John Torrey.

A flora of North America: containing abridged descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing north of Mexico; arranged according to the natural system online

. (page 148 of 171)
Online LibraryJohn TorreyA flora of North America: containing abridged descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing north of Mexico; arranged according to the natural system → online text (page 148 of 171)
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baceous (American) plants, with opposite or sometimes alternate divided or
undivided leaves. Heads terminating the branches, solitary or corymbose.
Rays (many-nerved) usually yellow : the corolla of the disk yellow or dark
purple at the summit. Anthers blackish.

§ 1. Branches of the style terminated by an acute cone, or an abrupt subulate
appendage : corolla of the ray and disk (with one or two exceptions) yeUsv*
— Eucoreopsis.

♦ Achenia wingless, cuneate-oUong, l-ridged on each side, not incurved, 2- {rarely some*
what 3-4-) toothed or awned : chaff deciduous with the fruit : scales of the exterwr tn*
volucre distinct, foliaceous, often numerous and irregular, rejtexed : rays (rarefy vot-
ing) obovatc-oblong, obtuse, entire or nearly so : leaves opposite, petiokd, vtaftiy ter-
nately or pinnately divided or lobed; the segments serrate, very veiny in the msnntr
of Bidena ; the primary veins often running to the sinuses. — Diodonta, NntL

These plants entirely accord with Bidens § Platycarpaea, except that the awn* J*
teeth of the achenia are not reux>rsely beil>ed, and are ofW neajrry wiuiflng. Wed



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GoMortu. COMPOSITE 999

'not find sufficient character! to warrant their separation from Coreopsis ; but if this
be done, they might with more propriety be joined to Bidens (at least to the broad-
fruited section), man erected into a distinct genu3, as proposed by Nuttall.

t Rays none.

1. C. discoidea : glabrous ; stem erect or ascending, diffusely branched ;
leaves on long petioles, teraately divided ; the divisions ovate-lanceolate,
acuminate, mostly petiolulate, coarsely serrate, the teeth mucronulate ; the
uppermost often simple ; heads (small) somewhat paniculate-corymbose at
the extremity of the branches, on very short peduncles ; exterior involucre of
3-5 foliaceous linear or spatulate bracts, usually much longer than the heads;
scales of the inner involucre appressed ; achenia narrowly cuneiform-oblong
or linear cuneiform, hairy ; the awns or teeth erect, upwardly hispid, about
the length of the corolla. — Bidens ? aff. frondosa, Sullivant ! cat. pi. Columb.
p. 30 <$• 37.

Wet places and swamps, Columbus, Ohio, Jlfr. Sullivant ! Feliciana,
Louisiana^ Du Carpenter !_ Western Louisiana, Dr. Hale ! Texas, Drum-
mond ! <Vi^\^&Lr*JB>M^ July-Sept.—® ? Stem 1-2 feet high.
Lower leaves sometimes undivided. Mature heads 3 or 4 lines long. Ex-
terior involucre sometimes an inch long. Awns sometimes one-fourth or
even one-third the length of the achenium, but often very much shorter, even
in the same individual. — This plant has exactly the appearance and structure
of a Bidens § Platycarpeea, except that the awns are hispid upwardly.

2. C. bidentoides (Nutt. under Diodonta) : dwarf, diffusely branched, near-
ly glabrous; leaves lanceolate-linear, incisely toothed, tapering into a petiole ;
exterior involucre of 3 or 4 linear foliaceous scales often longer than the
(small) heads; the inner 6-6, membranaceous, with colored (yellow) tips;
awns slender, upwardly hispid, much longer than the corolla or the linear-
oblong hispid (immature) achenium. — Diodonta (§ ? Heterodonta) bidentoi-
des, Nutt.! in trans. Amer. vhil. toe. (n. ser.) 7. p. 361.

Near Philadelphia, NuUatl /—Founded on a single specimen of somewhat
uncertain origin, with the aspect of a dwarf Bidens cernua : the small heads
rather few-flowered ; the long awns exserted : the intermediate angles some-
times with shorter awns. There appear to be no rays ; what have been so
described being the somewhat dilated and exserted yellow summits of the
linear-oblong membranaceous chaff.

t t Heads radiate.

