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The church plate of
Gloucestershire



stol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society (Gloucester,
lunty of), John Thomas Evans, Bristol and Gloucestershire ...



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Plate I.



Rtproductd by kind permUtum of the Trustees.

CANDLESTICK (1102-1113), S. PETER'S ABBEY,
GLOUCESTER.

(Nmv preserved in the Victoria and Albert Museum,
South Kensington.)



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THE

CHURCH PLATE



OF



GLOUCESTERSHIRE.



WITH EXTRACTS FROM

THE CHANTRY CERTIFICATES RELATING TO THE COUNTY

OF GLOUCESTER BY THE COMMISSIONERS OF a EDWARD VI

(1548). AND FROM THE RETURNS OF CHURCH GOODS IN

6 & 7 EDWARD VI (1552-1553).



EDITED BY



J. T. ^VANS,

Rector of Stow-on-the-Wold, Glos., and Author of
The Church Plate of Pembrokeshire.



^ Published by the Council of the

I O

BRISTOL AND GLOUCESTERSHIRE ARCHiCOLOGICAL
= SOCIETY.



1906.



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FA 998-. 3/




[[C v-'-'\



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Canons of i^LFRic, c. looo.

Of Priests : — Let his Chalice also be wrought of pure material,
incorruptible, and so also the dish, and let the Corporate be clean,
such as is fitting for the services of Christ, Such things cannot
be produced without labour, but they will for ever be honourable
with God who serve Him well with wisdom and purity.



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PRINTF.D BY JAMES H. ALDEN, STOW-ON-THE-WOLD, GLOS.



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PREFACE.



The Total weight of silver now belonging to the Church in
Gloucestershire is ctr. 20,200 ounces. In the County there are
367 Ecclesiastical Parishes, of which 322 are in the Dipcese of
Gloucester, 5 in that of Worcester, i in Oxford and 39 in that
of Bristol. Two Parishes, one in Warwickshire, the other in
Herefordshire, are in the Gloucester Diocese. They will all be
found arranged in alphabetical order. All general references
to Hall marks relate to the London assay. The letters
O. E. P.. signify Old English Plate. The Weights are in all
cases Troy.

The Returns from 260 Parishes were kindly undertaken by
the following ladies and gentlemen, most of whom are, or were,
members of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological
Society : — the late Mr. Wilfred J. Cripps, the late Sir John
Maclean, the Rev. and Mrs. A. C. Jennings, the Rev. C. S.
Taylor, Mrs. G. W. Blakeway, Mr. C. H. Dancey, the Rev.
Canon Jones, the Rev. W. B. Oakeley, Mr. C. E. Gael, Mr. A.
Le Blanc, Mrs. Squire, Mrs. Broome Witts, the Rev. Leonard
Wilkinson, the Rev. Canon Nash, the Rev. W. L. Warne, Mr.
V. R. Perkins, Mr. Alfred Treeby, the Rev. S. E. Bartleet, Mr.
H. Medland, Miss Parkinson, the Rev. J. Harvey Bloom, and
the late Mrs. Dent, of Sudeley Castle. The remaining 107
parishes unexpectedly devolved upon myself, about 60 of
which I visited personally, the rest being done by correspon-
dence.



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VI

The " Copy *\ with the exception of that relating to a very
few parishes, was kindly read over by the distinguished author
of Old English Plate, Mr. Wilfred J. Cripps, C.B. The de-
scription of the Armorials was kindly undertaken by Mr.
Francis Were, of Callingwood Hall, Burton-on-Trent.

A Chronological List of the Plate and a General Index will
be found at the end of the volume, together with an Index of
Armorials. The Introduction is mainly a brief summary of
the Ecclesiaistical Plate in the County.

The Work is published by the Bristol and Gloucestershire
Archaeological Society.

For much kindly assistance I am indebted to Mrs. Wilfred
Cripps (Countess Bismark), Mrs. Wade- Evans, Rev. C. S.
Taylor, Mr. Francis Were, and the Rev. Canon Bazeley ; for
illustrations, to Mr. John Murray, the Publisher of O. E. P., the
Society of Antiquaries, and the authorities of the Victoria and
Albert Museum (South Kensington).

