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John Tregaskis.

Souvenir of the re-union of the blue and the gray, on the battlefield of Gettysburg, July 1, 2, 3 and 4, 1888. How to get there, and what is to be done during the year online

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Online LibraryJohn TregaskisSouvenir of the re-union of the blue and the gray, on the battlefield of Gettysburg, July 1, 2, 3 and 4, 1888. How to get there, and what is to be done during the year → online text (page 12 of 29)
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Train Guard — 4th New Jersey Infantry (7 companies), Major Charles
Ewing.

Headquarter Guard — C, 32d Massachusetts, Car)tain Josiah C. Fuller.



LEE AND HIS COMMANDERS.

A SERIES OF TRIEF BIOGRAPHIES,



(with portraits.)

Lee, Robert Edward, Major-Greneral, born at Stratford on the Po-
tomac, in Westmoreland County, Va., January 19, 1807. He was the son
of the Revolutionary general Henry Lee, known as '• Light-Horse Harry,"
and was graduated from West Point in 1829, ranking second in a class of
forty-six. At the beginning of the Mexican war he was Chief Engineer of
the Army under Cfcneral Wood, with the rank of Captain. He won several
brevets and the special commendation of General Scott, who attributed the
prompt capture of Vera Cruz to his skill. In 1852 he was assigned to the
command of West Point, where he remained three years and effected great
miprovements. At the outbreak of the Rebellion, April 20, 1861, he re-
signed his commission. On this occasion he wrote his sister : " We are
now in a state of war which yields to nothing. The whole South is in a
state of revolution, into which Virginia, after a long struggle, has been
drawn, and though I recognize no necessity for this state of things, and
would have forborne and pleaded to the end for redress of grievances, real
or supposed, yet in my own person I had to meet the question whether I
should take j)art against my native State. With all my devotion to the
Union, and the feeling of loyalty and duty of an American citizen, I have
not been able to make up my mind to raise my hand against my relatives,
my children, my home. I have, therefore, resigned my commission in the
Army, and, save in defence of my native State — with the sincere hope that
my poor services may never be needed — I hope I may never be called upon
to draw my sword." He was made Commander-in-Chief of the Virginia
State forces, and a General under the Confederate Government. In the



autumn of 1801 Lee was sent to South Carolina, where he planned the
defensive coast hues that successfully resisted all efforts directed against
them until the very end of the war. On March 13, 1862, he was assigned
to duty ''under the direction of the President," and ''charged with the
conduct of military operation in the armies of the Confederacy, McClellan
had reorganized the National Army, and transferring his base to Fort
Monroe advanced upon Richmond by way of the peninsula, and reached a
line near the city with more than 100,000 men. Under the mistaken
impression that Johnston's opposing force outnumbered his own, he
waited for McDowell with 40,000 men from Fredericksburg to join him.
To prevent this Lee ordered Jackson to threaten Washington City, which
task he executed with such celerity and success as to cause serious appre-
hension in the Federal Capital. McDowell was recalled, and McClellan
established himself on the Chickahominy. Now, for the first time. General
Lee had direct command of a great army confronting an enemy strongly
posted, and his capacity as a strategist and commander was first demons-
trated in that bloody and brilliant, but only in part successful, series of
manoeuvers and contests known as " the seven day's battle." He adopted
that offensive defence which was always his favorite method. He attacked
McClellan, and was, after very severe fighting, so far successful that
McClellan transferred his base to James River, But Lee was convinced
that he had had, and lost, an opportunity to compel the actual surrender of
his enemy, though stronger than himself in numbers, and regarded
^IcClellan's escape upon any terms as a partial failure of his plans, due to
accidental miscarriages. General Lee's desire next was to transfer the scene
of operations to a distance from the Confederate Capital by again threaten-
ing Washington. After many minor engagements this movement ended in
the second battle of Bull Run, where on August 30 the Confederates suc-
ceeded in driving their enemy under General John Pope to Centreville.
Lee turned the Federal position on September 1, and Pope retired toward
Washington. The transfer of ]\IcClellan's force to Washington had been
made imperative, and Lee's Army was again filled with confidence m itself
and its leaders, who at once undertook to transfer the scence of operation
to the enemy's territory. On Septembei- 5 the Confederate Army, 45,000
strong, crossed the Potomac and took up a position near Frederick, Md,,
from which it might move at will against Washington or Baltimore, or in-
vade Pennsylvania. In the execution of Lee's designs his lieutenants cap-
tured Harper's Ferry after an obstinate resistance. This was followed by
the desperate and bloody battle of Antietam, in which neither side gained a
decided victory. Lee was able to save the remnant of his army by recross-
ing the Potomac and subsequently falling back to Winchester. His inva-
sion of Union territory had brought no valuable result except in the




