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COURT AND TOWER OF THE PALACE, PALENQUE. (After Waldeck.)



THE

NOETH AMEEICANS

OF

ANTIQUITY



THEIR ORIGIN, MIGRATIONS, AND TYPE OF
CIVILIZATION CONSIDERED



BY JOHN T.- SHORT




NEW YORK
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS

FRANKLIN SQUARE

1880



"



Copyright, 1879, by JOHN T. SHORT.



U18



PREFACE.



ryiHE growing interest in the origin, migrations and life of
""- the races of American Antiquity has led me to believe that
the subjects considered in these pages would meet with the favor-
able attention of the public and of the specialist in this field.
With such a conviction I present this volume, realizing the
difficulties which attend any efforts to elucidate such dark
problems. Yet I cannot conceal my satisfaction that the age
of North American Antiquity is not all darkness, but on the
contrary is rapidly growing radiant with light, while a host of
patient searchers for its truths roll up the obscuring curtain.
The recent discoveries by Geo. Smith, Cesnola, and Schliemann
naturally cause us to turn with national pride to the rich anti-
quarian fields in our own land. Very satisfactory results have
been obtained within a few years m the exploration of Mound-
works and the Cliff-dwellings of the West. A just view of the
civilization of the builders of these remains, however, requires
that it be considered in connection with the traditional history
and civilization of the ancient races of Mexico and Central
America, so marked was the influence of the ancient peoples of
this continent upon each other.



viii PREFACE.



Kegarding this to be important, I have endeavored to present
a comprehensive view of the civilization of the Mound-builders,
Cliff-dwellers, and Pueblos, and to bring to the attention of the
reader the traditional history and architectural remains of the
Mayas of Yucatan and the Nahuas of Mexico. Only the proba-
ble origin and the most remote period of the growth of these
latter peoples could receive attention within the limits prescribed
for this work, since it is my design that this volume shall serve
as a manual of information relating to the earliest period of
North- American Antiquity, and as an introduction to Ancient
American History. My material relating to the Mound-builders
has been drawn almost entirely from the Smithsonian Keports,
the Proceedings of scientific societies, and private memoirs. Still
it is but justice to one honored co-laborer in the same field,
Col. J. W. Foster, to say that his excellent work, The Pre-
Historic Races of the U. #., has been of great service in our
investigation of this subject. Although his sources of informa-
tion have been, with few exceptions, before me, my appreciation
of his work is attested by my constant reference to it. Never-
theless, the wonderful advances which have been made in Mound-
exploration since the issue of the Pre-Historic Races, called for
a fresh treatment of the subject.

On the Mayas and Nahuas the following manuscript works
in the possession of the Congressional Library at Washington
were consulted, and yielded valuable material :

Las Casas : Historia Apologetica de las Indias occidental es,

4 vols. folio.

Las Casas : Historia de Indias, 4 vols. folio.
Panes (D. Diego): Fragmentos de Historia de Nueba Espana,

folio.



PREFACE. j x



Echevarria y Veitia : Historia del origen de gentes que poblaron
la America Septentrional, 1755, 3 vols. folio (about one-
fourth of the work is published in Kingsborough's Mex.
Antiq., vol. viii).

Escalante in Teniente (Jose Cortes): Memoria sobre las Pro-
vincias del Norte de Nueva Espana 1799, folio.

Duran (Diego): Historia Antigua de la Nueva Espana 1585,
3 vols. folio (part of the work has been published in Mexico).

These, together with the large number of printed books re-
lating to America in the Congressional Library added to works
in my possession, afforded an ample field for research.

1 must express my appreciation of the courteous attentions
of the accomplished Librarian of Congress, the Hon. A. K. Spof-
ford, who together with his assistants did everything possible
to facilitate my investigations. To the uniform and friendly
interest which Mr. Spofford has manifested in my work, its suc-
cessful completion is largely due. The substantial assistance
which I received from the lamented Professor Joseph Henry
the record of whose kindly offices to his fellowmen can never be
written was invaluable to me. Besides placing the latest mate-
rial at my disposal, he generously furnished most of the engrav-
ings in this work relating to the Mound-builders. Dr. Charles
Bau, also of the Smithsonian Institution, has placed me under
obligations for valued services. To Professor F. V. Hayden and
to the painstaking offices of Mr. James Stevenson of the U. S.
Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, I am
indebted for the engravings as well as the sources of information
relating to the Cliff-dwellers. The Hon. J. K. Bartlett, of Provi-
dence, E. I., with equal generosity has conferred like favors.
Prof. F. W. Putnam, of the Peabody Museum of American



PREFACE.



