John Tetlow.

A progressive series of inductive lessons in Latin : based on material drawn from classical sources, especially from Cæsar's Commentaries online

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5. Faucis annis (l, 31, ll), within a few years.

6. Nocte ad NerviSs pervSnerunt (2, 17, 2), they came by night to

the Nervii.

232. Observation and Inference: Note, in the foregoing
examples, that vigiliS, hdr&, tempore (Exs. 3 and 4), annis, and
nocte express time at which or time within which. In what case are
these substantives ? Frame a rule for the Case of Substantives de-
noting tirne lohen or within which.

233. References for Verification: A. & G. 256 (to the
semicolon) ; H. 429 ; G. 392.

234. VOCABUIARY.

Aquitanly -orum, m., the Aquitani initium, -li, n., beginning.

or Aqut'tanians. Institutum, -i, n., institution.

Celiac, -arum, M.,fAeCe/fs (/fe/fs). latitudo, -inis, f., breadth, ex-
com-memoro, -Sre, -avi, -atus, tent.

recount. lex, legis, f., law.

etiam, conj., also, even. multitude, -inis, f., multitude,
ex-istimo, -Sre, -fivi, -atus, reck- number.

on, consider. nox, noctis, p., night.



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62 VOCABULARY AND EXERCISES.

opportanusy -a, -um, adj., Jif, op- suus, -a, -um, Ais, Acr, ite, their.

portune. tempestas, -atis, f., time.

oratlo, -onls, f., speech, address. tertius, -a, -um, third.

prae-sto, -are, -iti, -atus or -Itus, liiius, -a, -um, one.

excel video, -ere, vidi, visus^ see,
regio, -onis, f., territory.

235. EXERCISES.

I. 1 . Helvetii virtute omuibus Gallis praestabant. 2. Cae-
sar initio orationis sua in Ariovistum benefieia commemoravit.
3. Aquitania et regionum latitudine et multitudine hominum
tertia pars Galliae existiraatur. 4. A castris oppidum Re-
morum^ nomine Bibrax^ longe aberat. 5. Paene^ uno tem-
pore et ad* silvas et in fliimine hostes visi sunt. 6. Multa
nocte^ se^ in castra recepit.^

II. 1. The Belgians, Aquitanians, [and] Celts ditfer^ from
one another^ in language, institutions, [and] laws. 2. Among
the Suessiones, even within our-own remembrance, Divitiacus
has been king. 3. The Suessiones have towns to the num-
ber of twelve^ (twelve in number). 4. Caesar arrived at an
opportune moment (time). 5. [There] was at this^" time
at Rome" a Numidian^^ named Massiva.^

236. Supplementary Exercises.

I. 1. Populi Roman! socii atque amici gratia, dignitate, honore
auctiores (increased, made richer) sunt. 2. Una nocte omnes
hermae^^ deject! suut.^^ 3. Intempesta nocte ^^ conjurationis prin-
cipes convocat per M. Porcium Laecani. 4. Duae^" fuerunt
Ariovist! iixorcs, iina Sueba natione, altera iN^orica. 5. Cato cam
modesto pudore, cum iunocente abstinentia certabat. 6. Tertia
vigilia omnibus copiis^^ ex oppido erupei*mit.

II. 1. Our fleet excelled the ships of the Veneti in speed.
2. Accordingly in the beginning kings trained, some^^ the mind,
others the body. 3. There was, not far from the road, a town of
the Numidians named Vaga. 4. You were, then, at Laeca's on
that (ilia) night, Catiline. 5. The Bellovaci were foremost2>



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THIRD DECLENSION: GENDER.



63



among the Belgians in valor, in influence, and in population
(number of inhabitants). 6. Xor in the lasf-^^ war with (obj.
gen.) the AUobroges did the Aeduans render22 assistance to the
Romans.



^ The English form is the same as the
Latin nominative.

* Bibrax, -actis, r., Bibrax (mod.
Biivre):

' paene, adv., almost.

* ad, prep., close by, at.

