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NEW-WORLD SCENCE SERIES

PRIMER OF
HYGIENE



RITCH I E;CALDWELL




WORLD BOOK COMPANY



Life*



LIBRARY

OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.



BIOLOGY

LIBRARY

G



Class



NEW- WORLD SCIENCE SERIES

PRIMER
OF HYGIENE

BY

JOHN W. RITCHIE

PROFESSOR OF BIOLOGY, COLLEGE OF WILLIAM
AND MARY, VIRGINIA



AND



JOSEPH S. CALDWELL

PROFESSOR OF BIOLOGY, GEORGE PEABODY COLLEGE
FOR TEACHERS, TENNESSEE



Illustrated by

KARL HASSMANN

and
HERMANN HEYER




OF THE

UNIVERSITY

OF




YONKERS-ON-HUDSON, NEW YORK

WORLD BOOK COMPANY

IQIO



NEW-WORLD SCIENCE SERIB

" Our national health is physically our greatest
asset. To prevent any possible deterioration of
the American stock should be a national am- ^ }
bition." Theodore Roosevelt.

The conservation of individual and national
health is the purpose of the Ritchie-Caldwell
series.

Primer of Hygiene

By John W. Ritchie of the College of William and Mary in Vi *
ginia and J. S. Caldwell of Peabody College for Teachers
Tennessee. Illustrated. Cloth. List price for class use 40 cent
mailing price for single copies 48 cents.

The purpose of this first book is to teach the lower grade pup
what he himself can do to keep his body in health person,
hygiene.

Primer of Sanitation

By John W. Ritchie. Illustrated. Cloth. List price 50 cents
mailing price 60 cents.

The second book in the series and the first in the English languag<
to teach grammar grade pupils how to escape germ diseases an
how to cooperate in conserving community health public hygiene

Human Physiology

By John W. Ritchie. Illustrated in black and in colors. Cloth
List price 80 cents; mailing price 96 cents.

A third book which presents to upper grammar grade pupils thn-
essentials of physiology, hygiene, and sanitation that every Ameri
can citizen ought to know. The style is so simple and the illustra
tions so clear that the subject assumes unusual interest.

A fable entitled The Adventures of the Starch
Family, an aid to the understanding of the
process of digestion, will be sent free to users of
Human Physiology.

WORLD BOOK COMPANY

Caspar W. Hodgson, Manager
Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York



Copyright, iqio, by World Book Company. Entered at Stationers' Hall, Lown.
All rights reserved.



PREFACE

IN cmparatively recent years there has come into
the wld a new knowledge that is able to save man
f roira great part of the sickness that has heretofore
affliced him. Up to the present time, however,
no ^ay of getting this knowledge to the mass of
the people has been found, and according to the
estiiate of Professor Irving Fisher, we have in the
Unbd States at all times about three millions of
persns who are seriously ill.

Tie writers of this little book have felt that the
grecest immediate service our schools can perform
is t put their pupils into possession of those facts
tha will relieve the people of the great burden of
preentable disease which they are now carrying.
Thy believe that hygiene should be faithfully taught
in very schoolroom in the land, that the purpose
in eaching it is to prevent sickness, and that any
tex on hygiene that fails to emphasize the facts
the modern medicine has shown to be vital in
heith preservation is an inferior book for school
ust

or the valuable suggestions made by those who
hae read and criticised the proofs of this book,
acknowledgment is here made. It is impossible to
naie all who have aided in this way, but amdng
thse whose help has been especially valuable are
th following: Leonard P. Ayres, Dr. L. B. Bibb,
D. H. M. Bracken, Dr. William H. Burnham, Dr.
CWard Crampton, Dr. H. B. Crumbine, Dr. Martin

iii

206458



iv PREFACE

H. Fischer, Dr. Christian A. Herter, Dr. Samuel A.
Hopkins, Dr. J. N. Hurty, Dr. F. V. Jackson, Dr.
James M. King, Dr. George D. Leslie, Dr. R. Tait
McKenzie, Dr. H. W. Morgan, Dr. S. W. New-
mayer, Dr. Stewart R. Roberts, Dr. G. F. Rhein-
hardt, Dr. William F. Snow, Dr. A. R. Ward, Dr.
C. E. A. Winslow.