Archaeology and Ethnology at Cambridge, Mass., and his cour-
teous assistants, Mr. Carr and Miss Smith, have provided me
with valuable engravings and reports. Robert Clarke, Esq., and
Mr. E. Grest, of Cincinnati, have also sent me engravings, and
the former in particular has conferred frequent favors. Professor
Ph. Valentini, of Albion, N. Y., with rare liberality, contributed
interesting material relating to the Nahua Calendar. To Mr.
Stephen Salisbury, Jr., of Worcester, Mass., Dr. R. J. Farqu-
harson, of the Davenport Academy of Sciences, tRev. S. D. Peet,
editor of the American Antiquarian, Cleveland, 0., and to
A. J. Conant, Esq., of St. Louis, Mo., I am indebted for the
interest they have manifested, and for the material which they
have brought to my attention.

Senor Orozco y Berra, of the City of Mexico, the distin-
guished author of the Geografia de las lenguas Mexicanas, has
from time to time freely made important suggestions concerning
some of the problems under consideration. To my friend the
Rev. John W. Butler, of the city of Mexico, whose intelligent
efforts in my behalf have been unremitting, I have special reason
to be thankful. To all these generous friends I must be per-
mitted here to express my deep sense of gratitude for their favors.

However, this pleasant task would be but half performed
were I to omit the recognition of the unselfish friendship of the
justly eminent author of the Native Races of the Pacific States.
Mr. Hubert Howe Bancroft, whose rare erudition and breadth
of thought are only surpassed by his magnanimity of nature and
manliness of spirit, with a liberality which has scarce a parallel
in authorship, sent me the majority of the engravings illustrative
of the Maya and Nahua architecture and sculpture, used in the
fourth volume of the Native Races. To this I may add the no
less valuable encouragement which he so heartily gave during



PREFACE.



the progress of my work. Although some of my investigations
were prosecuted before the publication of the Native Races, and
though all of Mr. Bancroft's sources relating to subjects which
have received our mutual attention were before me and under-
went a critical examination at my hands, it is but fair to state
that the assistance which I derived from the Native Races has
been of incalculable service in the preparation of this volume.
If in any place I have omitted to render full credit to Mr. Ban-
croft, and to that imperishable monument of learning and indus-
try, his great work, the omission has been due to inadvertence
rather than intention. My obligations to Mr. Bancroft can
never be discharged, nor can the kind attentions of Mr. Henry L.
Oak, of the Bancroft Library, San Francisco, be forgotten.

Still my examination of the sources has not always led me
to the same conclusions as were reached by the author of the
Native Races. This may be owing to our different standpoints
of observation, or possibly to an inappreciable bias in my own
mind. It is, however, but justice to myself to say that this
work has been prosecuted to its completion with the spirit of
inquiry rather than of advocacy, and is the embodiment of an
honest search for the truth.

THE AUTHOR.

COLUMBUS, O., November, 1879.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

ANCIENT INHABITANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

PAGE

The Aborigines Antiquity of the Red Indian The Mound-builders
Geographical Distribution of Mound- works Frontier Defences of the
Mound-builders Michigan Mounds Mounds in the North-west On
the Upper Missouri In Dakota Animal Mounds of Wisconsin Ele-
phant Mound Discoveries at Davenport, Iowa Davenport Tablet
Heart of the Mound-builder Country Cahokia Resemblances to
Mexico St. Louis and Cincinnati Works Cincinnati Tablet Works
in Ohio Fortified Places Fort Ancient Signal Systems Works
at Newark The Ohio Valley Explorations in Tennessee Burial
in Stone Coffins Mound Colonies in the South-east Mr. Anderson's
Calendar Stone Mounds of the Lower Mississippi Valley Seltzer-
town Mound Alabama and Georgia Mounds Pyramid of Kolee-
Mokee Explorations in Missouri San-dried Bricks Remains in the
South-west Direction of the Migration Architectural Progress
Altar Mounds Mounds of Sepulture Ancient Copper Mines Astro-
nomical Knowledge, 21



CHAPTEE II.