3. C. aurea (Ait.} : glabrous or nearly so ; stem striate ; lower leaves 1-2-
pinnately 3-6-divided; the upper 3-divided or sometimes simple; the divi-
sions lanceolate, sharply or incisely serrate; beads paniculate ; scales of the
exterior involucre (mostly 8) linear-spatulate, slightly ciliate, not longer than
the interior; achenia cuneiform or obovate-cuneiform, nearly glabrous, ciliate
towards the summit, crowned with 2 short and triangular concave and some-
what chaffy teeth, or obscurely 4-toothed by the production of the interme-
diate angles, or with a somewhat coroniform pappus, from the confluence of
the very short or obsolete teeth.— Ait. ! Kew. (ed. I) 3. p. 252. C. coronata, •
Linn. $pcf*(e£. 2) fc. p. 1281 ? (excl. syn. Plum. Sf Vaill.) ; Walt. ! Car.
p, 215. D.iodonta aurea & D. mitis, Nutt. in trans. Amer. phiL soc. •
(«. ser.) l..p. 360.

a. subintegra : .upper leaves mostly 3-divided, with the lateral divisions
short and small ; or the uppermost frequently simple, lanceolate, elongated,
peiioled, sharply serrate, or entire towards the tapering apex.-—C. aurea,
AiL ! L c, not of LindL C. arguta, Pursk ! fl. 2. p. 567. C. ambigua,
NutL I in iour. acad. Pkilad. 7. p. 75.

p. leptophylla : cauline leaves pinnately 3-5-divided ; the terminal divi-



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340 COMPOSITE. Cessomis.

sions linear, elongated, sparingly toothed ; the lateral shorter, lobed or incised.
—Diodonta leptophylla, Nutt, in trans. Amer. phil, soc. I. e.

y. incisa : lower leaves bipinnately parted or divided ; the upper pinnately
3-7-parted, the divisions incised or toothed. — C. mitis, Michx. ! Jl. 2. p. 138.

Wet places throughout the Southern States! originally described from a
specimen collected in East Florida by Bariram ! (v. sp. in herb. Banks.)
Aug.-Oct. — (f)? Stem 2-4 feet high, at length much branched. Rays
about 8, obovate-oval, rather large. Achenia 2-3 lines long, commonly not
more than half as large as in C. trichosperma, and proportionally broader :
the summit emarginate-truncale, or with very short somewhat hairy teeth.

4. C. trichosperma (Michx.) : glabrous; stem somewhat 4-angled ; leaves
on short sparsely ciliate petioles, pinnately 5^7-paned,or divided ; the divi-
sions lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, serrate or incised ; the uppermost leaves
often 3-5-cleft, nearly sessile ; heads paniculate-corymbose ; scales of the
exterior involucre about the length of the interior, linear or subspatulate,
somewhat ciliate; achenia narrowly cuneiform-oblong, minutely and sparSe-
ly hairy, hispidly ciliate above, crowned with two triangular-subulate hispid
teeth or stout awns.-Mck./ ft. 2. p. 139 ; Pursh.fi. 2.' p. 568 ; £11. sk. 2.
p. 439 ; BigeL ! Jl. Bost. ed. 2. p. 315 ; DC. ! prodr. 5. p. 572. C. mitis,
J2U. I. c. fy DC. 1. c, as to char. C. aurea, Lindl. hot. reg. t. 1228.

p. achenia smaller ; the teeth shorter, and sometimes obsolete !

Swamps, Massachusetts ! and New York ! to Carolina. Aug.-Oct.—® ?
Stem 1-2 feet high, much branched. Leaves membranaceous. Rays
sometimes an inch long, showy, bright yellow. Achenia when mature 4-6
lines long, including the stout teeth, which sometimes taper into short erect
awns, but are variable, and occasionally almost wanting: the prominent ridges
also not unfrequently produced into obscure intermediate teeth, and all the
teeth somewhat connected. — Either this or the preceding species is the
C. coronata of the Linnsan herbarium (Virginia, Sp. PI.) ; but the charac-
ter, synonymy, and observations all relate to a West Indian plant, the Bidens
pentapbylla, dec., Plum. Amer. ed. Burm. t. 53, /. 2, which is probably
Bidens leucantha.— Tickseed-Sunjlower.