The Oral Hygiene Committee of the National
Dental Association, through Dr. W. G. Ebersole,
Dr. W. A. White, and especially Dr. Paul G. White,
chairman of the text book committee, has given help
for which grateful acknowledgment is made

To Miss Florence Gray, Yonkers, New York;
Miss Mary Pierce and Miss Frances Dunn, Farm-
ville, Virginia; Miss Virginia Jones, Williamsburg,
Virginia; and Miss Jessie B. Montgomery, Terre
Haute, Indiana, who gave the book the invaluable
test of actual use in the schoolroom, the authors are
greatly indebted.

Other practical and experienced teachers who read
the proof and gave helpful suggestions were Miss
Josephine K. Bauer, Indianapolis, Indiana; Frank
Evans, Spartanburg, South Carolina; Miss Minnie
Fisher, Montgomery, Alabama; Miss Mary P. Jones,
Nashville, Tennessee; Mrs. John L. Price, Florence,
Alabama; and Miss Flora Wilber, Fort Wayne,
Indiana.



CONTENTS



CHAPTER

I. THE IMPORTANCE OF KEEPING THE BODY IN

HEALTH

II. THE HUMAN BODY AND THE GREAT LAWS OF
HEALTH .......

III. FOODS AND THEIR USES IN THE BODY .

IV. BUYING FOODS . .

V. COOKING FOODS ...

VI. CARING FOR FOODS ...

VII. THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS AND THEIR WORK .

VIII. KEEPING THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS IN HEALTH

IX. THE CARE OF THE TEETH ....

X. THE Am WE BREATHE ....

XL THE LUNGS AND AIR PASSAGES AND THEIR CARE

XII. ADENOIDS AND ENLARGED TONSILS

XIII. THE BLOOD AND THE HEART

XIV. THE KIDNEYS

XV. THE SKIN

XVI. CLOTHING

XVII. THE CARRIAGE OF THE BODY

XVIII. EXERCISE

XIX. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM .

XX. THE CARE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM .

XXI. THE IMPORTANCE OF HABIT

XXII. THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON THE BODY

XXIII. THE EFFECTS OF TOBACCO ON THE BODY

XXIV. THE EYES AND THEIR CARE

XXV. THE EAR AND ITS CARE ....

XXVI. ACCIDENTS .......

XXVII. SOME SIMPLE EXERCISES FOR USE IN SCHOOLS

XXVIII. DISEASE GERMS

XXIX. TYPHOID FEVER

V



5

9

15

19

22
26

3 2
38
4 6

5 2
59
63
69

7i
77
81
86
90

94

98

103

no

"3

121

127

J3 1
141
144



CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE

XXX. TUBERCULOSIS (CONSUMPTION) . . .150
XXXI. OTHER DISEASES OF THE AIR PASSAGES AND

LUNGS '-.157

XXXII. MALARIA, SMALLPOX, AND OTHER GERM DIS-
EASES . . .."... .163

XXXIII. PREVENTING THE SPREAD OF DISEASE GERMS 168

XXXIV. KEEPING UP THE RESISTANCE OF THE BODY

TO DISEASE GERMS . . . .176
To THE TEACHER . it +.. * . \. 180

INDEX 181



VI



';"'" ~- "

* Of THE

UNIVERSITY

^ D IMER OF HYGIENE



CHAPTER ONE

THE IMPORTANCE OF KEEPING THE BODY IN HEALTH




FIG. i. When we have health we find the world a beautiful
place in which to live.

ALL of us know that this is a beautiful and a pleas-
ant world. We enjoy the songs of the birds and
the beauty of the flowers. It gives us pleasure to
feel the soft winds of spring and to watch the green
come back on the trees. We love to watch the
clouds sail through the sky and the snowflakes fall
through the air. Everywhere we turn we find
many things that give us happiness and content-
ment, and make the world a beautiful place for us
to live in.

Why is it that we cannot spend all our time en-
joying the pleasant and beautiful things of life?



2 PRIMER OF HYGIENE

Why must we take life so seriously? Why must
older people work, and why must children study and
prepare themselves for work? We will tell you the
great reason why every one who wishes to enjoy the
pleasant things of life cannot give all his time and
thought to these same beautiful and pleasant things.
// is because we must have health to enjoy the world,
and we must work to care for our bodies and to keep
them in health.

The health of the body important. Nature
has given to each of us a body, and in these bodies
we must live as long as we are in the world. When
our bodies are well and strong, we rejoice in them,
and we see and feel the beauty of the world. But
when sickness and pain come upon us, we can get
little pleasure from all the things that have been
provided for our enjoyment. This is why we must
care for our bodies if we would enjoy the pleasures
of life and do the work that is waiting in the world
for each one of us.