ANTIQUITY OF MAN ON THE WESTERN CONTINENT.

Antiquity of the Mounds No Tradition of the Mound-builders Vege-
tation Covering the Mounds Age of Mound Crania Probable Date of
the Abandonment of the Mounds Ancient Shell-heaps Man's Influ-



xiv CONTENTS.



PAGE

ence on Nature Supposed Testimony of Geology Agassiz 011 the
Floridian Jaw-bone Remains on Santos River The Natchez Bone
Remains on Petit Anse Island Brazilian Bone-caves Dr. Koch's Pre-
tended Discoveries Ancient Hearths Age of the Mississippi Delta
Dr. Dowler's Discovery at New Orleans Dr. Abbott's Discoveries in
New Jersey Discoveries in California Inter-Glacial Relics in Ohio
Crania from Mounds in the North-west No Evidences as yet Dis-
covered Proving Man's Great Antiquity in America, .... 101



CHAPTEE III.

DlVEESITY OF OPINION AS TO THE ORIGIN OF THE ANCIENT

AMERICANS.

Conflict of Discovery and Dogmatism Arabic Learning in the VIHth Cen-
tury Spirit of the Early Writers on America Common Opinion as to
the Origin of the Americans Father Duran Lost Tribes of Israel Gar-
cia Lascarbot Villagutierre Torquemada Pineda, etc. Abbe Do-
menech Modern Views Pre-Columbian Colonization Plato's Atlan-
tis Kingsborough The "Book of Mormon" Phoenicians George
Jones Greek and Egyptian Theories The Tartars Japanese and
Chinese Theories Fusang The Mongol Theory Traces of Buddhism
White-Man's Land The Northmen The Welsh Claim, . . .131



CHAPTEE IV.

ORIGIN or THE AMERICANS AS VIEWED FROM THE STAND-
POINT OF SCIENCE.

Origin Theories Indigenous Origin Separate Creation Theory Dr. Mor-
ton's Theory Agassiz's Views Dr. Morton's Cranial Measurements
Dr. Morton's Theory of Ethnic Unity Groundless Ethnic Relation-
ships Typical Mound-skull Crania from the River Rouge Dr. Far-
quharson's Measurements Crania from Kentucky Researches in
Tennessee by Prof. Jones Measurements Prof. Putnam's Collection
of Crania from Tennessee Mounds Low Type Crania from the Mounds
Development Observable in Mound Crania Head-Flattening De-
rived from Asia Diseases of the Mound-builders Physiognomy of
the Ancient Americans Languages Evolution and its Bearing on the



CONTENTS. xy



PAGE

Origin of the Americans Darwin and Haeckel on the Indigenous
American The Autochthonic Hypothesis Groundless Unity of the
Human Family Accepted Chronology Faulty, . . . .135



CHAPTER V.

TRADITIONAL HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN OF THE MAYA
NATIONS.

Ancient Civilization of Tabasco and Chiapas The Tradition of Votan The
First Immigrants to America The City of Nachan The Votanic Doc-
ument Ordonez Brasseur and Cabrera on the Tzendal Document
The Empire of the Chanes The Oldest Civilization The Earliest
Home of the Mayas The Quiches Their Origin Tradition The
Quiche Cosmogony The Creation of Man The Quiche Migration
Tulan Mt. Hacavitz Human Sacrifices Instituted Four Tulans
Association of the Mayas and Nahuas Heroic Period of the Quiches
Xibalba and its Downfall Exploits of the Quiche Chieftains War of
the Sects Xibalba and Palenque the Same Mayas of Yucatan and
their Traditions Culture-heroes Zamna and Cukulcan Christ Myth, 203



CHAPTER VL

TRADITIONAL HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN OF THE NAHUA
NATIONS.