t. GENERAL ROBERT E. LEE. 2. LIEUT.-GENERAL JAMES LONGSTREET.

3. LIEUT -GENERAL RICHARD S EWELL. 4. LIEUT -GENERAL AMBROSE P. HILL.

5. MAJOR-GENERAL J. E. B STUART.



improved morale of his troops, who from this time onward placed the most
implicit "^confidence in their chief commander. On December 13 General
Burnside attacked Lee at Fredericksburg, where the latter held a naturally
strong position. The day's fighting cost the Federal Commander a loss of
13,000 men, while the Confederate loss was but 5,000. Burnside withdrew
on the loth across the Rappahannock, and operations were suspended for
the winter. General Joseph Hooker planned a spring campaign in 1863 to
force Lee out of his intrenched position at Fredericksburg and overcome
him in the field. This plan he executed with great vigor. With his main
force he crossed above Fredericksburg, while Sedgwick threw a smaller
corps across below. Lee, with 48,000 men, met Hooker at Chaneellorsville
with more than double his numbers. While Lee with 15,000 confronted
Hooker's front he detached Jackson with the main body to strike his rear.
The surprise was complete. In spite of a stubborn resistance Hooker was
signally defeated. Sedgwick had succeeded in capturing the Confederate
works at Fredericksburg, but after the disaster to his chief he was forced to
abandon them, and the Union Army retired once more beyond the Rappa-
hannock. Encouraged by the advantage gained over Hooker at Chaneel-
lorsville, and hoping to counteract the effect of important Union successes
in Western fields, General Lee at once set about his second invasion of
Xorthern territory. It ended ingloriously for him in the great Gettysburg
fight with the Unionists under General Meade, July 1, 2 and 3, which is
fully described in these pages, and which closed the campaign of 1863. In
the spring of 1864 Lee, with less than 70,000 men, confronted Grant,
whose force aggregated 120,000. Lee skilfully used his advantage of posi-
tion, showed great strategic genius, and made all possible use of the alert-
ness and gallantry of his generals and the bravery and loyalty of his men ;
but the continuous pounding of Grant told with great effect upon Lee's
constantly diminishing force. Grant steadily pushed his columns south of
Richmond to cut off the Confederate Capital from its lines of communica-
tion and supply, so as to insure in the end the evacuation of A'irginia,
while the Confede^rates should have no road open for retreat. There was
good fighting all through the campaign on both sides, but the advantage
uniformly showed to the credit of the L^nion commanders. Early in the
spring of 1865 Grant opened the final campaign. Lee was forced to aban-
don Richmond and the strong fortifications of Petersburg and make a
desperate effort to form a junction with Johnston in North Carolina.
Meanwhile the victorious column of Sherman had crossed Georgia, from
Atlanta to Savannah, and was menacing Johnston from the south. Grant
finally corraled Lee's force, and on April 9 Lee practically ended the war
by surrender at Appomattox. After the termination of the great struggle
General Lee retired from public life, but he was soon made President of



Washington College, at Lexington, Va., now called Washington and Lee
University. He devoted himself with great assiduity and success to the
interests of education and of the institution over which he presided till his
death at Lexington, October 12, 1870.

