you. I do give God most hearty thanks for
your recovery, and do daily pray that He, in His infinite
mercy, will continue good people amongst us for our
example, that we may be fit for His mercy. Within this
three weeks I have received your bounty, but no letter
which would give me great satisfaction of your health,
which I daily pray for. Excuse this long scribbled letter,
and make me happy with a line from you." ^

Another learned Anglo -Catholic Divine requires atten-
tion on his own account, and in consequence of his dis-
approval of such conciliatory methods as were favoured by
the more truly Catholic Episcopalian Sanderson. Herbert
Thorndike, whose erudition did honour to Cambridge,
was ejected first from Barley, in Hertfordshire, and then
from his Fellowship at Trinity College. His name occurs
in the list of those who were relieved by the beneficence of
Lord Scudamore, and also amongst the friends of Walton
engaged upon the great polyglott.^ With a logical mind,
which was eminently fitted for systematizing opinions, he
had worked out Anglo-Cathohc principles into a complete
scheme of theology. His central point was that " the
title of our salvation is the covenant of baptism, whereby
we undertake to profess Christianity and to live according
to it, in despite of the devil and all his works ; " ^ and
this view he urges incessantly in his writings against

* Had. MSS., 6()4.z, 120. Arabic, Mr. Castle; with a third
=* Amongst the State Papers, is a for the Greek and Latin. The pur-
Letter from Thorndike to Mr. pose is to give what England affords
Joseph Willdnson, April 21 st, 1656, for the veiifying of the several
res^ectmg WaltollsPoJ^JgIott. ''You copies."

know," he says, " the government of ^ Thorndike s Works, vi. 125.

the work is in Dr. Walton, who set He is to be ranked amongst the

it on foot. Correctors of the press most able defenders of the great

he hath,for the Hebrew and Chaldee, catholic doctrines of the Divinity

Mr. Clarke ; for the Syriac and and Incarnation of our Lord Jesus.



336 The Church of the Commonwealth. [leia-icos.

the Puritan doctriue of justification by faith. Episcopal
order, and the use of the Prayer Book, without even
the shghtest alteration, found in Thorndike a most
zealous defender ; and, it may be inferred from such
a circumstance, that the Puritans had not a more steady
and determined opponent than this able man. He
could not understand them. Their doctrinal views, as
seen through his prejudices, seemed to be of an antino-
mian nature, whilst their ecclesiastical proceedings, judged
of with the same unfairness, were denounced as schisma-
tical and as utterly subversive of all Church order. Hence
he condemned Sanderson's practice of altering the prayers ;
arguing that though force might make him omit what he
was ecclesiastically commanded, it could not make him
do what he was ecclesiastically forbidden.^ Thorndike
was made of such stem, tough stuff, that he revolted
from all mere politic measures, and from all attempts at
compromise. He never asked what was expedient,
but only what was right ; yet also he deemed trim-
ming to be as unwise as it was wrong, and he maintained
that not to omit a word of the service would be as safe
as the method adopted by Sanderson. He ad\dsed that
when the whole Liturgy could not be read, as much of it
should be used as possible without any alteration.^
One of his papers, dated 1656, preserved in the West-
minster Chapter Library, contains an argument against
communicating with the Presbyterian or other sects :
most uncharitably and unjustly he inferred — from their
doctrine of justification by faith, which he quite misun-
derstood — that they could not " think themselves tied to
Uve as Christians," or, as he added, to repent and

' Sanderson- is said to have before found fault witli Thomdike's manner
of conducting worship at Claybrook. — Works, vi. i8i.
* Works, \i. 118.



chap.xn.] F.velyn's Diary. 337

return to that Christianity which they had forfeited.
And beside this — fearing that the sects would swallow
up the Church, which they had broken in pieces —
he warned Churchmen against in any way owning
Puritan teachers or frequenting Puritan sermons, what-
ever danger there might be of temporal penalties in pur-
suing a different path, or whatever " difficulty of finding
what course to take." ^

As to the inner life of persecuted Episcopalianism,
" Evelyn's Diary " affords information beyond, perhaps,
any other contemporary production. A sequestered and
learned minister preached in Evelyn's parlour and adminis-
tered the blessed sacrament, when, according to Episcopal
usage, it was " wholly out of use in the parish churches."
He heard once the Common Prayer read^ ("a rare
thing in those days") in St. Peter's, at Paul's Wharf,
London ; and in the morning of the same day he listened
to the preaching of ' ' the Archbishop of Armagh — that
pious person and learned man, Ussher — in Lincoln's
Inn Chapel." On a Christmas day there was no sermon
anywhere, no church being permitted to be open, so the
diarist observed it at home. The next day he went to Lewis-
ham, where " an honest Divine delivered a discourse.^