The Early Inhabitants of Mexico Quinames Miztecs and Zapotecs Toto-
nacs and Huastecs Olmecs and Xicalancas The Nahuas The Cho-
lula Pyramid Its Origin Explained by Duran No Relation to a
Flood Ixtlilxochitl's Deluge Tradition The first Toltecs The Codex
Chimalpopoca Account The Discovery of Maize Sahagun's Origin of
the Nahuas They came from Florida Their Settlement in Tamoan-
chan Their Migrations Hue Hue Tlapalan Its Location, according
to the Sources Not Identical with Tlapallan de Cortes Not in Cen-
tral America Probably in the Mississippi Valley Beginning of the
Toltec Annals The Chichimecs not Nahuas The Nahuatlacas The
Aztecs Aztlan As Described by Early Writers Aztec Migration-
Aztec Maps Senor Ramirez on Migration Maps The Seven Caves-
Three Claims for the Location of Aztlan The Culture Hero, Quetzal-
coatl, . . . -232



Xvi CONTENTS.



CHAPTEK VII.
THE ANCIENT PUEBLOS AND CLIFF-DWELLERS.

PAGE

The Casas Grandes of Chihuahua Ruins in the Casas Grandes and Janos
Valleys Casa Grande of the Rio Gila Ruins in.the Gila Valley Also
in the Valley of the Rio Salado Ruins in the Canon of the Colorado
In the Valley of the Colorado Chiquito Pueblos of the Zuni River
Zuni and the " Seven Cities of Cibola " " El Moro " Pueblos of the
Chaco Valley Cliff-dwellers Mr. Jackson's Discoveries in the Valley
of the Rio San Juan Cliff-houses of the Rio Mancos Cliff-dwellings
on the McElmo Traditional Origin and Fate of the Cliff-dwellers
Ancestors of the Moquis Remarkable Discoveries by Mr. Holmes
The Seven Moqui Towns The Montezuma Legend, .... 275



CHAPTER VIII.

ANCIENT AMERICAN CIVILIZATION AND SUPPOSED OLD
WORLD ANALOGIES. ARCHITECTURE, SCULPTURE, AND
HIEROGLYPHICS.

Analogies, Real and Fancied MAYA ARCHITECTURE The American Pyra-
midThe Palace of Palenque The French Roof at Palenque The
Trefoil Arch Yucatanic Architecture Uxmal The Casa de Monjas
Kabah Casa Grande of Zayi QUICHE ARCHITECTURE Copan Cir-
cus of Copan Description by Fuentes Utatlan NAHUA ARCHITEC-
TURE Remains in Oajaca Mitla Grecques at Mitla Remains in the
State of Vera Cruz Cholula Pyramid of Xochicalco The Temple of
Mexico Teotihuacan Los Edificios of Quemada Maya and Nahua
Architecture Compared Old World Analogies SCULPTURE Of the
Mounds At Palenque At Uxmal Of the Nahuas Ancient Ameri-
can Art and its Old World Analogies Egyptian Tau at Palenque
Serpent Sculpture Nahua Symbolism probably Asiatic HIERO-
GLYPHICS Maya MSS. and Books Landa's Alphabet Attempts at
the Interpretation of Maya MSS. by Bollaert, Charencey, and Rosny
Rosny's Classification of the Hieroglyphics Hopes that a Key has been
Discovered The Mexican Picture-writing Aztec Migration Maps,

CHAPTEE IX.

CHRONOLOGY, CALENDAR SYSTEMS, AND RELIGIOUS
ANALOGIES.

No Mound-builder Chronology Known Maya Calendar Landa on the
Calendar Maya Days Maya Months The Katun The Ahau Katun
or Great Cycle The Maya System Adjusted to our Chronology The



CONTENTS.



' PAGE

Adjustment by Perez Intercalary Days The Nahua Calendar The
Sources Divisions of the Mexican Calendar The Aztec Year The
Nemontemi Aztec Months Aztec Days Nahua Ritual Calendar
Mexican Calendar Stone Sources of Interpretation History of the
Stone Its Interpretation Date of the Origin of the Calendar Stone
Date of the Nahua Migration Analogies with the Nahua Calendar
RELIGIOUS ANALOGIES Jewish Analogies Deluge Traditions Sup-
posed Parallels in Jewish and Mexican History Analogies of Doctrine
Analogies of Ceremonial Law Yucatanic Trinity Myth Mexican
and Asiatic Analogies Buddhism in the New World Scandinavian
Analogies Mexican and Greek Analogies Brasseur de Bourbourg's
Comparisons, 435



CHAPTER X.

LANGUAGE AND ITS RELATION TO NORTH AMERICAN
MIGRATIONS.

