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LIBRAEY

OF THE

Theological Seminary,

PRINCETON, N. J.

Case, BR 756 . S76 1867 v 1

Stoughton, John, 1807 lacr
Shelf, Ecclesiastical M c f 07 ~ 189

Enal an / 1Cal History of



Hoof.



England



HISTORY OF ENGLAND.



VOLUME I,



BY THE SAME AUTHOR.
In one volume, crown 8vo.

Clnrrdj an& gttit f 1m jjuita& fears $p \

Being a History of Ecclesiastical Affairs from 1660 to 1663.

"A volume that, regarded from every point of view, we can approve —
contains proof of independent research and cautious industry. The temper
of the book, is generous and impartial throughout." — A thenceuvt.

" Mr. Stoughton's is the best history of the ejection of the Puritans that
has yet been written." — North British Review.

"The thanks, not only of the Nonconforming community, but of all who
are interested in the religious history of our country, are due to Mr. Stoughton
for the ability, the impartiality, the fidelity, and the Christian spirit with
which he has pictured Church and State two hundred years ago." — Patriot.



In crown 8vo., cloth.

%$% 0f Cjpstenta : §,eta i\% Stomata.

"We know not where to find, within so brief a space, so intelligent a clue
to the labyrinth of Church History before the Reformation." — British
Quarterly Review.

LONDON : JACKSON, WALFORD, Sc HODDER,
27, Paternoster Row.



folmastkal



HISTORY OF ENGLAND,



FROM THE OPENING OF THE LONG PARLIAMENT TO THE
DEATH OF OLIVER CROMWELL.



JOHN STOUGHTON.



VOLUME I.

THE CHURCH OF THE CIVIL WARS.




1^0 it im it:
JACKSON, WALFORD, AND HODDER,

27, PATERNOSTER ROW, E.C.

MDCCCLXVH.



DNWIN BROTHERS, GRESHAM STEAM PRESS, BUCKLERSBURV, LONDON, E.C.



ADVERTISEMENT.



English literature includes valuable histories of the
Church, some of them prominently exhibiting whatever
relates to Anglicanism, others almost exclusively describing
the developments of Puritanism. In such works the eccle-
siastical events of the Civil Wars and of the Common-
wealth may be found described with considerable, but not
with sufficient fulness. Many persons wish to know more
respecting those times. The book now published is
designed to meet this wish, by telling the ecclesiastical
part of England's story at that eventful period with less
of incompleteness. In doing so, the object is not to give
prominence to any single ecclesiastical party to the dis-
advantage of others in that respect; but to point out
the circumstances of all, and the spirit of each, to trace
their mutual relations, and to indicate the influence which
they exerted upon one another. The study of original
authorities, researches amongst State Papers and other
MS. collections, together with enquiries pursued by the aid



VI



Advertisement.



of historical treasures of all kinds in the British Museum,
have brought to light many fresh illustrations of the
period under review ; and the author, whilst endeavouring
to make use of the results so obtained, has reached the
conclusion, that the only method by which a satisfactory
account of a single religious denomination can be given,
is by the exhibition of it in connexion with all the rest.

His purpose has been carefully to ascertain, and honestly
to state the truth, in reference both to the nature of the
events, and the characters of the persons intro-
duced in the following chapters. He is by no means
indifferent to certain principles, political, ecclesiastical,
and theological, which were involved in the great contro-
versy of the seventeenth century. As will appear in this
narrative, his faith in these is strong and unwavering: nor
does he fail to recognize the bearing of certain things which
he has recorded, upon certain other things occurring at
this very moment ; but he cannot see why private opinions
and public events should stand in the way of an impartial
statement of historical facts, or a righteous judgment of
historical characters. For the principles which a man
holds remain exactly the same, whatever may have been
the past incidents or the departed individuals connected
with their history. Happily, a change is coming over his-
torical literature in this respect ; persons and opinions are
now being] distinguished from each other, and it is seen,
that advocates on the one side of a great question were not
all perfectly good, and that those on the other side were



Advertisement. vii

not all thoroughly bad. The writer has sought to do
honour to Christian faith, devotion, constancy, and love
wherever he has found them, and never in any case to
varnish over the hateful opposite of these noble qualities.
And he will esteem it a great reward to be, by the bless-
ing of God, in any measure the means of promoting what
is most dear to his heart, the cause of truth and charity
amongst Christian Englishmen.