Should one of the results of the compilation and publication
of the volume be, to cause my fellow clergy, and the Church-
wardens their helpers, to desist from exchanging Elizabethan,
Jacobean, Caroline, Queen Anne, and Georgian silver for shiny
electro-plate or tawdry sham Gothic vessels, I shall not regret
the time spent in this very arduous labour.



J. T. E.



Ty Rhos,

Fishguard,

Pembrokeshire.



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CONTENTS.

Page

1 List of Plates vii

2 Introduction ix

3 The Church Plate of Gloucestershire . . i

4 Chronological List of Plate .... 336

5 Index of Armorials 349

6 General Index 251



LIST OF PLATES.

Plate

i Candlestick, given (1102-1113) to St.

Peter's Abbey, Gloucester . . Frontispiece '-
ii Chalice and Paten (1494) at Clifford

Chambers .... To face page 8 '

iia Chalice (1490-1510), Preston -on-Stour „ 16'

iii Paten (1490-1520) at Cold Ashton . „ 3a

iv The Boleyn Cup (1535), at Cirencester „ 48

V Elizabethan Chalice and Paten Cover

(1570), Cirencester . . . . „ 56

vi Elizabethan Chalices (1562 and 1569),

AVENING „ 64

vii Elizabethan Chalice and Paten Cover

(1573), COLETHROP . . . . „ 80

viii Elizabethan Flagon (1576), Cirencester „ 88

ix Elizabethan Chalice (1565), Doynton . „ 96



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Vlll



(I59I),



Plate

X V- Shaped Chalice

Stanley
xi Chalice and Paten

Newland

xii Chalice and Cover (1619), Northleach
xiii Chalice (1634), Elkstone
xiv Chalice and Flagon (1636 and 1682),
Ampney Crucis . . . .

XV Cromwellian Chalice (1651), Standish
xvi Chalices with Paten Covers (1682 and

1684), Stow and Staunton
xvii Pewter Services (17TH Cent.), Long-

BOROUGH AND SUDELEY

xviii iSth Century Chalice, Ruardean
xix I 8th Century Flagons, Stow and

Bourton-on-the-Water .
XX Christening Bowl (1690), Dowdeswell
xxi FoREKiN Plate, Matson



Leonard

. to face page 104 '
Cover (1606),

112"

128.
136-

144.
152-

160'

168-
176^

192-

2()S'
224"



ILLUSTRATIONS.

i Mazer (1480- 1490), Fairford .
ii Design at angles of base of Clifford
Chambers Chalice ....



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INTRODUCTION.



In the County of Gloucester there have been found no
Sepulchral vessels, with the exception of the broken pieces of a
Chalice and Paten at Bisley which may date from about the
13th century.

Of Medieval Chalices there are two, viz., Clifford Chambers
and Preston-on-Stour. The Clifford Chambers Chalice retains
its Paten, both being hall-marked 1494, that is, fifteen years
later than the Nettlecombe examples which are the earliest
hall-marked vessels known. They are well preserved and are
the oldest Eucharistic vessels in Gloucestershire {Plate it)*
The bowl of the Preston-on-Stour Chalice was restored in
1747, but the original stem and foot remain. There are no
hall marks excepting those on the bowl shewing the year of its
restoration. The probable date of the stem and base is 1490-
15 10 (Plate Ha). Of Patens there are two, the one mentioned
above at Clifford Chambers, and another at Cold Ashton. The
latter though not hall-marked dates from 1490- 1510 {Plate Hi),
The Candlestick shewn in the Frontispiece is of surpassing
interest. It dates from 1102-1113, and, as the inscription upon
it records, was made for S. Peter's Abbey, Gloucester. After
many vicissitudes during a period of eight centuries, it now
rests safely in the custody of the authorities of the South
Kensington Museum (see p. 91). The Chalice, mentioned
in O. E. P. as **now in the Rodney family but formerly at
Chavenage, Glouc. Date 1496- 15 10**, cannot now 1 suppose be