Diversity of Languages in America Causes of Diversity Richness of
American Languages Polysynthesis Grimm's Law The Maya-
Quiche Languages Stability of the Maya Oldest American Language
The Maya compared to the Greek, the Hebrew, the North European,
the Basque, West African, and the Quichua Languages Epitome of
Maya Grammar The Mizteco-Zapotec Languages The Nahua or
Aztec The Classic Tongue Ancient and Modern Nahua Epitome of
Aztec Grammar Geographical Extension of the Aztec In the South
In the North-west Buschmann's Researches The Sonora Family
Opata-Tarahumar-Pima Family Moqui and Aztec Elements Aztec
in the Shoshone and in the Languages of Oregon and the Columbian
Region Line of Aztec Elements The Nahua probably the Language
of the Mound-builders The Otomi Supposed Chinese Analogies Jap-
anese Analogies Geographical Names, 468



CHAPTER XL

PROBABILITIES THAT AMERICA WAS PEOPLED FROM THE
OLD WORLD CONSIDERED GEOGRAPHICALLY AND
PHYSICALLY.

Legends of Atlantis Brasseur de Bourbourg's Theory The Subject Exam-
ined in the Light of Science Retzius' View Le Plongeon's Observa-
tions Identity of European and American Plant Types Revelations

2



xviii CONTENTS.



PAGE

of the Dolphin and Challenger Expeditions The Atlantic Floor
Challenger and Dolphin Ridges " Challenger Plateau " probably once
Dry Land Identity of European and South American Fauna Eleva-
tion and Depression of Coast Level Of Greenland, the United States,
and South America The Gulf Stream Equatorial Current The
Trade- Winds Accidental Discovery of Brazil America Probably
Reached by Ancient Navigators The Caras Atolls of the Pacific
Ocean A Pacific Continent Contiguity of the Continents at the North
Aleutian Islands The Kuro-Suvo Behring's Straits Inviting Ap-
pearance of the American Shore Remoteness of the Migration Prof.
Grote's View Prof. Asa Gray's Observations Conditions Favorable
to a Migration Mr. John H. Becker's Observations, .... 498



CHAPTEE XII.
CONCLUSION, 515

APPENDIX, .523

INDEX, 533



THE



NORTH-AMERICANS



OF



ANTIQUITY.



CHAPTER I.

ANCIENT INHABITANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

The Aborigines Antiquity of the Red Indian The Mound-builders Geo-
graphical Distribution of Mound-works Frontier Defences of the Mound-
builders Michigan Mounds Mounds in the North-west On the Upper
Missouri In Dakota Animal Mounds of Wisconsin Elephant Mound
Discoveries at Davenport, Iowa Davenport Tablet Heart of the Mound-
builder Country Cahokia Resemblances to Mexico St. Louis and Cin-
cinnati Works Cincinnati Tablet Works in Ohio Fortified Places
Fort Ancient Signal Systems Works at Newark The Ohio Valley
Explorations in Tennessee Burial in Stone Coffins Mound Colonies- in
the South-east Mr. Anderson's Calendar Stone Mounds of the Lower
Mississippi Valley Seltzertown Mound Alabama and Georgia Mounds
Pyramid of Kolee-Mokee Explorations in Missouri Sun-dried Bricks-
Remains in the South-west Direction of the Migration Architectural
Progress Altar Mounds Mounds of Sepulture Ancient Copper Mines
Astronomical Knowledge.

ON that eventful morning nearly four centuries ago, when
the spell of uncertainty and mystery which enshrouded the
Atlantic was broken, and the darkness of the deep vanished with
the darkness of the night, the illustrious admiral discovered a
world populated with beings like himself. They were male and
female, with all the physical characteristics common to the rest
of mankind, and differed from the Spaniards only in that their
skin was of a copper hue, and their cheek bones more prominent.
They were tattooed and wore their straight black hair, cut short
above the ears, with a few unshorn locks falling upon their
shoulders. 1 These naked uncivilized men and women were the

1 Las Casas : Historia de Indias, lib. I, cap. 40, torn. I, MS. Irving : Colum-
bus, vol. I, p. 158 (N. Y., 1851 ed.). Navarrete : Colecdon de los viajes, torn. I,
p. 176. Grynaeus : Novus Orbis, p. 66, Basil, 1555, fol. Herrera : Historia
General, Dec. I, lib. I, cap's ii et vi, Madrid, 1730.