The plan of the work, and the various aspects under
which the public affairs, the principal actors, and the
private religious life of England from the opening of the
Long Parliament to the death of Oliver Cromwell are
exhibited, may be discovered at a glance, by any one
who will take the trouble to rim over the table of
contents.

Many defects which have escaped the Author will
doubtless be noticed by his critics, and in this respect he
ventures to throw himself upon their candour and gene-
rosity. One omission, however, may be explained. The
theological literature of the period needs to be studied at
large, for the purpose of making apparent the grounds
upon which different bodies of Christians based their
respective beliefs. Most ecclesiastical historians fail
to exhibit those grounds. The Author is fully aware
of this deficiency in his own case ; but it is his hope,
should Divine Providence spare his life, to be enabled,
in some humble degree, to supply that deficiency at a
future time.



viii Advertisement.

He begs gratefully to acknowledge the valuable assist-
ance rendered him by the Very Beverend the Dean of
Westminster, in what relates to Westminster Abbey and
the Universities — by Mr. John Bruce, F.S.A., for infor-
mation and advice on several curious points — and by Mr.
Clarence Hopper, who has collated with the originals,
almost all the extracts from State Papers. Nor can he
omit thankfully to notice the special facilities afforded
him for consulting the large collection of Commonwealth
pamphlets in the British Museum, and the polite attention
and help winch he has received from gentlemen connected
with Sion College and with Dr. Williams' Library. He
has also had other helpers in Ins own house — helpers
very dear to him, whom he must not name.




CONTENTS.



INTRODUCTION.



PAGE.

Opening of Long Parliament 1

ANGLICANS.

Under Elizabeth 4

Under the Stuarts 6

Spirit of Anglicanism ' 9

Intolerance 17

Ecclesiastical Courts 18

High Commission Court 20

Star Chamber Court 26

Strafford 29



PAGE.

Laud 31

PURITANS.

In the reign of Elizabeth ... 40

Change in the Controversy ... 45

Puritan dislike of Ceremonies 48

Sufferings 49

Emigration 50

Bolton and Sibbs 53

Puritanism a Eeaction 55

Its defects , 56



CHAPTER I.



MEMBERS OF THE LONG PARLIAMENT.



Lenthall 59

Holies — Glynne — Kudyard... 60

Vane 61

Fiennes 62

Cromwell 63

St. John 64

Haselrig — Pym 65



Hampden 66

Marten tS

Selden 69

Falkland 72

Dering 74

Digby 75

Hyde 77



Contents.



CHAPTEK II.



PAGE.

Grand Committee for Reli-
gion 79

Petitions from Prynne, Bur-
ton, and Bastwick 79

Debates on Religion 83

Pym's and Rudyard's Speeches
83—85



PAGE.

Committee appointed to pre-
pare a Remonstrance 86

Debates respecting Strafford 87

Strafford impeached by Pym 89

Impeachment of Laud 91

Puritan Petitions 93

Debate on the Canons 95



CHAPTER III.



Presbyterianism in England 100
Root and Branch Petition ... 103
Presbyterianism in Scotland 104
Scotch Commissioners in Lon-



don



107



Petition and Remonstrance
presented to the House 109

Other Petitions 110

Debate touching Root and
Branch Petition 112



CHAPTER IV.



Lords' Committee on Innova-
tions 119

Williams, Dean of West-
minster 119

Meetings in Jerusalem Cham-
ber 121



Episcopacy 124

Resolutions for Reforming
Pluralities and removing
Bishops from the Peerage... 126
Star Chamber and High Com-
mission Courts 127



Ceremonial Innovations 123 The Smectymnus Controversy 128

The Prayer Book 124



CHAPTER Y.