An'dersox, Richard Henry, Lieutenant-General, born in South Caro-
lina in 1816, graduated at West Point in 1842, served in the Dragoons on
the frontier and through the Mexican War, became Captain in 1855 and
was an instructor at Carlisle Barracks. Resigning in March, 1861, he was
commissioned Brigadier in the Confederate service, and in August, 1862,
promoted to Major-General, commanding the 5th Corps of Bragg's Army.
He commanded a Division at Gettysburg, and was made Lieutenant-
General in May, 1864. His unexpected night march, in default of finding
a desirable place to encamp, placed Lee's van at Spottsylvania ahead of
Grant, and prolonged a campaign that might have otherwise ended in a de-
cisive fight. He took a prominent part in the defence of Petersburg and in
the actions which closed the struggle. He retired to private life, and died
June 26, 1879, at Beaufort, S. C.

Armistead, Lewis Addison, Brigadier-General, born February 18,
1817, at Newbern, N. C, son of General Walter K. Armistead, U. S.
Army, was educated at West Point and appointed a Lieutenant of 6th In-
fanty in 1839, served gallantly in Mexico, and received the brevet of Cap-
tain for Contreras and Cherubses, and Major for Molino del Rey. At the
opening of the Civil War he resigned with great reluctance and was made
a Confederate Brigadier-General. He was wounded at Antietam. At
Gettysburg he was one of the few in Pickett's Division who nearly reached
the Federal lines in the desperate charge on the third day. He was
mortally wounded, and died in captivity a few hours later.

Barksdale, William. Brigadier-General, born in Rutherford County,
Tenn., August 21, 1821, graduated at Nashville University, became a
lawyer at Columbus, Miss., and the editor of the Democrat in that city.
He served in a Mississippi volunteer regiment through the Mexican war.
In 1853 he Avas elected to Congress, and at once became prominent as a pro-
slavery Democrat. He left his Congressional seat after his State seceded,
took command of the 13th Mississippi Confederate Volunteers, and was
soon commissioned Brigadier-General. In the Gettysburg battle he com-
manded the 3d Brigade of Early's Division, and was killed on the second
day while leading his men to an assault on the Federal left.

Chambliss, John Randolph, Jr., Brigadier-General, born at Hicks-
ford, Ya., January 23, 1833, was graduated at West Point in 1853, assigned
to Mounted Rifles, served at the Cavalry School, Carlisle, Pa., resigned in
1854, and became a Virginia planter. He joined the Confederate Army in



1861, commanded the 13th Cavalry, was subsequently promoted to Brig-
adier-General, and killed in action at Deep Bottom, near Eichmond, Va.,""
while leading a brigade of Cavalry, August 16, 1864.

Dearin^g, James, Brigadier-General, born in Campbell County, Va.,
April 25, 1840, was a cadet at West Point, resigned in 1861, became a
Colonel of Confederate Artillery, and was promoted Brigadier-General for
gallantry in the Battle of Plymouth. He took part in the chief actions
between the Army of Northern Virginia and the Army of the Potomac.
On the retreat of the Confederates from Petersburg to Appomattox, April
5, 1865, he was fatally wounded by General Theodore Read of the Federal
Army. The two met at the head of their forces at High Bridge, on oppo-
site sides of the Creek, where in a duel between them with pistols Eead
was shot dead. Dearing died at Lynchburg, Va., a few days later.

Doles, George Pierce, Major-General, born May 14, 1830, at Milledge-
ville, Ga. , where he was educated. When the war opened he was Captain
of a Militia Company which volunteered. In May, 1862, he was made
Colonel of the 4th Georgia Regiment. He fought in most of the actions of
the Army of Northern Virginia, and at the Battle of Gettysburg succeeded
10 the Command of a Brigade, his commission being dated November 2,

1862. During the overland campaigns he commanded a Division in EwelFs
Corps, and was killed in the Battle of Cold Harbor, June 2, 1864.