° A full description of them, by Sir JcJhn Maclean, will be found on
page 55-

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included in tlie Church Plate of Gloucestershire. Chavenage
is a j)r()pprty in the parish of Horsley to which is attached
a private chapel. As this house was not built until 1576,
tho Chalice may have originally l>el()nged to Horsley Priory.
The Chapel apparently was not erected until about 1676, the
materials used for both house and chapel being largely taken
from the Priory which proved no doubt a very valuable quarry.
The two other medieval vessels in the County are ** the
Boleyn Cup" of Cirencester and the Fairford Mazer Bowl.
The former is hall-marked 1535, and is of unique interest and
great l>eauty. It belonged to Queen Anne Boleyn, and was
given by her daughter Queen Elizabeth to her physician Dr.
Richard Master, by whom it was presented to the Parish
Church of Cirencester where it has since been used as a Chalice.
It is said that this vessel, of which Gloucestershire may be
justly proud, has been valued at £"5,000 {Plate iv). The Mazer
Bowl, belonging to the Church of Fairford, dates from about
1490, and was originally no doubt a secular or drinking vessel ;
it may have been given to the *' wardeyns" of Fairford, "when
they mete to drynk in ". It carries a white crystal much
resembling that found in the cover of the so-called ** Poison
Tankard" at Clare College, Cambridge (see p. 83). These
rare vessels invariably carry such a crystal, which by changing
colour, so it was supposed, gave timely warning to the drinkers
in the event of the wine being poisoned.

When the Chantries were granted to Henry VIII by Parlia-
ment in 1545, that monarch's part in the alienation of ecclesiasti-
cal property came to a close for he died in 1546, so that the task
fell to the lot of his successor Edward VI, who in 1547 issued
his famous Injunctions which directed that ''all monuments of
feigned miracles, pilgrimages, idolatry and superstition were
to be utterly destroyed, so that there remains no memory of the
same in Wcills, glass windows, or elsewhere within churches or
houses". The Conuuunion Plate would of course l>e included.
In i34«S he appointed a Commission to see that the Injunctions
were enforced, and to take inventories of all the Chantries
which were left and their belongings. The Certificates
referring to those in this County have already appeared in
Vol. VllI of the ''Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucester-



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XI

shire Archaeological Society ", under the editorship of the late
Sir John Maclean, and a brief resume of each from the above-
mentioned source is printed in this volume under the parish to
which it belongs. The Document begins thus, —

** The Countie of (iloucetur with the Cities of Bristowe
and Gloucetur. The Certificat off Anthony Hungerforde
Walter Bucler William Sharyngton & Milez Partridge
knightes Arthure Porter Richarde Tracye Thomas
Throckemerton Msquyers Thomas Stemeholde and
Richard Pats (ientilmen Commyssioners appointed by
vertue of the Kings maiestiez Commyssion beringe the
date xiiij*** daye of ffebruarie in the Secounde yere of the
reigne of Edwarde the Sixthe by the grace of godd kynge
of Englonde fTraunce and Irelonde Defendo"^ of the faith
and in this Churche of Knglonde and also of Irelande
supreme hedde vnto theym directed to take the Survey of all
Colledges Chauntriez ffreechappells and other like within
the saied Countie and Cities as hereafter ensuythe **.
In 1552 came the turn of the Parish Churches, when
inventories were taken of all Church (loods remaining. The
Commissioners now were ordered to leave '* one, two, or more
chalices or cuppes according to the multitude of the people ".
Those appointed for the County of Ciloucester were the follow-
ing Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen : viz., for the County, the
Earl of Pembroke, Sir Anthony Kyngston, Sir John Abridges,
Sir Walter Denys, Sir Nicholas Arnold and Hugh Westwood ;
for the City of Gloucester, the Bishop of (iloucester and
Worcester, the Mayor, Sir Thomas Bell, John Gyes, Thomas
Whittyngton and John Huntley ; for the City of Bristol, Sir
John Wallche, the Mayor, David Broke, Sergeant-at-Law, John
Shipman, Robert Elyot and Roger Cooke. Unfortunately nearly
all the indentures made by the above Commissioners, with the
exception of Begworth, Hempstead, Downe Hatherly, Lassing-
ton, All Saints, Gloucester, and St. Owen or St. Audoen in the
same city, have disappeared, and even these few which have
survived are in an extremely bad condition. The items which
relate to the Plate are inserted here under the above-mentioned
parishes, and are taken from an article by Sir John Maclean in
Vol. XII of the Bristol and (ilos. Archaeological Transactions.
I may also add that the few " Churchwardens* Returns "

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deposited at the (iloiicester Registrar's Office are also so
inserted. The latter were kindly supplied by the Rev. A. C.
Jennings.

1" 1553 Queen Mary ascended the Throne, and the old ritual
was again restored.