' Thoriidike's Works, vi. 125. house, opposite Merton College

See also Letter concerning the Pre- Chapel, and the practice continued

sent State of Religion. Vol. v. 5. until the Restoration. Dr. Willis's

^ The following is another in- house afterwards became an Inde-

stance: — pendent meeting. In the museimi

" During the usurpation the Latin of the Dolby family, in Northamp-
prayers were discontiuued; but some tonshire, is a fine painting, by Sir
of the members, John Fell, John Peter Lely, grounded on the above
Dolben Allestree, and others, after- circumstance. A copy of tliis pic-
wards men of eminence in the ture was presented to the society,
Chiu'ch, performed the Common and placed in the hall." — Chalmers
Prayer in the lodgings of the cele- Oxford, vol. ii. 311.
brated Dr. Willis, in Canterbury ^ Evelyn sDianj,\6^<), Moxchiiih.
Quadrangle, and afterwards in his and 25th. 1652, December 25th.



338 The Church of the Commonwealth. [i649-i658.

Now and then an ''honest orthodox man" ascended the
pulpit of Evelyn's parish church, and although the In-
cumbent was " somewhat of the Independent," yet " he
ordinarily preached sound doctrine and was a peaceable
man, which was an extraordinary felicity in that age."
Once Evelyn heard a person who ' ' had been both chaplain
and lieutenant to Admiral Penn, and who thus, as
he says, used "both swords."^

Eepeatedly notices occur in the " Diary " of neglected
festivals, and of private preachings and communions ; and
he indicates his caution no less than his zeal, by stating
that his only reason for going to church whilst these
'* usurpers" possessed the pulpits was, that he might not
be suspected of being a Papist. He felt the wholesome
uses of adversity, and states — after alluding to Dr. Wild
as preaching in a private house in Fleet Street — that the
zealous Christians who gathered together there were much
more religious and devout than they had ever been in times
of prosperity. He notes down the circumstance, that on
Christmas-day, 1657, at the conclusion of a sermon by
Mr. Gunning, in Exeter Chapel, the building was sur-
rounded by soldiers, and the communicants were kept in-
side as prisoners. Evelyn himself had his place of con-
finement in the mansion to which the chapel belonged ;
but was allowed to dine with the noble master of it, the
Countess of Dorset, Lady Hatton, and others. Some of
Oliver's colonels came in the afternoon to enquire into the
matter, andtheyasked the Royalist churchman why he durst
offend against the ordinances of Parliament. It appears



• January 30th, 1653. Januaiy April 15th, 1655. "Dr. Wild

aSth, 1655. It appears from Fat- preached at St. Gregory's, the ruling

rick's Auluhio(jntp]nj i\vAi'A\\i\vcon^\\ powers conuivmg at the use of the

the troubles he received the com- Liturgy in that church alone." —

jnunion kneeling, p. 37. Evelyns Diary.



Chap. XII.] Episcopalians. 339

from his answer that the name of "King Charles" had
been omitted from the service, and that supplications of a
general kind were offered on behalf of kings and princes.
At the conclusion of the account, however, the diarist
acknowledges that the soldiers after all, did not really
interrupt the worship, but only held up their muskets
" as if," he says, " theij would have shot us at the altar,
but yet suffering us to finish the office of communion."^

Such was the case in London. In the country an
instance occurred — perhaps only representing several
of the same kind — of a public defiance of the law.
In the year 1658, as John Wilson, a cloth mer-
chant of Leeds, kinsman of Bishop Wilson's father,
was walking through the streets he met the Vicar and
said to him : " When shall we have Divine service again
in Leeds Old Church?" The Vicar replied : "Whenever
Mr. Wilson will protect me in the discharge of my duty."
" Then," he rejoined, " by the grace of God it shall be
next Sunday." Accordingly, on that day the bells rang
as in the days before the wars, for morning prayers, and a
large congi^egation was gathered together. In the centre
aisle stood Mr. Wilson, with a great number of persons
drawn up as if to protect the Vicar. News of this occur-
rence soon reached London, and an order came down for
the imprisonment of the bold violator of Parliamentary
ordinances; but before his trial could take place Oliver
Cromwell died.^

Mention has been already made of a practice, adopted
by some Anghcans, of using parts of the Prayer Book

' Kennet says: ''The prejudice them is contraiy to that liberty of

Cromwell had against the Episcopal conscience which he and his friends

party was more for their being always acknowledged and defended."