^ multft nocte, late at night.
« 85 recSpit (perf . of recipiS, take
back) , returned.

* dif f erunt.

^from one another, inter s5 (lit.,
among themselves) .

^ duodecim, indeel. adj.
^•^ eft (fern. sine, to agree with the
proper case of tempestfts).

" Use the locative form : A. & G. 36, c ;
H.48, 4; G. 27,2.
12 Nmnida, -ae, m.



IS Masslva, -ae, M. ; see 998, Ex. 4.

" HermSs (or Henna), -ae, m.,
Hermes-pillar (see general vocabulary) ;
for decleniion, see A. & G. 37; H. 50;
G. 72.

13 Perf. pass, of dSiciS, throw down.

" intern pestft nocte, at an unsea-
sonable hour of the night.

1^ Nom. pi. fem., two.

" A. & G. 248, a; H. 419, 1., 1, 1), (1) ;
G. 391, Rem. 1.

1" pars (in apposition w. " kings").

20 were foremost, plfirimum vale-
bant.

21 proximus, -a, -um., adj.

22 did render, tulSrunt, perfect of
ferS.



LESSON XXVIII.
Third Declension: Gender.^



237.

1. Caesar, m., Caesar.

2. vir, M., man.

3. r6x, M., king.

4. Sempronia, f., Sempronia

5. mulier, f., woman.



EXAMPLES.

6. rSgfna, f., queen.

7. civis, c, citizen.

8. hostis, c, enemy.

9. cftst5s, c, guard.



238. Observation and Inference : Note (1) that Exs. 1-3
designate male.% and that they are of the masculine gender ; (2)
that Exs. 4-6 designate females, and that they are of t\\Q feminine
gender; (3) that Exs. 7-9 designate either males or females, and
that they are of the common (masc. or fem.) gender. Frame a
general rule for the Gender of Substantives, of whatever declension,
whose Gender is determined by their Signification.



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64



THIRD DECLENSION: GENDER.



239.

1. mucrS, M., sharp point,

2. pulmS, M., lung,

3. serm6, m., conversation,

4. dolor, M., pain.

5. honor, m., honor.



£XAMPIiES. '

6. timor, u.^fear,

7. caespes, -itis, m., turf,

8. gurges, -itis, m., whirlpool,

9. trarnes, -itis, yi.,path.



240. Observation and Inference: Note the gender of the
foregoing substantives, observing at the same time the nominative
endings printed in bold-face type. Frame a rule for the Gender
of Substantives of the Third Declension whose Nominative ends
in : -6, -or, -es (gen. -itis).



241.

1. aetas, F., age.

2. civitas, f., community.

3. voluntas, F., pleasure.

4. nub6s, -is, f., cloud,

5. rupfis, -is, F., rock.

6. vall6s, -is, f., valley,

7. classis, v., fleet.

8. navis, f., ship.

9. turris, f., tower,

10. mens, f., mind,

11. pars, F., part.

12. urbs, F., city.

13. nox, F., night,
J4. vox, F.,j;oice,



£XAMPI.i:S.

15. pax, F., peace.

16. fortitude, -inis, f., fortitude.

17. magnitud6, -inis, f., size.

18. multitudS, -inis, f., multi-

tude.

19. ferriigS, -inis, F., iron-rust.

20. imago, -inis, f., image.

21. orig6, -inis, f., sowce.

22. salus, -fltis, f., safety.

23. senectfls, -dtis, f., old age.

24. virtds, -fltis, f., virtue.

t 25. contemptiS, f., contempt,

26. legio, F., legion.

27. oratio, f., speech.



242. Observation and Inference : Note the gender of the
foregoing substantives, observing at the same time the nominative
endings printed in bold-face type. Frame a rule for the Gender of
Substantives of the Third Declension whose Nominative ends in : -Ss,
-6s (gen. -is), -is, -s preceded by a consonant, -x, -d6 (gen. -dinis),
-g6 (gen. -ginis), -us (gen. -utis), -i6 (abstract and collective).



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THIRD DECLENSION: GENDER.



66



243.

1. insigne, N., badge.