5. C. aristosa (Michx.): minutely pubescent, or rarely glabrous; stem
quadrangular below ; leaves pinnately, the lower bipinnately 5-7-parted or
divided, petioled ; the divisions lanceolate, sharply serrate, incised, or incise-
ly pinnatifid ; heads paniculate-corymbose, numerous, peduncled ; scales of
the exterior involucre (10-12) about the length of the interior, linear-oblong,
minutely hispid or ciliate ; achenia flat, opblon& obovate, surrounded with an
obscure wing or margin, strongly hispid-ciliate; the hispid awns slender, di-
verging, about the length of the aehenium. — Michx.! Jl. 2. p. 140; DC. I. c.
C. aristata, Willd. spec. 3. p. 2253 ; Pursh, I. c. (exci. local. S. Car.)
Diodonta aristosa, Nutt. ! in trans. Amer. phil. soc. I. c.

Swamps, Michigan! Ohio! Missouri! to Western Louisiana ! Aug.—
Sept.— @? Stem 2-3 feet high, at length brachiately much branched.
Rays large. Awns (sometimes 4 in number) somewhat variable in length,
but longer and more slender than in any related species ; the aehenium also
broader and flatter, with very hispid margins ; the surface likewise sparingly
* hispid. If we mistake not, the achenia are sometimes awnUss !

6. C. involucrata (Nutt.) : minutely pubescent ; stem quadrangular be-
low ; leaves 1-2-pinnately 3-7-parted ; the divisious Ifoear-lanseolate, in-
cisely toothed ; heads paniculate ; scales of the exterior involucre (about 20)
linear-lanceolate, hirsute (as well as the peduncles), longer than the interior;
ovaries oval, hispid-ciliate, 2-toothed at the summit. — Nutt. .' in jour. acad.
Philad. 7. p. 74. Diodonta involucrata, Nutt.! in trans. Amer. phiL
see. I. c.



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Coeiowis. COMPOSITJE. 341

Arkansas, NuttaU! 9 r Dr. Pitcher /—Fruit unknown. The plant entirely
resembles C. aristosa, excepting the outer involucre, and the short teeth of
the ovary.

* * Achenia obovate-oblong, wingless, obsoUtdy 24oothed at the summit : involucre near-
ly as in Chrysostemma ; the scales scarcely united : rays entire : appendages of the
style ovate-triangular, with a short point : leaves opposite, ample, undivided, serrate,
copiously feather^veined. — Silphidium.

7. C. latifolia (Michx.): very smooth and glabrous; stem tall; leaves
membranaceous, ovate or ovate-oblong, acuminate, irregularly dentate-ser-
rate, with the teeth mucronate, abruptly contracted into short petioles, pale
beneath ; heads in small trichotomous corymbs; scales of the involucre 4-6
in each series; the exterior linear, spreading. — Michx. ! fl. 2. p. 137.

High mountains of Carolina, Michaux! Mountains of Georgia and North
Carolina, Mr. Buckley ! Aug. — Lower leaves often 6 inches long and 4
broad. Heads small for the size of the plant : rays 5 or 6. large. Chaff ob-
long-linear. Corolla yellow. Anthers long, black. Mature achenia un-
known : the flat ovaries are obscurely margined.

♦ * ♦ Achenia elliptical, narrowly winged and somewhat incurved when mature, enar-
ginate: the summit of the wing and the narrow emargination dcnticulate-lacerate :
chaff nearly filiform, somewhat deciduous: scales of the exterior involucre linear, ob-
tuse, foliaceous, spreading, as many as the interior (6-8) but much smaller, all united
at the base: rays obtuse, entire: corolla of the disk yellow, turning brownish: leaves
opposite, petiokd, 3-divided, or the lowest pinnately 6-divided ; the divisions entire,
feather-veined: heads somewhat corymbose, exhaling the anisate odor of Lepachys
when bruised! — Chrysostemma, Less.