Work required to keep our bodies in health.
To care for the body is not easy, for it must have
food, it must be protected from cold, and it must
have many other wants supplied. Indeed, so difficult
is it to supply all the needs of our bodies that the hu-
man race spends most of its tune working to secure
those things that are necessary for life and comfort.
Yet our bodies must be cared for; otherwise we can
neither get out of the world the happiness that it



KEEPING THE BODY IN HEALTH 3

ought to hold for us, nor give to others the pleas-
ure that GUI; lives ought to bring to them.

Hygiene important because it teaches how
to care for the body. It is the purpose of this
book to teach you how to care for your body
and keep it in health. The study of this subject
is called hygiene. It is a most important sub-
ject to you so important that if you cannot
afford to take time to study it and understand
it, there are few things that you can afford to
take time to do.

Questions : i. Why cannot we give all our time to enjoy-
ing the pleasant things of the world? 2. Explain why it
is so important for us to care for our bodies. 3. What is
hygiene? 4. Why is the study of hygiene important?

Suggestions and topics for development : Let the teacher and
pupils keep an account of the number of days that are lost by
the school or grade during the year on account of sickness.

When any one is ill, record the cause of the sickness and deter-
mine if possible whether or not it could have been prevented. At
the end of the year count up how many days of sickness could
have been prevented by reasonable care.

The teacher should secure from the Secretary of the Committee
of One Hundred on National Health, New Haven, Connecticut,
Professor Irving Fisher's " Report on National Vitality, Its Wastes
and Conservation." This pamphlet contains a wealth of infor-
mation in regard to the whole subject of health and disease pre-
vention. It is important that both teacher and pupil understand
that in a young person health is the natural condition; that sick-
ness in such a person is unnatural ; and that the cause of sickness
in a young person should at once be looked for.



PRIMER OF HYGIENE



skull



burner us




FIG. 2. The skeleton.



CHAPTER TWO

THE HUMAN BODY AND THE GREAT LAWS OF HEALTH

A GREAT engine is made of many different parts all
put together to make one machine. So is the human
body made of many different parts all joined to-
gether to make one whole. The engineer must
know when his engine needs coal and water and
how to supply them. So we must understand the
needs of our bodies and how to satisfy these
needs. The engineer ^ must know how to keep
sand and dirt out of the working parts of the
engine and how to oil these parts so that they
will not wear each other away. So we must know
how to keep out of our bodies the germs that cause
disease and how to give our bodies the exercise and
rest that are necessary for their health. In this
chapter we shall study the parts of the body, the
needs of the body, and the great laws we must
observe to keep our bodies in health.

The parts of the human body. The human
body is composed of a head, a trunk, and two pairs
of limbs. It is supported by a strong framework of
bones on which the whole body is built. The muscles
to move this framework of bones are stretched over
it in strong bands, and the skin forms a tough
covering over the whole body.

The organs of the body. The bones and
muscles form a thick wall about a large cavity in
the trunk of the body. In this cavity are found

5



PRIMER OF HVGIENE



many of the organs that do the work of the body.
In the upper part of the cavity we find the heart
and lungs. In its lower part are the stomach, the




intestine



FIG. 3. The principal organs of the body. The left lung has been
removed and the edge of the right lung turned back to show the
heart and blood vessels more clearly.

intestines, the liver, the kidneys, and some other
organs. In Figure 3 the organs are shown as they
lie in place in the cavity of the trunk.



THE HUMAN BODY 7

The uses of the organs. Each part of the body
has a work to do. The bones give shape and strength
to every part. Without them we should be as limp
and shapeless as bags of sand. The muscles move
all the body parts, and without the muscles we
should be as motionless as trees or stones. The
stomach and intestines take in food and prepare it
for use; the heart keeps the blood moving through
the body; and the lungs take in oxygen from
the air. The hand has a work that the foot can-
not do, and the eye has a work that the tongue
cannot do. In the same way each part of the body
has a work of its own that can be done by no other
part.

The great laws of health. For an engineer to
understand the importance of taking care of his en-
gine is not enough; he must also know how to do it.
So, if we hope to have strong, healthy bodies, we
must not only understand the importance of keep-
ing the laws of health, but we must know what
these laws are and how we can keep them.

One of the great laws of health is that the body
must have a proper supply of food. Another is that
it must have an abundance of fresh air. A third is
that the body must get rid of its poisonous wastes;
a fourth law is that it must be sheltered from the
weather so that it will not be too hot or too cold;
and a fifth, that it must have exercise, rest, and
sleep. Still another law, and a very important one,



8 PRIMER OF HYGIENE

is that disease germs must not be allowed to get into
the body and poison it.