2. maxe, n., sea,

3. rete, n., net

4. agmeiii n., train, anny.

5. flum.en, n., river.

6. nomen, n., name.



EXAMPLES.

7. corpus, -oris, n., hody.

8. frigus, -oris, n., cold.

9. tenipus, -oris, n., time.

10. genus, -eris, n., class.

11. latus, -eris, n., side.

12. opus, -eris, n., loork.



244. Observation and Inference: Note the gender of the
foregoing nouns, observing at the same time the nominative endings
printed in bold-face type. Frame a rule for the Gender of Sub-
stantives of the Third Declension v^^hose Nominative ends in : -e,
-men, -us (gen. -oris, -eris).



245.



VOCABULARY.



audax, -Scis, adj., hold.
altus, -a, -um, adj., high, deep.
Ingens, -entis, adj., huge.
longus, -a, -um, adj., long.
magnus, -a, -uiu, adj., great.



noster, -tra, -trum, adj., our.
pulcher, -chra, -chrum, adj.,

beautiful.
tarpls, -e, adj., base.



246.



EXERCISE.



Determine the gender of the following substantives
by the rules framed in connection with this lesson;
indicate the gender thus determined hy attaching to
each substantive an appropriate adjective selected from
the vocabulary in 245.



aestas, -atis, summer.
altitudo, -inis, height.
amor, -oris, love.
arx, arcis, citadel.
auris, -is, ear.
avis, -is, htrd.
caligQ, -inis, mist.
carmen^ -inIs, song.
dadSs, -is, disaster.
clSmor* -Srisy shout.



cohors, -rtis, cohort.
consul, -is, consul.
contentio, -5nis, contention.
crimen, -inis, charge.
cubile, -is, couch.
cunctatlo, -onls, delay.
custos, -odis, guard.
Dumnorix, -igis, Dumnorix.
dux, duels, leader.
eques, -itis, horseman.



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66



THIRD declension: GENDER.



facultas, -atis, opportum't/j.
familiaritas, -atis, intimacy.
fluinen, -inis, river.
foedus, -erls, treaty.
furor, -oris, rage.
gens, gentis, race.
homo, -inis, man (including wo-
man).
insigne, -Is, badge.
juventus, -utis, youth.
latitQdo, -inis, breadth,
latrS, -5nls, robber.
le vitas, -atls, lightness.
Ie5, -Snis, lion.
litus, -oris, shore.
longitado, -inis, length.
lax, lacis, light.
miles, -it Is, soldier.
mors, mortis, death.
nemus, -oris, grove.
obses, -idis, hostage.
opinio, -onis, opinion, notion.



ovile, -Is, sheep-fold.
palmes, -itis, vine-shoot.
pater, -tris, father.
pavo, -onis, peacock.
pectus, -oris, breast.
pedes, -itis, foot-soldier.
proles, -is, offspring.
puppis, -is, stem.
radix, -icis, root.
regio, -onis, direction.
scelus, -eris, crime.
sedes, -is, seat.
sedile, -is, seat (poetic).
semen, -inis, seed.
servitOs, -utis, servitude.
sidus, -eris, constellation.
stipes, -itis, stock (of a tree).
suspicio, -onis, suspicion.
temo, -onis, carriage-pole.
umbo, -onis, boss (of a shield).
virgo, -inis, virgin.



247. Note the gender of each of the following sub-
stantives,^ and fix its gender in the memory by associat-
ing it with an appropriate adjective selected from 245.



animal, -alis, n., animal.
arbor, -oris, f., tree.
caput, -itis, N., head.
collis, -is, M., hill.



ignis, -is, m., fire.
iter, itineris, if., journey.
lapis, -idis, m., stone.
vectigal, -alls, n., revenue.



* The rules for gender suggeBted in
this lesson are deemed sufficient ns prac-
tical aids to the memory. The gender
of substantives of the third declension
not here provided for, should be learned
by observation and practice in reading
and writing Latin.



2 These substantives have already ap-
peared in special vocabularies ; they are
introduced here because their gender is
not provided for in the mles of thii
lesson.