Early, Jubal Aistdersox, Major-General, born November 3, 1816, in
Franklin County, Va., was graduated at West Point in 1837, appointed
liieutenant of Artillery and served in the Seminole War, resigned, and was
a lawyer in Virginia, being several years Commonwealth Attorney. In the
Mexican War he commanded a Virginia Regiment. He entered the Con-
federate service in 1861 as Colonel, commanded a Brigade at Bull Run, and
was severely wounded at Williamsburg, May 5, 1862. Made Brigadier-
General in May, 1863, his command held the lines at Fredericksburg, while
Lee fought the Battle of Chancellorsville. He commanded a Division at
Gettysburg. In 1864 he gained the battle at Monocacy in July and threat-
ened Washington, while a portion of his force captured and burned Cham-
bersburg, Pa. He was defeated by Sheridan on the Opequan, September
19, and at Fisher's Hill three days later. He gained a surprise, October 19,
over the Federal force at Cedar Creek, but after the arrival of Sheridan he
was forced to retire, losing most of his guns and wagons. In March, 1864,
he was totally routed by Custer at Waynesboro', and was soon after reheved
of command. Since the war he has resided in New Orleans and
Lynchburg.

EwELL, Richard Stoddert, Lieutenant- General, born in Georgetown,
P, C, February 8, 1817, Avas graduated at West Point in 1840, fought



reditably in the Mexican War, became Captain of Dragoons in 1849, and
i^isigned in 1861. He was commissioned Major-General in the Confederate
Army, and fought at Bull Run and Blackburn's Ford in July. In 1862 he
lost a leg at Warrenton Turnpike, August 28 . When Jackson was fa,tally
wounded at Chancellorsville, Ewell, at his request, was made Lieutenant-
General and given command of the 2d Corps, and led it gallantly at Win-
chester, Gettysburg and at the Wilderness on the Confederate left. He
was captured by Sheridan at Sailor's Creek with his entire force, April 5,
1865. He retired to private life at the close of the war, and died at Spring-
field, Tenn., January 25, 1872. There are many anecdotes related of
General Ewell, showing him, while a brave officer, to be the very oppo-
site of Stonewall Jackson : the latter finding in every incident of bat-
tle, march or bivouac, a subject for devout and earnest prayer — Ewell
looking upon the same matters as nothing but routine work often un-
worthy of comment.

GoEDOK^, JoHin" Brown, Lieutenant-General, was born in Upson County,
Ga., February 6, 1832, educated at the University of Georgia, studied law,
and had begun its practice at the outbreak of the war. He entered the
Confederate service as Captain of Infantry, and rose to the rank of Lieuten-
ant-General, commanding one wing of General Lee's Army at Appomattox
Court House. He was wounded in battle eight times during the war.
The Democrats of Georgia supported him for Governor in 1868. In 1873,
he was elected United States Senator and re-elected in 1879, but resigned in
1880. In 1886 he was elected Governor of Georgia, which place he now
holds.

Garnett, Richard Brooke, Brigadier-General, born in Virginia in 1819,
graduated at West Point in 1841, was assigned to the Infantry, served in
Florida and on the Texas frontier, became Captain May 9, 1855, was
engaged in Kansas in 1856-7, and in the Utah Expedition of 1858, and
resigned May 17, 1861, to join the Confederate Army. He was engaged
in many of the battles in Virginia, was afterwards attached to General Lee's
Army with the rank of Brigadier-General, and fell in the Battle of Gettys-
burg.