22 THE RED MAN AND HIS ANTIQUITY.

same in their physical type with those discovered subsequently
on the islands and the main land by Carter, Vespucius, Verre-
zano and the Cabots. To rehearse their descriptions of the
natives whom they first met would be but to repeat the expe-
rience and observations of Columbus. Nearly five centuries
earlier the Norse adventurer Thorwald Ericson (1002 A. D.)
encountered natives on the New England coast, corresponding
in appearance, habits, and condition to those who occupied the
country when colonized by the first settlers. To these natives
they gave the name of STcrellings] from slcraeltja, a name which
they had previously applied to the Eskimo, meaning to cry
out. 1 Thorfin Karlsefne, who also reached the New England
coast four years later than Thorwald, describes the natives as
sallow-colored and ill-looking, having ugly heads of hair, large
eyes and broad cheeks. They came in canoes to his ships for
the purposes of trade, and though peaceable at first, soon ex-
hibited hostility and treachery. 2 It is quite certain that these
Skrellings were the North American Indians, or savages known
as such at the present day. How long the red man's occupation
of the country antedated its discovery by the Scandinavians is
uncertain. His traditions are worthless on that subject. His
chronology of moons and cycles is an incoherent and contradic-
tory jumble. Nor does he know any more certainly from whence
he came. It would seem that his race came by installments, if
it came at all, and that he was just as far advanced in the arts
of hunting and war and domestic life on the day in which he
first possessed himself of the soil, as on that in which he was
driven from it by the European. An incapacity for progress is
characteristic of his entire career, and a mental inertia which no
known power in civilization can overcome, marks his history, with
but few exceptions as far as we are familiar with it. The Indian,

1 Rafn : Antiquitates Americana, p. 45, note. Rafn: Op. cit., pp. xxx-
xxxiii.

2 Rafn : Historic TJwrfinni Karlsefnii (in Ant. Am.), pp. 149, 181 ; also,
De Costa : Pre-Coluiritrian Discovery of America, pp. xxxii, xxxiii, 21, 41, 57,
58, 69, 70, 73, 74, 110 ; Gravier : Decouverte de I'Amerique par les Normands
au X e Siecle, p. 83. Paris, 1874, 4to.



THE RED MAN AND HIS ANTIQUITY.



23




ARROW HEADS IN THE NATIONAL MUSEUM (WASHINGTON).

measured by his low condition in the scale of progress from the
extremest barbarism towards semi-civilization, belongs to what
is known as the flint age (old-stone or Palaeolithic) in Europe,
in which the rudest flint implements seem to have been the
only auxiliaries which he possessed with which to supplement
and assist his hands in securing a livelihood or to protect his
person and family from ferocious beasts. Perhaps we may more
properly place him in a position midway between the flint and



24 THE INDIAN'S PLACE IN THE SCALE OF PROGRESS.

the stone ages (new-stone or Neolithic), for he no doubt was
possessed of polished stone implements of a limited number and
variety. Whether made by his own hands or by those of his
predecessors is uncertain. 1 In thus assigning the Indian his




METHODS EMPLOYED BY INDIANS OF HAFTING STONE WEAPONS.

place in the scale by which man's state of barbarism or degree
of civilization has been measured by scholars in Europe, we do
not pretend to claim for him the antiquity of the man of the
flint age in any other part of the globe. 2



1 Prof. Jos. Leidy, in Hayderis Cth Ann. Report of the V. 8. Geological
Survey of tJie Territories (1872), pp. 652-3, describes the stone implements
found in the Bridger basin in southern Wyoming. He remarks, " The ques-
tion arises, who made the stone implements and when, and why should they
occur in such great numbers in the particular localities indicated. My friend,
Dr. J. Van A. Carter, residing at Fort Bridger, and well acquainted with the
language, history, manners, and customs of the neighboring tribes of Indians,
informs me that they know nothing about them. He reports that the Shoshones
look upon them as the gift of God to their ancestors. They were no doubt
made long ago, some probably at a comparatively late date, that is to say, just



Online LibraryJohn T. (John Thomas) ShortThe North Americans of antiquity : their origin, migrations, and type of civilization considered → online text (page 1 of 46)