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SUBSTA^STTIYES : FOURTH DECLENSION. 67

LESSON XXIX.
Substantives: Fourth Declension.

248. Learn the paradigms of declension given in the
following sections of the grammar : A. & G. 68 ; H.
116; G. 67.

249. Decline: friictus, -Us, 'bi,^ fruit ; exercitus, -us,
M., army ; manus, -us, F., hand ; cornu, -us, N., horn.

250. Explain the formation, from the stem, of the
nominative singular and dative plural of the foregoing
substantives: A. & G. note preceding 68; H. 116, 1, 2;
G. 67.

251. Note the gender of the substantives in 249, and
frame a Rule for the Gender of substantives of the
fourth declension. For verification, see A. & G. 69, a
(first sentence), 6; H. 116; G. 68.

252. Decline together, with meanings : vetus exerci-
tus, veteran army ; omnis f ructus, all the fruit ; manus
sinistra, left hand ; dextrum cornu, right wing (lit.,
Aorw).

253. VOCABUrARY.i

fi-mltto, -ere, -misi, -missus, lose, equitatus, -us, m., cavalry.

cogo, -ere, coegi, eoactus, collect, impetus, -us, m., attack, onset.

conspectus, -us, m., sight. locus, -i, m., place ; pi. (usuaUy)
consulatus, -us, m., consulship. loca, -orum, n., places.

de-duco, -ere, -dnxi, -ductus, manus, -us, f., hand; art; hand. •

carry off.^ natnra, -ae, f., nature.

de-sisto, -ere, -stiti, desist, cease, occasus, -lis, m., setting.



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68 substantives: fourth declension.

peditatus, -us, m., FOOT-soldiers, senatus, -iis, m., senate.

infantry. sol, -Is, m., sun.

PQI15, -ere, pepuU, pulsus, heat, sub,^ prep. w. ace. and abl., under;

re-moved, -ere, -movi, -motus, sub oceSsum, towards the set-
remove, ting.

254. EXERCISES.

I. 1. Hostes a^ sin istro cornu puis! erant. 2. Subocca-
sum solis destiterunt. 3. Nam equitatui Diimnorix praeerat.
4. Mauus a Belgis cogebantur. 5. Oppidum et natura loci
et maim muiiitum erat. 6. Galli magnas peditatus eqiiita-
tusque copias cogunt. 7. Ariovistus in consulate meo rex
atque amicus a senatu appellatus est.

II. 1. The horses of all have been removed from sight.
2. Caesar began the battle on'^ the right wing. 3. All the
fruits had been lost. 4. The cavalry sustains the attack
of the enemy. 5. Almost (paene) in sight of our army
the children of the Aeduans were carried off into slavery.
6. Crassus is in command of all the cavalry. 7. The
Aeduans had lost all their senate [and] all their cavalry.

255. Supplementary Exercises.

I. 1. Tertia ex* parte lacu Lemaiino et flumine Rhodano Hel-
ve tii continentur. 2. Dumnorix magnum numerum equitatus suo
suniptu semper alit. 3. Manus coguntur, exercitus in uuum locum
conducitur. 4. Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dex-
trum cornu venit. 5. Helve tii tamen non pares sunt uostro
exercitui. 6. Solis occasu suas copias in castra reduxit. 7. Paene
un5 tempore et ad silvas et in flumhie et jam in manibus nostris
hostes visi sunt.

n. 1. The enemy could^ not withstand the onsets of our men.

2. The twelfth legion had taken position on"'^ the right wing.

3. Caesar opened the engagement on^ the right wing. 4. Thence
he leads his army into the country^ of the AUobroges. 5. Towards

^smiset^ they ceased. 6. The forces (bands) of the enemy were
kept apart. 7. Gradually those (el, nom. pi.) who (qui, nom. pi.)
were in command of the cavalry were disquieted.



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adjectives: regular comparison.



69



1 See also, for vocabulary, 252.
'See also 199.

s A. & G. 152, c ; H. 485, note 1.
* TraDBlate on, and see foot-note 4»
^.esson XXVI.