Every one of these laws must be followed if we
are to keep our health and our strength; for so
surely as an apple falls to the earth when its stem is
separated from the tree, so surely is your body in-
jured when the great laws of its life are broken. In
later chapters of this book we shall discuss each of
these laws and point out how each may best be
followed.

Questions: i. Name the principal divisions of the body.
2. What forms the framework of the body? 3. What is
stretched over the framework of the body to move it?
4. With what is the body covered? 5. What organs are in
the upper part of the cavity of the body? 6. In the lower
part? 7. What is the work of the bones? 8. Of the muscles?
9. Of the stomach and intestines? 10. Of the heart? n. Of
the lungs? 12. Name some other organs of the body and tell
what they do. 13. Give some of the great laws of health.
14. What will happen to us if we break these laws?

Suggestions and topics for development : Develop the idea of
the interdependence of the body parts. Use the fable of the hands
that grew tired of seeking food for the lazy stomach, but found that
when the stomach was not supplied with food, the hands and all
the other parts of the body became weak and helpless.



CHAPTER THREE

FOODS AND THEIR USES IN THE BODY




FIGS. 4, 5, and 6. Foods furnish the body with building material,
heat, and strength.

WHEN a person goes without food for more than a
few hours, he feels hungry. This means that his
body needs food and is calling for it. If the person
cannot get food, he will soon become weak and his
body will waste away. Without food we cannot
keep our health and strength. Without food we
cannot even live.

Do you ever wonder why it is that you want to
eat? Why one food is sometimes better for us than
another food? Why a proper amount of food will
give strength to the body and too much food will
make the body ill? Why physicians are continually
telling us to be careful about what we eat and in-
sisting that a great part of our sickness comes from
improper food? These questions are most impor-
tant to us, and we shall therefore study foods and
the uses that the body makes of them.

Foods necessary for building materials. Scrape
the skin of your arm with a knife. Do you not find

9



10 PRIMER OF HYGIENE

dead, dry scales on the knife? This dead material
is all the time falling away from the skin, as parti-
cles of bark drop from the outside of a tree. The
inner parts of your body also are wasting away. Yet
your body does not become lighter and thinner. On
the contrary, with young persons the body grows
larger and becomes heavier year by year. This is
because every particle of substance that wastes
away in heart or muscle or brain or skin is re-
placed by new materials, and at the same time new
substance is built up for making the body larger.
This new material is formed from the food that we
eat. One great use of food is to furnish building mate-
rial to the body.

The building foods. Among the more impor-
tant building foods are lean meats, milk, and eggs.
Bread and grains also contain large amounts of
building materials, as do peas, beans, oats, and corn.
These foods give the body warmth and strength,
but their main use is to furnish material for growth
and repair. They can do this because they are
composed of materials like those which make up
our bodies. Only such materials can build up our
bodies. It would be just as sensible to try to
mend a broken window with bricks or to repair
a wornout engine with lumps of coal as to try
to repair the body with materials different from
those of which it is made. Every day we must
eat some building food, for night and day, whether



FOODS AND THEIR USES IN THE BODY II

we are asleep or awake, our bodies are wearing
away.

Foods necessary to give heat to the body.

The body is warmer than most of the objects around
it. It is kept warm by the food that we eat just as
a stove is kept warm by the wood or coal that is
burned in it.* A second use of food is to furnish heat
for warming the body.

Foods necessary to give strength to the body.
You have seen a great engine driving hundreds of
machines, or you have watched a locomotive as it
flew across the country pulling a train behind it.
An engine gets its power to work from the coal that
is burned in it. In the same way, when you lift
something or when you run, your body gets its
strength and its power from the food that it uses.
A third use of food is to give the body strength and
power to work.

The heating and strengthening foods. The
second class of foods is the heating and strengthen-
ing foods. These are the foods that contain the
starches and sugars, the fats and the oils. We take
sugar into the body mainly in fruits and in the foods
to which we add it to improve the taste. Molasses,
honey, syrups, and other sweet foods also contain
large amounts of sugar.

Starch forms more than three fifths of our food.
We eat it mainly in potatoes and in the foods made
from grains wheat bread, corn bread, macaroni,



12



PRIMER OF HYGIENE



rice, and breakfast foods. Some starch is found
also in such vegetables as turnips and cabbages.