8. C. tripteris (Linn.) : smooth and glabrous; stem tall, simple, or corym-
bose above; divisions of the leaves lanceolate, acute, with very scabrous
margins, and with an obscure marginal nerve ; heads on short peduncles.—
Linn.! spec. 2. p. 908; Michx.! % 2. p. 138; Willd.! spec. 3. p. 2263;
Ell. sic. 2. p. 442. Anacis tripteris, Schrank. Chrysostemma tripteris,
Less.! syn. p. 227; DC! prodr. 5. p. 568; Hook. hot. mag. U 3553.

/?. leaves minutely scabrous-puberulent.

Dry soil, and near streams, Michigan ! and Missouri ! to Florida ! and
Louisiana! 0. Western Louisiana, DrlVeatch! Aug.-Oct. — U Stem 4-8
feet high. Heads including the spreading rays an inch or more in diame-
ter.— The denticulate fringe at the summit of the achenia is nearly confined
to the wing, so that the pappus can scarcely be called coroniform. The
style is nearly as in C. senifolia, del phini folia, &c, in which species, more-
over, the summit of the wing is more or less denticulate.

* * * * Achenia oblong, narrowly winged, straight or a tittle incurved, minutely 2-loothed
or nearly naked and truncate at the summit : chaff linear-fUiform, persistent i scales of.
thefxterior involucre oblong-linear, obtuse, about the length of the interior, all united
at the base: rays usually acute and entire : leaves opposite, sessile, mostly ^-divided, so
that each pair resembles a whorl of six; the divisions entire or lobed, never serrate ^
1-nerved. — Gyrophyllum. (Eucoreopsis 6c Gyrophyllum, Nutt., excl. spec.)

9. C. senifolia (Michx.) : softly and minutely puberulent ; stem quadran-
gular below ; leaves closely sessile, 3-divided ; the divisions oval-lanceolate,
membranaceous, 1-nerved, obscurely veined, entire, scarcely acuminate;



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342 COMPOSITE. Couorsis.

rays lanceolate or oblong, rather acute, sometimes toothed; disk yellow;
achenia narrowly elliptical or slightly cuneiform, with 2 minute often deci-
duous subulate teeth, the narrow wing slightly serrulate towards the sum-
mit.— Michx. ! ft. 2. p. 138; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 568; EU.! sk. 2. p. 438;
Nutt.! in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 77; DC! prodr. 6. p% 672. C. major,
Walt. Car. p. 214.

0. stellata : glabrous ; divisions of the leaves varying from oval-lanceolate
(and acute or acuminate at bolh ends) to rather narrowly lanceolate. — C.
stellata (herb. Banks) ; Nutt. ! in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 76. C. senifo-
lia, Hook. hot. mag. I. 3484. (Varies rarely with the middle division of the
leaves 3-parted, according to Elliott.)

Dry woods and in sandy soil, a. Virginia to Georgia ! in the low and mid-
dle country, and St. Louis, Drummond! (3. Virginia! to Alabama! Ken-
tucky! &c. abounding in the upper country. July-Aug.— H Divisions
of the leaves 1-3 inches long, simulating a whorl of 6 leaves; the uppermost
often undivided. Rays an inch long.

10. C. delphinifolia (Lam.) : glabrous or minutely puberulent ; leaves
closely sessile, 3-divided ; the divisions entire or 2-3-parted, the middle one
often pinnately 5-parted ; lobes lanceolate-linear, rather rigid ; rays often
acute ; di9k-flowers brownish ; achenia obovate -elliptical ; the narrow wing
minutely denticulate at the summit. — Lam. diet. 2. p. 108 ; DC. ! I. c. C.
verticillata, Ehrh. I. c. ; Willd. I. c. ; Bot. mag. t. 156 ; Schkuhr, handb. U
260; Pursh, I.e.; Ell. I.e. C. verticillata /?. linearis, Michx.! I. c. C
Wrayi, Nutt. ! in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 76. Ceratocephalus delphini-
folias, Vaill. ; EhreL, pict. t. 9, /. 1.