Marriage of the Princess Mary 131
The Solemn Vow and Protes-
tation 133

Conference between the two

Houses 134

No Popery Riots 136

Trial of Strafford 137

His Execution 141

Deans and Chapters 142

Bill for Restraining Bishops 144



Bill for Abolition of Episcopacy 146
Debated by the Commons ... 148
Conference between the two

Houses 150

Further Debate 152

Discussion on Deans and

Chapters 154

Discussions respecting Epis-
copacy 157

Complaints against the Clergy 158



Contents.



XI



CHAPTER VI.



PAGE.

Laud sent to the Tower 160

Bishop Wren arrested 161

Montague's Death 162

Davenant's Death 103

Impeachment of the Thirteen

Prelates 163

Correspondence between Eng-
lish and Scotch Clergy... 163
Visit of Charles to Scot-
land 165



Dislike of the Lower House

to the Expedition 166

Charles departs for Edinburgh 166
Letters from Sidney Bere ,.. 167
Conduct of Charles in Scotland 109

Church Reforms 170

Innovations discussed 171

Parliament adjourns 172

Parliament less popular 173

Causes of the Reaction 174



CHAPTER VII.



Bill for excluding Bishops

from Parliament 176

Dering's Speech 176

The Grand Remonstrance ... 179



Debated by the Commons ... 182
Discussion about the Printing
ofit 183



CHAPTER VIII.



Return of the King 186

Vacant Bishoprics filled up... 186
Reception of Charles in Lon-
don 187

Tbe Remonstrance presented 191

His Majesty's Answer 192

Arrest of the Five Members. . . 193
Royalist Version of the Affair 193
Fatal Crisis in the History of
Charles 196



Reaction in favour of tbe

Puritans 197

Westminster Riots 198

Protest drawn up by Twelve

Bishops 203

Presented to the King 204

Prelates sent to the Tower . . . 205

Their Unpopularity 205

Dismissed on Bail 206



CHAPTER IX.



Bishops excluded from the
Upper House 207

Those who died before 1650 209

Wright — Frewen — Westfield
Howell 209

Coke — Owen — Curie —
Towers 210



Prideaux — Williams 211

Irish Rebellion 212

Protestant Churches in Ire-
land 216

Popish Massacre 218

Fears of the English 220



Xll



Contents.



CHAPTEE X.



Episcopacy 223

Seceders from the Popular

Party 224

Opponents of Episcopacy ... 227

Sectaries 228

Flight of the King 229

Charles at Windsor 230

Charles at York 231



PAGE.

Attempts at Mediation 231

Manifestoes 233

The Coming Conflict 237

Hostile Preparations 239

The Parliamentary Army ... 240

Royalist Army u 242

Nature of the Struggle 243



CHAPTER XI.



Outbreak of the War 246

Puritan Troops on the

March 248

Barbarity of the Cavaliers ... 251

Battle of Edge Hill 253

Church Politics in London .. . 255

Popular Preachers 259



The Scotch advocate a

thorough Reformation 261

The Fate of Prelacy 262

Negotiations at Oxford 264

Proposals from Parliament... 265

Royal Answer 266

Scottish Petition 267



s/



CHAPTEE XII.



Westminster Assembly 271

Its Constitution 273

Meeting of the Members 275

Parliamentary Directions ... 278

Death of Brooke 280

Death of Hampden 281

Success of the Royalists 283

Bradford Besieged 283

Gloucester Besieged 284



Effect of the War upon the

Assembly 287

Commissioners sent to Scot-
land 289

The Solemn League and

Covenant 292

Taken by the Assembly 294

Battle of Newbury 296

Treaty with the Scotch 297



CHAPTER XIII.



Death of Pym 301

Court Intrigues 805

Corporation Banquet 307

Marshall's Discourse 308

Iconoclastic Crusade 312

Cromwell at Ely 319



League and Covenant set up 319

Covenant imposed upon the
Irish 323

Meetings of Westminster As-
sembly 326

Presbyterians 329



Contents.



XI 11



PAGE.

Erastians 830

Dissenting Brethren 332

Toleration — Chillingworth ... 335

Hales 336



PAGE.