^ See 254, 1., sent. 1.



« were not able (n5n poterant) to

vjithstand.
7 in ; why not ft as in the next sentence ?
* fInSs, plural.
» setting of the sun.



LESSON XXX.
Adjectives: Regular Comparison.



256.

1. Positive:
Comparative:
Superlative :

2. Positive:
Comparative :
Superlative :

3. Positive:
Comparative :
Superlative :

4. Positive :
Comparative :
Superlative :



EXAMPLES.

altus (st. alto-), high, deep.

altior, m. a f., -ius, n., higher, deeper,

altissimua, -a, -um, highest, deepest.

fortis (st. forti-), hrave.
fortior, m. & f., -iua, x., braver.
fortissimus, -a, -um, bravest.

prudens (st. prudent-), sagacious.
prudentior, m. &. f., -iua, n., more sagacious.
prudentiaaimua, -a, -um, most sagacious.

felix (st. fclici-), happy.
felicior, m. a f., -iua, n., happier.
feliciaaimua, -a, -um, happiest.



257. Observation and Inference : Note, in the foregoing
examples, (1) that the nominative of the comparative and superlative
is formed by the addition of -ior (n. -iua) and -iaaimua (-a, -um),^
respectively, to the stem of the positive ; and (2) that in vowel-stems
the Jinal vowel of the stem disappears before these endings. Frame
a rule for the Comparison of Adjectives.



258.

G. 86.



References for Verification : A. & G. 89 ; H. 162 ;



259. Learn the declension of the comparative melior
(tristlor or altior) : A. & G. 86 ; H. 164 ; G. 87.



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70 adjectives: regular comparison.

260. Compare : (like altus) llitusy hroad^ longrus, long;
(like fortis) levls, lights grrayiSy heavy ; (like prtidens)
potensy powerful^ sapiens, wise; (like felix) velox,
swift^ f erax, fertile ; also decline their Comparatives.

261. Decline together, with meanings: mdns altior,
higher mountain ; gravior f ortuna, harder lot ; longrius
iter, longer road.

262. VOCABinLABY.«

aetas, -atis, f., age. reg^num, -i, n., kingdom ; soven

circnm-diico, -ere, -diixi, -due- eignty.

tus, lead around. re-sisto, -ere, -stiti, resist.

civitas, -atls, f., community, state, salas, -utis, f., safety.

com-mitto, -ere, -misi, -missus, semper, adv., ahvays.

commit, intrust. Sequani, -orum, m., tke Sequanj

f aia,8 -ae, f., daughter. or Sequanians.

gfravls, -e, adj., heavy ; severe, hard. viilgfO, adv., commonly.
nobilis, -e, adj., high-horn, noble.

263. EXERCISES.

I. 1. De obsidibus gravius* supplicium sumet. 2. Op-
pidum ex* omnibus partibus altissimas^ rupes habebat.
3. Omnium fortissimi sunt Bejgae. 4. Filiam homini
nobilissimo conlocat. 5, Resiste, miles fortissime. 6. Om-
nes gravioris aetatis^ convenerant. 7. Peditum fortissimo-
rum salutem equitatui non committam. 8. In Gallia a
potentioribus vulgo regna^ occupabantur. 9. Cohortes
longiore itinere^ circumductae erant.

II. 1. The swiftest foot-soldiers are not always the
bravest. 2. The Helvetians were hemmed in by a broader
and deeper river. 3. They send the noblest men in® the
state. 4. The punishment of the Sequani is too severe.*
5. The lands of the Suessiones were very extensive* and
(very) fertile. 6. On* one side the Helvetians are hemmed
in by the river Rhine [which is] exceedingl}' broad and (ex-
ceedingly) deep.



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ADJECTIVES: RBGtJIiAR COMPARISON.