Royalists than for being of the good — Kennet, iii. 206.
old Chm-ch," and the Bishop relates * Quoted in Kehle's Life of Wil-

that the Protector said : " To disturb son, Bishop of Sodor and Man, 407.

z 2



340 The Church of the Commomcealth. [mg-iess.

with less or more of alteration. But besides this
method another appears to have been proposed, if not
actually adopted. There Hes before us, at the moment of
writing these lines, a little volume in manuscript,^ e\'idently
intended to be read by Episcopalian Churchmen in their
worship during the Commonwealth. It neither exactly
follows the order, nor does it, except in a very few
instances, adopt the phraseology of the Common Prayer.
" A Prayer preparatory to the holy Sacrament" appears
upon the first page, followed by *' A Meditation when we
come to the holy table " — meant no doubt for private
use ; and next to it there follows that which appears to
be the opening of a service of social worship. It com-
mences with a long series of confessions, includmg this
remarkable one : — " Not observing the times of festivity
or fasting appointed by just authority according to the
example of Thy people in all ages." After each article
of confession there occur the words : "0 Lord !
righteousness belongs unto Thee, but unto us confusion
of face, as at this day." " The form of absolution, to be
pronounced by the priest only," is expressed in the
following terms : — ** Almighty God, our Heavenly Father,
who of His great mercy hath promised forgiveness of sins
to all them that with hearty repentance and true faith
turn unto Him, have mercy upon you, pardon and deliver
you from all your sins, confirm and strengthen you in
all goodness, and bring you to everlasting salvation, both
of body and soul, through Jesus Christ our Lord." Next
to the absolution is the Lord's Prayer ; and next to the
Lord's Prayer are brief petitions associated with it —
the same as are found in the like portion of the "Order



I am indebted to Mr. Clarence Hopper, to whom the valuable manuscript
volume belongs, for permission to make extracts from its pages.



chap.xn.] Episcopalians. 341

for Morning and Evening Prayer " in the Church of
England service at the present day. Lamentations
respecting the Church and the nation are inserted ; after
which the first lesson is directed to he read ; ^ then comes
"A Form collected out of the Psalms," in which the
people respond to the priest. There succeed three
prayers ; the first two confessing sins, and imploring
mercy, the third interceding for the son of Charles I.
There are also prayers for the clergy, for the enemies of
the Church, and for the removal of the anger of God
from His afflicted people. The service ends with the
benediction. ' ' A Prayer to be said during these troubles ; "
" A Confession of God's justice in His punishments, and
A Deprecation of His judgments;" and "A Prayer for
the 30th of January," conclude the volume. From the
second of these forms we extract the following passage : —
"Arise, arm of the Lord, and put on strength, let not
man have the upper hand, let not the mischievous
imaginations of our enemies prosper, lest they be too
proud. But now Thou hast frustrated all our worldly
hopes and affiances, take the matter we beseech Thee
into Thine own hands, and by what means it pleaseth
Thee, put a period to our wasting miseries, that these
lauds may no longer be rent and torn asunder by their
own children, and thus made drunk with the blood of
their own inhabitants. Bring into Thy way of truth all
such as offend through ignorance, mollify the hard-
hearted, be merciful to all that offend not of malicious
wickedness, but let Thy exemplary judgments be upon
such as will not turn nor fear God, and be a means for the
speedier conversion of the rest. God of all order and



' I do not see that a second lesson is any where mentioned. Perhaps the
service is not complete.



342 The Church of the Commonwealth. [ig49-i658.

peace, and yet makest men to be of one mind in an house,
turn the hearts of the people of these lands to their God,
to Thy servant our King, one to another, make up our
breaches, heal our wounds, compose our divisions, bring
all things again into a right frame among us, both in
Church and State, and knit us again together in the
unity of the Spirit and in the bond of peace. Ai'ise and
help us, God of our salvation, for the glory of Thy
name ; help us in these our great extremities in this



Online LibraryJohn StoughtonEcclesiastical history of England : from the opening of the long parliament to the death of Oliver Cromwell (Volume 2) → online text (page 27 of 46)