Jeremy Taylor 337

Cudworth— More 339

John Goodwin 343

Busher — Locke 346



CHAPTER XIV.



Early Congregational Chur-
ches .- 348

Browne 349

Barrowe — Greenwood 353

Penry 356

Jacob 357



Lathrop 358

Independents and Brownists 365
Spread of Congregationalism 369
Presbyterians and Independ-
ents 371



CHAPTER XV.



Charles at Oxford 372

Eoyalist Army 373

Reports Respecting the King

andtheCourt 374

Conduct of his Majesty 376



Bishops at Oxford 378

Clergy at Oxford 379

Chillingworth and Cheynell ... 381
Barwick 383



CHAPTER XVI.

Ecclesiastical Affairs 385 Tithes 389

Committee for Plundered Local Committees 390

Ministers 387 Church and Parliament 391



CHAPTER XVII.



Laud's Trial 395

Accusations against him 396

HisDefence 397

Bill of Attainder passed 399

His Execution 401

His Character ;.... 402

The Directory 404

Sanctioned by General As-



sembly and House of

Lords '.. 406

Ordinance enforcing the

Directory 407

Dissatisfaction of the Scotch. 408
Irish Loyal to Prayer Book... 409
Forms of Devotion for the

Navy 409



xiv Contents.

CHAPTER XVIII.

PAGE. PAGE.

Treaty at Uxbridge 412 Debates at Westminster about

Debate between Royalists and Ordination 417

Parliamentarians 414 Debates on Presbyterian Dis-

Cbarles makes a sbew of cipline 418

Concession 415 Presbyterians andlndependents419

Committee of Accommodation 421

CHAPTER XIX.



Long Marston Moor
Naseby



425 Sufferings of the Clergy 431

428 Alpbery— Alcock— Alvey ... 433



CHAPTER XX.



Jealousy of Presbyterian Power 436
Unpopularity of Scotch Army 437

The Power of the Keys 439

Toleration 443

Divine Right of Presbyte-



Assembly threatened with a
Praemunire 448

Confession of Faith drawn up
by Assembly 450

Revision of Psalmody 451



rianism 446 Character of Assembly 452



CHAPTER XXI.



New modelling of the Army ... 455

Richard Baxter 456

Religion in the Camp 457

Army Chaplains — Sprigg ... 459

Palmer 461

Saltmarsh 462



Preaching in the Army 464

Conference between Charles I.

and Henderson 469

Newcastle Treaty 471

Letters to the Queen 474



CHAPTER XXII.



Ordinances for establishing

Presbyteries 477

Final Measures with regard

to Episcopacy 479

Ecclesiastical Courts 481

Registration of Wills 483



Tithes 485

Church Dues 487

University of Cambridge ... 490
Ordinance for its Regulation 491
Commissioners appointed to
administer the Covenant ... 491



Contents.



xv



PAGE.

Sequestrations 493

Revival of Puritanism 494

Oxford 496

Military Occupation of the
University 497



Parliamentary Commissioners 497
Dr. Laurence and Colonel

Walton 499

Resistance to the New Autho-
rities 500



CHAPTEK XXIII.



Presbyterians and Independ-
ents 504

Contentions at Norwich 505

Presbyterian Policy 508

Attack on the Sectaries 509

Supernatural Omens 511

Negotiations between the Par-
liament and the Scotch... 513

The King at Holdenby 514

Presbyterians jealous of the

Army 515

Earl of Essex 517

False Step of the Presby-
terians , 518



The King in the Hands of

the Independents 519

Cromwell's attempt at recon-
ciling Parties 520

Royalist Violence 522

Laws against Heresy 523

Newport Treaty 526

Concessions made by the King 527

Military Remonstrance 528

Presbyterian Efforts to save

the King 529

Pride's Purge 531

Trial of Charles 531

Execution 532

Burial 535



<> ******



ftfc



^^^^^^^^^I2?x ) ^^^^^ ( i!i^!






e^



■ -.