The fats we get chiefly in meats and in butter
and milk. We also get fat in food cooked with lard
or cotton-seed oil and a little fat in fruits and




FIG. 7. We should eat plain, substantial foods that will supply
the body's needs and keep it in health. We should learn in youth
to eat these foods, for to a great extent we carry through life the
habits of eating that we form when we are young.

vegetables. From a pound of fat or oil the body
gets twice as much heat and strength as it gets
from a pound of any other kind of food.

Selecting foods that will supply all the body
needs. We should eat some building foods and some
heating and strengthening foods, so that all the
needs of the body may be supplied. Some persons
eat so much meat that their bodies have more build-
ing material than they can use, while at the same
time they have very little starch and sugar. Some



FOODS AND THEIR USES IN THE BODY 13

persons dislike fat meats and butter and take only a
little fat in thteir food. It is believed that these per-
sons are more liable to certain diseases, especially
to consumption, than are persons who eat a reason-
able amount of fat. A few persons seem able to live
and keep in health on nuts and fruits, but these
foods do not contain enough building material for
most persons. Eating too much meat, not eating
enough fat, and not eating enough building mate-
rial are the three most common mistakes in 'selecting
foods.

Learning to eat many different kinds of foods.
Nearly all of us like the things that we eat as chil-
dren, and to a large extent we keep through life the
habits of eating formed when we are young. You
should therefore eat many different kinds of foods
and learn to like them, and guard against falling into
the habit of eating only a few things and refusing
to taste anything else.

Questions: i. Name the first use of foods to the body.
2. Why must the body have building materials? 3. Name
the more important building foods. 4. Give two other uses
of foods in the body. 5. What materials do these foods
contain? 6. Name some foods that contain starch. 7.
Name some foods that contain sugar. 8. Name the foods
from which we obtain fat. 9. For what is fat especially
valuable in the body? 10. Name some common mistakes
that people make in selecting their food.

Suggestions and topics for development : Whether an animal
that stays outdoors in the winter or one that is kept in a warm stable



14 PRIMER OF HYGIENE

needs more food, and why. The kind of food eaten by the inhabit-
ants of cold countries, and why. The kind of foods needed in es-
pecially large amounts by growing animals and children. Where a
chick in an egg gets the lime for building its skeleton. The minerals
needed by the body and where they are obtained. How food is
stored in the body. Why a person is thin after sickness. What a
frog or a bear lives on while it is sleeping through the winter. Why
a person who is doing hard work needs large amounts of food.

The teacher should learn as much as possible about the eating
habits of the pupils, and if any of them are given to eating large
quantities of sweets or lean meats, or are falling into other errors of
diet, they should have clearly presented to them the fact that the
body demands a balanced ration and that it will not receive such a
ration from a diet of this sort.

The teacher who understands chemistry will find profit in reading
Chittenden's The Nutrition of Man, published by Frederick A.
Stokes Company, New York.



CHAPTER FOUR

BUYING FOODS



Corn meal
Oat meal
Dried beans
Peanuts
White bread
Beef round
Milk
Chicken
Wbite potatoes
Rice
Salt fork
Cabbage
Prunes
Bananas
Butter




















































































































^m~






w





FIG. 8. The length of the line shows the comparative amount of
building material in ten cents' worth of each of these foods.



DURING a strike in Chicago a poor woman spent
her last ten cents for lettuce to feed her hungry
family. If she had bought dried beans, she would
have had seventy-one times as much food for the
same money; or by spending five cents for bread
and five cents for milk she could have taken home
to her children forty-one times as much nourish-
ment. She did not understand that the body must
have a certain amount of building material and a
certain amount of food for heat and strength, and
that the various food materials are not equally
valuable for these purposes. She had not learned
that in mutton a pound of building material costs
$1.50, while in corn meal it can be bought for 27

15



1 6 PRIMER OF HYGIENE

cents; that the amount of heating and strengthen-
ing material that can be bought in sugar for 6 cents
costs 54 cents in cabbage; that the amount of fat
that can be bought in fat salt pork for 10 cents costs
in butter 61 cents; that one pound of oatmeal will
give as much heat and strength as seventeen pounds
of tomatoes or nearly seven pounds of bananas.

How to select foods. It is often a mistake to buy
beefsteak at twenty-five cents a pound when for
half the money cheaper cuts of meat can be bought
that will give as much nourishment or even more.
A man who does hard work must have a great deal
of the food that gives strength. It is not necessary
for him to get his strength from expensive foods like
meat and eggs when he can get the same strength
at much less cost from bread and potatoes. With
only a small amount of money a housekeeper can
provide good food for her family by finding out what
cheap foods will supply the necessary building ma-
terial and strength, and then learning how to cook


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