With the Accession of Klizabeth in 1558 came once more the
Injunctions of Edward VI, which before the end of her reign
resulted, practically, in the extinction of all **prophane cuppes,
bowles, dishes, or chalices heretofore used at masse**, and the
general introduction of the "comely Communion Cup of silver,
and a Cover of Silver for the same, which may serve also for
the ministration of the Communion Bread '*.

Of Edwardian plate, we do not find a single specimen in
( iloucestershire. Examples of this reign are very rare. Mr.
Edwin Fresh field, some few years ago, added five to the ten
which were already known. These he found in the City of
London. The Cirencester Elizabethan Chalice {Plate v) how-
ever very closely resembles the Edwardian type, and serves to
shew us the kind of vessel which immediately succeeded the
old medieval Chalice. Edward the 6th*s brief reign, and the
restoration of the old Ritual by Queen Mary in 1553, are
adequate reasons for the extreme scarceness of Edwardian
plate. Elizabethan vessels however are plentiful.

The Elizabethan Chalice was in all cases accompanied by a
Paten, which fitted the cup as a cover and which was also
intended to be used for holding the bread. Its foot or handle is
frequently engraved with the date of the year in which it was
made. ''The ornamentation", says the learned Welsh antiqua-
rian Mr. Octavius Morgan, "on all these chalices and paten-
covers, as they may be called, is invariably the same ; it consists
of an engraved hand n^und the body of the cup and on the top of
the cover formed by two narrow fillets which interlace or cross
each other with a particular curvature in every instance the
same, the space between them being occupied by a scroll of
foliage, sometimes replaced by short strokes like hyphens, as at
Cirencester. ... It is curious how this exact uniformity of
shape and ornament was so universally adopted, unless there
had been some regulation or standard pattern to go by, but I
have not been able to find any such, to guide the makers ". It



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is conjectured that the general change which took place in the
shape of the vessels in the reign of Queen Elizabeth originated
with Archbishop Parker of Canterbury.

How numerous Elizabethan vessels are, will be seen from the
following summary of the Books on Church Plate which have
already been published. Besides shewing the years in which
the vessels were first introduced, the List, 1 think, is a fairly
exhaustive one of the FMbliography of P2nglish and Welsh Plate.
One thing appears to me to be very significant, that though
the command issued on Eliza l)eth*s Accession in 1558 that the
*' Communion Cuppe '* be substituted for the old Chalice was
very stringent, the Bishops and Clergy, together with the
representatives of the people, viz. the Churchwardens, were by
no means swift to comply with the law. A glance at the
following List abundantly proves the fact; and that scores of
parishes protested against the change is also evident, for they
would not or at any rale did not comply with the order until
about the end of Elizabeth's reign. When more County
Histories of Church Plate appear, this dislike of the "Com-
munion Cuppe " on the part of the Church will doubtlessly
become still more apparent. The current idea of course is
that every parish priest in the land made for the nearest
melting-pot in order to change his Chalice into " a fair and
comely Communion Cup'*.

Mr. J. E. Nightingale, F.S.A., found no less than 104 in
Dorsetshire, which means a full third of the whole number of
parishes in that County; most of them retain their Paten
covers. The majority are of the years 1570- 1574 ; the earliest
is marked 1562. In the same author's Wiltshire the number
amounts to 70, most of which are dated 1576- 1577, the earliest
being 1564. The Venerable Archdeacon Lea accounts for 84
cups of this period in the Archdeaconry of Worcester, most of
these being dated 1571, the earliest 1570. Mr. C. A. Markham,
F.S.A., discovered 1 26 examples in the county of Northampton,
most of which were made between the years 1568 and 1570,
the earliest in 1562. The Rev. Andrew Trollope, F.S.A., in
his Leicestershire has described 81 Chalices and 32 Paten
covers belonging to that County, the greater number dating
from 1567-1571. The Rev. F. Haslewood, F.S.A., the Rev. C.
R. Manning, F.S.A., and the Rev. E. C. Hopper shew the