*»•■.-■



INTRODUCTION.



k N the third of November, 1640, at nine o'clock
in the forenoon, the Earl Marshal of England
came into the outer room of the Commons' House,
accompanied by the Treasurer of the King's House-
hold and other officers. When the Chancery crier had
made proclamation, and the clerk of the Crown had
called over the names of the returned knights, citizens,
burgesses, and barons of the Cinque-ports ; and after
his Lordship had sworn some threescore members, and
made arrangements for swearing the rest, he departed to
wait upon his Majesty, who, about one o'clock, came in
his barge from Whitehall to Westminster stairs. There
the lords met him. Thence on foot marched a pro-
cession consisting of servants and officers of state. 1



1 There is a document amongst the
State Papers, headed " Proceeding to
the Parliament of the Most High and
Mighty Prince, King Charles, on
Tuesday, the 3rd of November, 1 640,
from Whitehall by water to Westmin-
ster Stairs, and from thence on foot."
The document is interesting in con-
nection with Clarendon's statement :
" The King himself did not ride with
his accustomed equipage, nor in his



usual majesty, to Westminster, but
went privately in his barge to the
parliament stairs, and so to the
Church, as if it had been to a return
of a prorogued or adjourned Parlia-
ment." — Hist, of Rebellion and Life
(in one vol.), 68. The paper exhibits
the following programme : "Messen-
gers ; trumpets ; the Sergeant-trum-
peter alone ; Master of the Chan-
cery ; the King's Puisne Sergeants-






2 The Church of the Civil Wars.

The King, so accompanied, passed through Westminster
Hall and the Court of Bequests to the Abbey, where a
sermon was preached by the Bishop of Bristol. The
King's Majesty, arrayed in his royal robes, ascended
the throne. The Prince of Wales sat on his left hand :
on the right stood the Lord High Chamberlain of
England and the Earl of Essex, bearing the cap ; and the
Earl Marshal and the Earl of Bath bearing the sword of
state occupied the left. Clarence, in the absence of Garter,
and also the gentleman of the black rod, were near the
Earl Marshal. The Earl of Cork, Viscount Willmott,
the Lord Newburgh, and the Master of the Bolls, called
by writ as assistants, "sat on the inside of the wool-
sacks;" so did the Lord Chief Justices, Lord Chief Baron,
and the rest of the judges under them. " On the
outside of the woolsack " were four Masters of Chan-
cery, the King's two ancient Serjeants, the Attorney-
General, and three of the puisne Serjeants. To the
Lords Spiritual and Temporal, apparelled in their robes,
and seated in their places, and to the House of Commons,
assembled below the bar, his Majesty delivered
an address, declaring the cause of summoning this
parliament. Then the Lord Keeper Finch made a
speech ; after which, the Commons having chosen
William Lenthall, of Lincoln's Inn, as Speaker, that gentle-
man, being approved with the usual ceremonies, added
another oration, in which he observed : " I see before my
eyes the Majesty of Great Britain, the glory of times, the



at-law ; the King's Solicitor and the Baron of the Exchequer : Master of
King's Attorney-General ; the King's the Rolls ; the two Lords Chief Jus-
two ancient Sergeants-at-law ; Mas- tices ; Pursuivants-of-Arms ; Privy
ters of the Requests, two and two ; Councillors ; Heralds ; Lord Finch,
Barons of the Exchequer ; Justices keeper of the Great Seal of England,
of the Common Pleas ; Justices and many other lords and gentle-
of the King's Bench ; Lord Chief men."



Introduction. 3

history of honour, Charles I. in his forefront, placed by de-
scent of ancient kings, settled by a long succession, and
continued to us by a pious and peaceful government. On
the one side, the monument of glory, the progeny of
valiant and puissant princes, the Queen's most excellent
Majesty. On the other side, the hopes of posterity, the
joy of this nation, those olive-branches set around your
tables, emblems of peace to posterity. Here shine those
lights and lamps placed in a mount, which attend your
red Majesty as supreme head, and borrow from you
the splendour of their government."