Hamptox, Wade, Lieutenant-General, born in Columbia, S. C, in 1818,
was graduated at the University of South Carolina, and studied law. H©
served in the State Legislature as a Democrat, but was not popular, having
delivered a strong sjjeech against re-opening the slave trade. At the begin-
ning of the Civil AVar he enlisted as a private in tiie Confederate service,
but soon raised a force of infantry, cavalry and artillery known as Hamp-
ton's Legion, which won distinction for good conduct in the Battle of Bull
Bun and in the Peninsular campaign. At Seven Pines they lost half their



number and Hampton was seriously wounded. He was soon made a Brig-
adier-General of Cavalry, serving under General J. E, B. Stuart with
brilliant success. Hampton's force bore a conspicuous part at Gettysburg,
where he was three times wounded, and twenty-one out of twenty-five field
officers and more than half of his men were killed or wounded. He became
a Major-General, August 3, 1863. In 1864 he checked Sheridan at Trevil-
lian's Station, and in twenty-three days caj^tured over 3,000 prisoners and
valuable stores, with a loss of 719 men. In August he was made Lieu-
tenant-General, commanding Lee's Cavalry. In September he struck the
Union rear and captured 400 prisoners and 2,486 beeves, and soon after in
another action he made 500 prisoners. In 1865 he commanded the Cavalry
under General J. E. Johnston in the effort to check the advance of General
Sherman northward from Savannah. After the war he accepted promptly
the results of defeat and engaged in cotton planting. He was chosen Gov-
ernor of South Carolina in 1876. In 1878 an accident deprived him of a
leg, and while his life was still despaired of he was elected to the United
States Senate, where he is still serving.

Heth, Henry, Major-General, was born in Virginia in 1835, graduated
at West Point in 1847, entered the 6th Infantry, and became Captain in the
10th Infantry March 3, 1885. He resigned from the Union Army in 1861
and became a Confederate Brigadier-General, and in May, 1863, a Major-
General, commanding a Division in General A. P. Hill's Corps. He was in
the contest at Gettysburg and in the subsequent cam])aigns. Since he has
been engaged in business in South Carolina.

Hill, Ambeose Powell, Lieutenant-General, born in Culpeper County,
Va., Nov. 9, 1825, graduated at West Point in 1847, and entering the 1st
Artillery served in Mexico and in Florida, and became Captain of Artillery.
In November, 1855, he was made an assistant on the coast survey. He re-
signed in 1861, and in the first battle of Bull Eun commanded a Virginia
regiment, winning promotion, and for gallantry in the Ijattle of Williams-
burg in May, 1862, he was made a Major-General. In the seven days'
battles around Eichmond he opened the fight by driving McClellan's forces
from Meadow Bridge, clearing a way for Longstreet and D. H. Hill to ad-
vance. He was active in the succeeding cami)aign against General Pope
and at the second battle of Bull Eun, July 29 and 30, 1862. He received
the surrender of the National troops at Harper's Ferry on September 17,

1862, and making a forced march arrived at Antietam in time to enable
General Lee to maintain his ground. He was engaged in the action at
Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, and at Chancellorsville, May 5 and 6,

1863, his Corps participated in the flank movement that crushed Hooker's
right. In the assault he was severely wounded. For gallantry in this



battle he was promoted, May 20, 1863, to Lieutenant-General and given
command of one of the three grand Corps into which the Army was di-
vided. He led his Corps nt Gettysburg, and in the affair at Bristow
Station, October, 1863* while in command of two Brigades, was repelled
with severe loss. On June 22, 1864, his Corps, with Longstrect's, repelled
the attack on the AVcldon Eailroad. On Sunday morning, April 2, 1865,
in the struggle for the possession of the works in front of Petersburg, he
was shot from his horse dead by stragglers from the National Army.