71



264. Supplementary Exercises.

I. 1. Carinae planiores sunt quami*^ nostrarum navium.
2. Ubi de Caesaris adventu Helvetii certiores^^ facti sunt/^
legates mittunt nobilissimos clvitatis.^^ 3. Est gravior fortuna
Sequanorum quam** reliquorum. 4. Suessiones latissinids fera-
cissimosque agros possident. 5. Locus ex omni Gallia opportu-
nissimus ac fructuosissimus judicatus est.

II. 1. Ariovistus will inflict the severest punishment on^^ aH
the hostages. 2. The Romans will be more faint-hearted (of
feebler courage ^*). 3. Nor according to Swabian notions (accord-
ing to the customs" of the Suebi) is anything'® esteemed baser
or more spiritless. 4. Among the Helvetians Orgetorix was by-
far the most-exalted-in-rank. 1^ 5. The Morini were-making-for
the denser woods. 6. Dumnorix, for-the-sake ^^ of [extending
his] political power, gave his mother [in marriage] to a man of-
very-high-rank '® and of-very-great-influence.^i



1 SupeiiativeB, therefore, are adjec-
tives of the first and second declensions,
and arc declined like bonus.

2 For vocabulary, see also 256, 5860,
261.

3 For irregularity in the declension of
the plural, see A. & G. 3G, e; H. 49, 4;
G. 27, 3.

* The Latin comparative and superla-
tive admit of other translations than
those given in 256. Thus, gravior may
mean severer y rather severe {i.e., severer
than usual), too severe {i.e., severer
than is fitting) ; g^ravissimns may
mean severest or very {exceedingly) se-
vere.

« See foot-note 4, Lesson XXVI.
^ All [who were] of advanced age,
i.e., all the elders. For the genitive
aetStis, see A. & G. 215; IL 396, V.
n. 1; G. 364.

' Translate by the singular, sover-
eignty or royal power; the plural is
used in the Latin because repeated in-
stances are referred to.



» A. & G. 258, ry; H. 420,1, 3) ; G. 387.

'• in the state " = o/ the state.

^0 sc. carinae.

^1 Predicate adjective with the pas-
sive verb factI sunt and limiting Hel-
vetii.

^2 factI snnt, perf. pass, of facio,
make; certiSres factI sunt, (were
made more certain, and so) toere in-
formed.

13 See 263, U., sent. 3.

1* sc. fortuna.

»o See 263, L, sent. 1.

i« of feebler courage^ InfirmiSre
anim5: A. & G. 251; H. 419, IL; G.
402.

17 Express •' according to " by putting
the word for •' customs " in the ablative :
A. & G. 253: H. 416; G. 398.

18 quicquam, nominative neuter sing-
ular.

10 Superlative of nSbilis.
20 causS. ; cansS. follows the genitive
that limits it.

*i Superlative of potens.



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72 substantives: fifth declension.

LESSON XXXL
Substantives: Fifth Declension.

265. Learn the declension of r6s, F., thing ; dies, M.,'
day ; fides, F., faith ; spes, F., hope ; acies, F., edge^
line of battle, line : A. & G. 72, 74, d ; H. 120, 122, 1,
2 ; G. 69, Rem. 1.

266. Explain the formation, from the stem, of the
nominatives in 265: A. & G. note preceding 72; H.
120,1; G. 69.

267. Note the gender of the substantives in 265, and
frame a general Rule for the Gender of substantives of
the fifth declension. For verification, see A. & G. 73;
H. 123 ; G. 70.

268. Decline together, with meanings : in sing., res
militaris, the military art; in pi., multae res, many
things ; in sing., dies septimns, the seventh day ; in pi.,
pauci dies, a feiv days ; in sing., magrna fides, great
confidence ; in sing, and in nom. and ace. pi. spes aspe-
rior, a more discouraging prospect; in sing., aeies tri-
plex, triple line of battle.

269. VOCABUI.ARY.2

ac-cldo, -ere, -cidi, happeji, occur, juventos, -litis, f., youth.

con-stituo, -ere, -ui, -atus, sta- medlus, -a, -um, adj., midd/^?, mip-

tion, post. vie part of.^

di-mitto, -ere, -misi, -missus, occasio,-onis,F.,occas/o/7, chance.

dismiss ; lose. *posterus,* -a, -um, a.^}.y following-

dolus, -i, M., treachery. premo, -ere, pressi, pressus,

fruiuentarius, -a, -um, pertaining press hard, distress.

to grain ; res framentaiia, pro- quaerS, -ere, -sivi or -ii, -itus,

visions. seek; inquire.