/S. rigida: leaves (of the branches often simple) 3-divided; the divisions
varying from narrowly linear to linear-lanceolate, entire, or the central one
3-cleft.— C. rigida, Nutt.! gen. 2. p. 180 (under C. senifolia), 8f in trans.
Amer. phil. soc. I. c.

Dry soil, and in pine woods, Virginia to Georgia! Alabama! and Middle
Florida! chiefly along the mountains. Aug. — H Stem 1-2 feet high.— A
distinct species, very variable in the width of the foliage (the divisions from
1 to 3 lines broad, rigid, very commonly undivided), and intermediate
between C. verticillata and C senifolia /?. stellata.

11. C. verticillata (Linn.): glabrous; stem branched; leaves closely ses-
sile, 3-divided ; the divisions pinnately or bipinnately parted ; the segments
very narrowly linear, obtuse ; rays acute at each end, or rarely obtuse and
2-3-toothed ; corolla of the disk yellow ; achenia obovate-cuneirorm, slightly
winged, minutely 2-toothed at the summit. — Linn.! spec. 2. p. 907 (fide
Kerb.! & ex syn. Gronov.! & Pluk.! excl. syn. Vaill.); Lam. diet. 2. p.
108. C. verticillata /?. tenuifolia, Michx.! fl. 2. p. 139. C. tenuifolia,
Ehrh. beitr. 7. p. 168; Willd. ! spec. 3. p. 2252; Schkuhr, handb. t. 260;
Pursh, I. c. ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 439 ; Bart. fi. Amer. Sept. t. 73 ; DC. ! prodr.
5. p. 572. Chrysanthemum Marianum, &c, Pluk. ! mant. t. 344, f. 4.

Moist places and margin of swamps, Michigan (Lake Huron, ana Sault
St. Marie, Dr. Pitcher!) Ohio, Maryland! to Arkansas! in the Southern
8tates mostly confined to the mountainous districts. July-Sept.— It Stem
1-3 feet high, slender, strongly striate. Leaves appearing as if in who^s of
six, whence the Linnaean name, although not strictly correct, is by no means
inappropriate, and ought not to be superseded ; the segments and rachis al-
most filiform. Scales of the exterior involucre 8-10, linear or oblong-linear,
usually about the length of the interior, rarely only 3 or 4 and almost as lonff
as the rays. Rays bright yellow, 8-12 lines long, narrow; in the cultivated
plant sometimes oblong-oval, obtuse and deeply 2-3-toothed.

12. C. palmala (Nutt.) : glabrous or nearly so ; stem simple or slightly

Digitized by LiOOQ iC



CoRBOFtu. COMPOSITE. 343

branched above, angled and striate ; leaves approximate, rigid, sessile, deeply
3-cleft ; the lobes rather obtuse, with scabrous margins, linear, entire, or the
middle one often 3-lobed; rays obovate-oblong, sometimes toothed at the
apex; corolla of the disk yellow; achenia linear-oblong or elliptical, slightly
incurved when mature, narrowly winged, truncate, and crowned with 2
short (often deciduous or obscure) teeth.— Auft. / gen. 2. p.&W; Torr. ! in )&o
ann. lye. New York, 2. p. 215; DC. I. c. C. pauciflora, Lehvu! ind. scm.
hort. Hamb. 1833,* DC. I. c. C. precox, Frtsenius! ind. sem. hort. Franc.
1838. Calliopsis palmata, Spreng. syst. 3. p. 611.