Hood, Joh]S' Bell, Major- General, was born at Owenville, Ky., June 1,
1831, graduated at West Point in 1853, served in the 2d Cavalry on the
Indian frontier with Colonel A Ibort Sidney Johnson and Lieutenant-Colonel
Robert E. Lee. In July, 1857, he was severely wounded by an Indian in
a hand-to-hand fighi. In 1858 he became 1st Lieutenant, and was Cavalry
Instructor at AYest Point in 1859 and 1860. He resigned in 1861, and
entering the Confederate Army as a Colonel was soon made Brigadier-
General, commanding Texas ti'oops. While leading his men at Gaine's
Mills he was shot in the body, his Brigade lost more than half its number,
and he was brevetted Major-General on the field. He served in both Mary-
land campaigns and in the battles of Second Bull Run, Boonesborough,
Fredericksburg and Antietam. At Gettysburg he was again severely
wounded, disabling his arm. During the second day's fight at Chicka-
mauga, seeing his men waver he rode to the front and demanded the colors.
His Texans rallied, and in the charge at the head of the column he was
shot down, losing his right leg. He succeeded General Joseph E. Johnston
in command in 1864, and after stubborn fighting was outflanked by General
William T. Sherman and compelled to evacuate Atlanta, enabling the
Union leader to make the march through Georgia to the sea. Hood began
a counter-movement into Tennessee and compelled the evacuation of
Decatur, but was defeated by General Thomas at Franklin, November 30,
and again, "December 16, by the same commander at Nashville, after which,
at his own request, he was retired. He engaged m trade in New Orleans,
and died there August 30, 1879.

IvERSox, Alfred, Brigadier-General, born in Burke County, Ga., De-
cember 3, 1798, was graduated at Princeton, N. J., in 1820, and became a
lawyer at Columbus, Ci;^ lifter serving in the Legislature several terms, in
both branches, he was beven years a Judge of the Superior Court. He was
elected to the National House of Representatives in 1846 and to the Senate
in 1855. On the passage by his State of the Ordinance of Secession, he
withdrew January 28, 1861, having been an open advocate of disunion and
a leader of the Secession movement, and having announced in the United
States Senate that slavery must be recognized with the right to carry slaves



into the common territories, and to be assured full Congressional protec-
tion. He raised a Confederate Eegiment, and in November, 1862, was
commissioned Brigadier-General. He died at Macon, Ga., March 4, 1873.

JoHXSOX, Edward, Major-General, was born in Chesterfield Co., Va.,
April 16, 1816, graduated at West Point in 1838, and assigned to the 6th
Infantry, was in the Mexican War, and brevetted Captain for gallantry at
Molino del Key and Major for Chapultepec. At the end of the campain he
was presented with swords by his native County and State. He became
Captain in 1851 and resigned June 10, 1861. Entering the Confederate
service as Colonel of the 12th Georgia Volunteers, he was promoted Brig-
adier-General in 1862 and Major-General the next year. At Gettysburg he
commanded a Division. On May 12, 1864, he was captured with his entire
force at Spottsylvania Court House. At the close of the war he retired to
his Virginia farm, and died in Eichmond, February 22, 1873.

Jones, John Marshall, Brigadier-General, born at Charlottesville, Va.,
July 26, 1820, graduated at West Point in 1841, was an Instructor there
several years, and later member of a Board to revise rifle and artillery
practice, and was promoted Captain in 1855. He resigned in 1861, was
appointed Colonel of a Virginia Confederate Eegiment, and in 1863 pro-
moted Brigadier-General. He was severely wounded at Gettysburg, took
part in the siege of Knoxville, Tenn., and in the operations from the
Wilderness to Spottsylvania, where he was killed May 10, 1864.

Jones, William Edmondson, Major-General, born in Washington
County, Va., in 1824, was graduated at West Point in 1848, assigned to
Mounted Eifles, resigned in 1857, traveled abroad, and became a farmer at
Gluch Spring, Va. He joined the Confederate service as a Captain in Sep-
tember, 1861, was made Colonel 1st Virginia Cavalry, promoted September
19, 1862, Brigadier- General, and commanded the Department of the Valley
of Virginia. He was mas made Major-General in 1863, and had charge of
Southwestern Virginia and Eastern Tennessee till he was ordered back to
the Valley of Virginia to meet General Hunter, and was killed in action
with the force under that General at New Hope, Va., Jiine 5, 1864.

Kemper, James Lawson, Brigadier-General, was born in ]\Iadison



Online LibraryJohn TregaskisSouvenir of the re-union of the blue and the gray, on the battlefield of Gettysburg, July 1, 2, 3 and 4, 1888. How to get there, and what is to be done during the year → online text (page 12 of 29)