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substantives: fifth declension.



73



secundus, -a, -um, adj., second. tra-do, -ere, -didi, -ditus, surren-

servo, -are, -avi, -atus, keep ; fi- der ; impart.

dem servare, to keep one's triginta,indecl. num. adj., thirty.

word. usus, -us, M., experience.



270.



EXERCISES.



I. 1. Die septimo per\'eirit. 2. Hostes sine fide tempus
atque occasionem doll quaerunt. 3. Dierum trigiiita babe-
bant frumentum. 4. In una* virtute oranem spem salutis
ponunt. 5. Multade rerum natura juventuti tradunt. 6. In
coUe medio^ triplieem aciem instruxit. 7. Omnem rei fru-
mentariae spem dimiserant. 8. Reliquas legiones pro cas-
tris in acie constituit.

II. 1. Tbe army* of tbe enemy had been beaten on the
left wing. 2. A very opportune incident^ occurred. 3. On
the following day he inquired about the remaining matters.'
L Caesar will keep his word as-to^ the number of days.
5. The remaining legions take position in line of battle on
the middle of the hill. 6. The soldiers of the second line

'Were distressed for provisions.^ 7. The tribunes had no
great experience in military affau-s.^^



^ diSs is sometimes feminine in the sin-
gular.

* See also 265, 268.

' medius in agreement Avjth a sub-
stantive usnally denotes the middle of;
thus, in colle medio, on the middle of
the hill : see A. & G. 193; H. 440, notes
land 2; G. 287, Rem.

* The asterisk (*) indicates that the
form to which it is attached is not in use.



^cUone.

• exercitu8= army (generic term) ;
ag^men = armt/ (on the march) ; aciSs
= armj/ (drawn up in battle array).
Which is to be preferred here?

7 res.

8dS.

» Use the ablative.

" rSs in the singular.



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74 PECULIARITIES OF COMPARISON.

LESSON XXXII.
Adjectives: Peculiarities of Comparison.

Note : As the four conjugations in verbs, and the several declensions in substan-
tives and adjectives, have now been treated, the special vocabularies hitherto printed
in connection with the exercises will be discontinued. The pupil will henceforth be
obliged to depend wholly, therefore, on the general vocabularies at the end of the
boolf. In consulting the Latin-English vocabulary for the meaning of a word whose
formation or composition is given, he should study carefully what is printed in
brackets, so as to be able to trace the meaning of the complete word from the mean-
ing of the parts which enter into its formation. Right habits formed at this stage
will greatly facilitate the acquisition of power to translate at sight.

At this point also, or a little later at the discretion of the teacher, the pupil may
with profit begin to take occasional short lessons on the formation of words (see les-
sons beginning p. 209), and to translate and commit to memory passages from &e
anecdotes introduced at p. 224. The lessons on formation and the anecdotes should
be completed before the continuous extracts from Caesar (p. 234) are begun.

271. Compare, with meanings: acer, sharp; celer,
swift ; miser, wretched ; pulclier, beautiful: A. & G.
89, a; H. 163, 1; G. 88,1.

272. Compare, with meanings : f acilis, easy ; difflci-
lis, difficult ; similis, like ; liumilis, low : A. & G. 89,

6; H. 163, 2; G. 88, 2.

273. Compare, with meanings : bonus, good ; malus,
had ; magrnus, great ; parvus, small ; multus, much :
A. &G. 90; H. 165; G. 89.

274. Compare, with meanings: citerior, hither^ on
this side ; interior, inner ; prior, former ; propior,



Online LibraryJohn TetlowA progressive series of inductive lessons in Latin : based on material drawn from classical sources, especially from Cæsar's Commentaries → online text (page 6 of 31)