Plains and prairies, Michigan ! and on the Mississippi above the Falls of
St. Anthony, (Dr. Houghton!) to Illinois! Missouri! Arkansas! and Lou-
isiana! June-July. — 11 Stem 1-2 feet high, rather rigid. Leaves about
2 inches long, with a cuneiform circumscription, 3-lobed below the middle or
nearly 3-parted, narrowed and 3-nerved at the base ; the lobes more or lest
di vane ate ; the lateral ones frequently cleft in the lower leaves. Heads
solitary, or sometimes several, on short peduncles, fully as large as in C.
delphinifolia ; the rays bright yellow, sometimes entire and a little acute,
often toothed, especially in cultivation. Chaff filiform, slightly dilated at
the summit, shorter than the flowers.



* * * * * Achenia nearly orbicular, broadly winged and incurved when mature, often
minutely tuberculate, usually furnished with a large callus or tubercle on the inner side
at the base and summit, crowned with 2 short squameUate denticulate (often obsolete)
teeth : chaff deciduous with the fruit : exterior involucre about the length of the inte-
rior : rays (large) obovate or cuneiform, coarsely 3-&-toothed or incised at the summit :
leaves opposite, or the uppermost rarely alternate, entire or divided often m the same
individual, not serrate, the lower ones petioUd : heads on long naked peduncles.—
Leachia, Cass. (Coreopsoides, Mcench. Chrysomelea, Tausch, Nutt.)

13. C. auriculata (Linn,) : pubescent with spreading or retrorse hairs, or
at length somewhat glabrous ; radical and lower leaves on slender hairy pe-
tioles, some of them oval or roundish and entire, others 3-parted or divided,
with the lateral divisions much smaller ; the uppermost on short petioles or
nearly sessile, oblong or oval- lanceolate; heads mostly solitary, on elongated
glabrous peduncles ; scales of the exterior involucre oblong-linear or lanceo-
late, at length spreading ; achenia nearly orbicular, broadly winged, strongly
incurved when ripe, often minutely muricate-tuberculale on one or both sides,
crowned with 2 very short ciliale-denticulate somewhat squameUate teeth*
which are sometimes deciduous or obsolete.

a. ctespitose and somewhat stoloniferous ; stems short and slender, simple
or sparingly branched near the base ; leaves at first hairy, at length nearly
glabrous, entire and roundish-oval, or 3-parted, with the lateral divisions very
small, or sometimes either pinnately or pedately 5-divided on the same indi-
vidual ; the upper leaves rather acute; rays oblong-cuneiform, coarsely aud
unequally 4-5-toothed ; wing of the achemum entire or very minutely denti-
culate.— C. auriculata, Linn. ! spec. 2. p. 908 (ex syn. Gronov., Moris., Sf
Pluk. !) ; Ait. ! Kew. (ed. 1) 3. p. 252 ; MiehxJ fi. 2. p. 133 ; Pursh, I. c.
C. auriculata var. diversifolia, Ell. ! sk. 2. p. 437. C. diversifolia, DC. !
prodr. 5. p. 671 ; not ofJacq., nor of Hook. Chrysanthemum hirsutum Vir-
ginianum &c., Pluk. ! aim. t. 83, /. 5, fy especially, t. 242, /. 4. C. Virgini-
anum trifolatum &c., Moris, hist. 3. sect. 6. t. 3, /. 45. (good figure.)

0. leaves oval-oblong or ovate-obloug, all but the uppermost on slender
hairy petioles, mostly obtuse, all enure; rays oval-oblong, rather acute,
slightly 2-toothed.

y. stem elongated, and with the leaves mostly softly pubescent, more or
less branched ; tower leaves 3-divided or parted, the terminal division 3 or 4



Digiti



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344 COMPOSITE. Coreopsis*

times larger than the lateral ones ; the upper often entire, oblong-lanceolate,
rather acute, slightly petioled ; rays oval-cuneiform, toothed at the summit.—
C. auriculata, Schkuhr, handb. I. 260 ; WMd. ! spec. 3. p. 2256 ; DC. !
I. c. C. pubescens, (and C. auriculata?) EU.! I. c. Coreopsoides lanceo-
lata, Mamch, meth. p. 594. Anacis auriculata, Schrank, in acad. Munch,
nat. 5. p. 7, ex DC. Leachia trifoliata, Cass, in diet. sci. nat. 25. p. 389.
Chrysomelea auriculata, Tausch. hort. Canal., ex DC.