Thus opened the Long Parliament ; knowing what
followed, we feel a strange interest in these quaint items
extracted from State Papers and Parliamentary Journals. 1
With such ceremonies Charles I. once more sat down on
the throne of his fathers ; and once more, too, clothed in
lawn and rochet, the prelates occupied their old benches.
Great was their power : Laud, Archbishop of Canter-
bury, might be said to discharge the functions of Prime
Minister ; Juxon, Bishop of London, clasped the Lord
Treasurer's staff; and Williams, Bishop of Lincoln, had
some years before held the great seal. They and their
reverend brethren sat as co-equals with scarlet-robed
and coroneted barons. They represented the stately
and ancient Church of England, in closest union with
the senate and the throne ; suggesting, as to the
relations of ecclesiastical and civil power, questions,
which are as ancient as mediaeval times, and as modern
as our own. Thus too again the Commons' Speaker,
in florid diction congratulated the monarch on the
prosperity of his realms. That day can never be for-
gotten. Outwardly the Church, like the State, looked

1 See Journals of the Lords, to the words of which I have closely
adhered, and Parliamentary History. (Cobhett), ii. 637.

B 2



4 The Church of the Civil Wars.

strong ; but an earthquake was at hand, destined to
overturn the foundations of both. To understand the
crisis in reference to the Church we must look a little
further back. 1

The Anglo- Catholic and Puritan parties stood face to
{ face in the National Church, at the opening of the
\ Long Parliament. They had existed from the time of
\ the Reformation.

Anglo -Catholics, while upholding with reverence the
three creeds of Christendom, did not maintain any
particular doctrines as distinctive of their system.
Neither did they, though their peculiarities were chiefly
ecclesiastical, propound any special theory of Church
and State. Under Queen Elizabeth they maintained
theological opinions different from those which they upheld
under Charles the First. At the former period they were
Calvinists. Before the civil wars they became Arminians.
Preaching upon the controversy was forbidden; and Bishop
Morley, on being asked " what Arminians held," wittily
replied, "the best bishoprics and deaneries in England! " 2
Whereas in reference to doctrine there was change,
in reference to ecclesiastical principles there was progress.
The constitution of the Protestant Church of England
being based on Acts of Parliament, and the supremacy of



1 No one can see more clearly than which served to prepare for what
myself the defectiveness of these followed. The history of the Corn-
views of the state of parties. We must mon wealth requires a previous study
begin somewhere. To go very far of the history of the Reformation,
back is unsatisfactory, because the and that again the history of the
glimpses given of remote periods must Middle Ages. Notices of the early
be indistinct and confused, and are Presbyterians, Independents, and
apt to convey inaccurate impressions. Baptists will be found in subsequent
To commence with notices of what chapters.

took place just before our history 2 This oft-told story rests on

opens, is also exposed to objection, the authority of his friend, Lord

because it leaves out of sight so much Clarendon. — Hist, and Life, 928.



Introduction. 5

the Crown in all matters " touching spiritual or ecclesias-
tical jurisdiction " 1 heing recognized as a fundamental
principle of the Reformation — the dependence of the
Church upon the civil power appeared as soon as the
great ecclesiastical change took place. The Act of
Uniformity in the first year of Elizabeth was passed by
the lay Lords alone — all the Bishops who were present
dissented — and the validity of the consecration of the
first Protestant Archbishop had to be ratified by a parlia-
mentary statute. 2

Of the successive High Commissions — which formed
the great spiritual tribunals of the land — the majority of
the Commissioners were laymen. 3 The Anglo- Catholics of
Elizabeth's reign were obliged to accept this state of things,
and sometimes to bow before their royal mistress, as if she
had been possessed of an absolute super-episcopal



1 Stat, i EUz. G.Q., lv. 3, 15.
When the Bills of Supremacy and

Uniformity were read a third time
in the House of Lords (April 26 and
28, 1558), the Bishops of York,
London, Ely, Wigorn, Llandaff,
Coventry and Litchfield, Exon,
Chester, Carlisle, are mentioned in
the Journals as dissentients from
both the T$iRs.—Stryjpe's Annals of
the Reformation, i. 87, (Oxford
edition.) In connection with the



Online LibraryJohn StoughtonEcclesiastical history of England : from the opening of the long parliament to the death of Oliver Cromwell (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 43)