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XIV

survival of about 233 Elizabethan Chalices and 126 Paten
covers in their Church Plate in the County of Suffolk.
Most of tliese vessels in East Anglia date from 1567 -1571, and
are of Norwich make. The late Chancellor R. S. Ferguson,
F.S.A., in his Old Church Plate in the Diocese of Carlisle
found about 37 Chalices and 15 Paten covers, most of which
were made in the years 1570 and 1571, the earliest dated
specimens being of the year 15^)7. In The Church Plate of the
County of Hereford the Yen. the Hon. B. S. Stanhope and Mr.
Harold C. MoUat describe between 40 and 50 Chalices, nearly
half of which are of the year 1571, the earliest example being
found at Titley, 15^)9. According to the Rev. K. H. Bates'
Church Plate of Somersetshire, 226 of the 493 ancient parishes
and chapelries in that county possess Elizabethan plate, most
of the pieces having been obtained in 1573- 1574, the earliest
(Lullington) in 1562.

.\s regards Wales, Mr. G. K. Halliday found 75 specimens
in the Diocese of Llandaff, which is comprised within the
counties of Glamorgan and Monmouth. About half that
number were manufactured in the year 1576, the earliest,
dated 1566, being found at Sully, (ilam. Mr. George Eyre
livans, in his Personal Survey of the Antiquities of Cardigan-
shire, enumerates about 22 pieces of Elizabethan plate in that
County, all dated 1573 and 1574. ^^ "^Y Church Plate of
Pcm})Vokcshire will be found 50 Chalices and 37 Paten covers,
the earliest at Hodgeston 1568 and the latest at Tenby 1599.
Mr. E. .\ If red Jones, in his Church Plate in Bangor Diocese,
notilies 2S Elizabethan Chalices and 15 Paten covers, most of
which, as in Pembrokeshire, bear the dates 1574 and 1575.

In tiie " Church Plate of Gloucestershire " will be found
described 80 Chalices, 63 Paten covers, and 4 Flagons, belong-
ing to the Elizabethan period. Of the Cups, sixty-three are
either hall-marked or bear inscribed dates ; and of the Paten
covers, fifty-five are inscribed with dates or bear hall marks.
The earliest is at Avening (dial ice No. i), 1562 [Plate vi), and
the latest at Hatherop, 15^9. The great majority of these were
made in 1576-77, though it will be seen from the Chronological
List (p. 236) that not a few were made in 1571-72. In this as in
other Counties scarcely any two are exaclly alike, and just as they
vary in detail of ornamentation so also do they vary in size. For



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XV

instance, one of the magnificent Chalices at Cirencester with its
Cover (Plate v) weighs no less than 53 oz. 15 dwts, whilst that at
Aston Somerville also with its cover only weighs 6 oz. 9 dwts.
A ftne example of an early Elizabethan Chalice with its Paten
cover [Plate v serves to shew type) is found at Preston-on-
Stour. Instead of the usual knop dividing the stem, it carries
a flange close up under the bowl which spreads into sixteen
curved lobes. These pieces are of silver-gilt, and the only mark
which they bear is the maker's, viz.,. •jV4*.. Chalices of the
same fashion are also found at '•••..•••' Great Washbourne,
Didbrook, and S. Mark's, Gloucester. The examples at Kings-
wood and Doynton (Plate ix) are uncommon, the usual
band of foliage round the bowl being replaced by a small
beaded moulding. Both these pieces may be by the same
maker though one bears a fleur-de-lys mark and the other
apparently a trefoil. Occasionally we find specimens where
the strap- work round the bowl of the Chalice and on the cover
does not mterlace, as at .\shton-under-Hill, Tibberton, Awre,
Rangeworthy, Hardwicke and Little Washbourne. The
examples at Daglingworth (Chalice No. 2), Avening (Chalice
No. 2) and Hanham have been spoilt by the addition of orna-
mental devices totally out of character with the period to
which they belong. At All Saints, Cheltenham, S. Mark's,
Gloucester, Avening (Chalice No. 2), and Daglingworth, are
instances of plate alienated from their original parishes. In
Pembrokeshire almost all the bowls of the Elizabethan Chalic t s
are engraved with the name of the parish in Latin within a
a belt of strap-work below the usual band of foliage. The
custom is a commendable one, for to some extent it serves to
check alienations. The only vessels with inscribed names in
Gloucestershire are the following : — More ton -in -Marsh, Aust,
Baunton, and Condicote. At Winstone, Swindon, Churcham
and Leigh will be found Chalices with two bands round the
bowl, the upper enclosing foliation and the lower enclosing



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