6. stem stout, very pubescent below ; leaves pubescent or nearly glabrous ;
the lower 3-parted wilh small lateral segments, or not unfrequently entire ;
the upper nearly sessile, entire, ample (3-4 inches long, and 1 to nearly 2
inches broad), oval-lanceolate or oblong ; rays laciniate-toothed. — C. auricu-
lata, van. Gray ! in Sill. jour. 42. p. 45.

Dry soil, in rich woods and along streams, Virginia ! and Kentucky ! to
Middle Florida ! and Western Louisiana ! more abundant in the mountain-
ous districts. 6. Mountains of North Carolina! May-Sept. — U Like
most plants which flower throughout the summer, this species presents many
variations. We have distinguished only the more important, assuming the
smaller and vernal form as the type, which is moreover the plant of Plukenet,
Clayton, &c. The stoutest and large-leaved var. <5. resembles some of the
garden states, which have been long in cultivation. Ripe achenia dark
brown.

14. C. lanceolate (Linn.) : pubescent or nearly glabrous ; stems short, as-
cending, often branched near the base ; leaves entire, with ciliate or scabrous
margins; the radical and lower cauline oblanceolate or spatu late-oblong,
tapering into hairy petioles; the upper oblong-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate,
sessile, slightly connate at the base (the uppermost rarely alternate) ; heads
mostly solitary, on very long naked peduncles ; scales of the exterior involu-
cre ovate- lanceolate ; rays deeply 4-5-toothed or incised at the summit;
achenia nearly orbicular, incurved when mature, broadly winged, crowned
with 2 very short auric uliform denticulate squamellae, which when old be-
come (especially in cultivation) subulate teeth. — Linn.! spec. % p. 908;
Michx. ! ft. 2. p. 13G ; DC. ! prodr. 5. p. 570. Coreopsis, Linn. ! hort.
Cliff, p. 420. Leachia lanceolata, (& L. crassifolia?) Cass. 1. c. Chryso-
melea lanceolata, Tausch, I. c.

a. succisafolia (DC.) : leaves glabrous or slightly pubescent, more or less
ciliate (the stem often elongated and more branched in cultivation).— Bid ens
succtsae folio, radio amplo laciniato, Dill. Elth. t. 48, /. 56.

p. angustifolia : leaves glabrous, narrow, mostly ciliate ; the cauline ones
linear; stem short, or rarely somewhat elongated.— C lanceolata /?. glabella,
Michx. ! I. c. ; DC. ! I. c. (chiefly.) C. lanceolata, Hook. ! fi. Bor.-Anu
1. p. 311.

y. viUosa (Michx. ! 1. c): very hairy or villous throughout; the peduncles
and involucre (and sometimes the surface of the spatulate or oblong-lanceo-
late leaves) becoming glabrous. — Pursh, I. c. ; DC. ! I. c. C. crassifolia.
Ait. Kew. (ed. 1) 3. p. 253 (fide Pursh, &p.) ; EU. sic. 2. p. 434. C. ob-
longifolia, Nutl. ! in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 76.

Rather damp soil, Virginia! and N. Carolina! to Florida! Western Lou-
isiana ! and Missouri ! North shore of Lake Superior, Dr. Pitcher! and
Lake Huron, Dr. Todd, fide Hook. June-Aug. — U or (£) ? Heads showy :
the rays an inch long, bright yellow. Achenia blackish when mature.

15. C. grandiflora (Nutt.) : glabrous ; stem slender, striate-angled, simple
or branching; leaves on hirsute or somewhat ciliate petioles; the radical
lanceolate or linear-spatulate, or sometimes divided ; the cauline 1-2-pin-
nately or ternately 3-5-parted, with the segments or lobes narrowly linear or
lanceolate, canaliculate ; the uppermost sessile ; heads solitary, on long naked



Online LibraryJohn TorreyA flora of North America: containing abridged descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing north of Mexico; arranged according to the natural system → online text (page 148 of 171)