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First, the crabbed desultory penciled notes
were read aloud, and commented on by Mr.
Fritz — every now and then with the injec-
tion of some delightful reminiscence or
story — all being taken down by the stenog-
rapher, of whose presence Mr. Fritz soon
became unconscious, as she was an unob-
trusive, most competent little woman. As
soon as this mass of matter had been type-
written, it was all read over again to Mr.
Fritz, who again corrected, commented, and
amplified. It was then turned over to the
publishers (William H. Wiley claimed this
privilege as a labor of love), and again the
galley-proofs were similarly read, and the
matter improved in Mr. Fritz's painstaking
way. Finally the paged proofs were all
read to him. The Autobiography was ab-
solutely his own individual work. All that
the devoted friends who were admitted to
participate in its preparation did, was (as
Dr. Drinker expressed it), to do the "cooly
work," to perform the manual operations of
authorship; the literary work, the direct
forcible expression, the loving reminis-
cences, the jocund incidents of home- and
mill-life are all the work of Mr. Fritz.

And then came the beginning of the end.
This literary work finished, the laboratory
built, his afifairs in good order, Mr. Fritz
began to fail. He suffered from recurring
attacks of bronchitis, and finally an abscess
formed on his chest. The abscess was
opened by his physician. Dr. John H. Wil-
son, in February, 1912. Mr. Fritz, in his
weakness shrank from physical pain ; so the
spot was frozen by the application of chlor-
ide of ethyl before the knife was applied.
When the patient heard the hissing of the
gas, he turned languidly in bed towards Dr.
Drinker, who stood by him, and said, "Doc-
tor, that sound reminds me of my first
Bessemer blow !"

In March, 1912, his medical attendants
expressed the opinion that unless he would
submit to a drastic operation for the re-



moval of pus on his chest, blood-poisoning
would set in and death must soon follow ;
and Dr. Drinker was appealed to by the
family to exert his personal influence as a
friend to persuade Mr. Fritz to submit to
the operation. In this he was successful ;
and the operation was performed April 15,
1912. by Dr. William L. Estes, Mr. Fritz's
old and intimate friend, with Dr. Edward
Martin, of Philadelphia, as consulting sur-
geon, and Dr. John H. Wilson as physician.

At this time Mr. Fritz again gave evi-
dence of his characteristic sense of humor
under any and all conditions. Every pre-
caution was of course taken to ease the
patient, and the surgeons arranged to bring
from Philadelphia a special operator with
apparatus to administer nitrous oxide, be-
fore subjecting him to the influence of
ether. When Dr. Drinker explained this
to him, Mr. Fritz said, "All right, but don't
let them pull out any of my teeth" — the
joke being that he had not a natural tooth
left. This from a man in a state of ex;
treme weakness, following weeks of suffer-
ing! The operation was highly successful
in averting the immediate threatened
danger. Mr. Fritz wished to live ; and his
life was prolonged until February 13, 1913,
when he died quietly, without apparent pain,
passing away in sleep. His funeral, held
at Bethlehem on February 17, was attended
by a large concourse of his friends ; and he
lies at rest in the beautiful Nisky Hill ceme-
tery of his home town, beside his only
daughter, who died in childhood, and his be-
loved wife. So lived and died a great man
— strong, wise, brave, invincible ; a good
man — simple, generous, tender and true; a
loving husband ; a loyal friend ; a public-
spirited citizen ; a real philanthropist, giving
"himself with his gift!" To us who miss
and mourn him now, the man shines even
more illustrious than the famous engineer.

Mr. Fritz married Ellen W. Maxwell,
born in White Alarsh, June 8, 1833, died
at Bethlehem, January 29, 1908. Their only
child, Gertrude, born in 1853, died in i860.



719



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



On March 28, 1913, the board of direc-
tors of the American Institute of Mining
Engineers unanimously adopted the follow-
ing minutes :

John Fritz, one of the most distinguished of
American mechanical and metallurgical engi-
neers, won that position by the force of innate
genius, indomitable industry, unstained integrity
and unfailing sympathy, and generosity towards
his fellow-men.

Self-educated in the hard school of practice,
he appreciated nevertheless the advantages of
technical instruction and discussion, and evinced
this appreciation both by his membership and
lively interest in this and other similar societies,
and by his munificent gifts to engineering educa-
tion at Lehigh University, and his long and
faithful service as a Trustee of that institution.

As one of the foremost of those American
engineers who, through their brilliant inventions
and practical skill, developed here the modern
iron blast-furnace and rolling-mill, and intro-
duced and perfected the Bessemer process and
other improvements in the manufacture of steel,
Mr. Fritz contributed mightily to the chief de-
partments of that industrial progress which
characterized the Nineteenth Century.

Proud of his great achievements, we cannot
but rejoice over his long and fruitful life, crowned
with a peaceful death; but our praise and thanks
are mingled with sorrow, as we recall the kindly
face which we shall see no more on earth, and
the loyal friendship and spontaneous good-will
which led the love of his generation, and the
reverence of the generation which followed, to
regard him universally as "Uncle John Fritz."



CADWALADER, John,

Lawyer, Usefnl Citizen.

A member of the Philadelphia bar since
1864, John Cadwalader in professional and
social life enjoys a reputation fairly earned
antl one not depending on the fame of his
distinguished ancestors. Since 1697 the
Cadwalader name has been familiar in
Pennsylvania history, and in every genera-
tion men of eminence in civil life, the pro-
fessions, and high in military rank, have
contributed to the glory of their State and
to the honor of the family name. Wealth,
honors and position have been freely show-
ered upon them and in the stirring scenes



that attend the birth of a nation all this
wealth and prestige was employed to estab-
lish its right to exist free and independent.
Great as was its early fame the family in
succeeding generations have proved no less
worthy of the name they bear.

John Cadwalader, of Philadelphia, is of
the sixth American generation of a family
founded by John Cadwalader, of Wales,
who came to Pennsylvania in 1697. He
was born in county Merioneth, Wales, about
1677, and at the age of twenty years came
to this country, bearing testimony from the
Friends of Pembrokeshire that they had
known him since his thirteenth year and
that he "hath the reputation of an apt
scholar and hath attained to as good a degree
of learning as any at school." Furthermore
they gave testimony that ""his demeanor has
been sober and innocent." The young man
settled on the "Welsh Tract," near Phila-
delphia, and on December 26, 1699, married
Martha Jones, daughter of Dr. Edward
Jones, who came from Wales with the first
immigrants from that country in 1682. Dr.
Jones married Mary Wynne, daughter of
Thomas Wynne, a physician who came with
William Penn on the "Welcome." After
his marriage, John Cadwalader settled in
Philadelphia, where he first was an in-
structor, later became a merchant, was
elected a member of the connnon council in
1718, and in 1729 a member of the General
Assembly. He died July 23, 1734, leaving
a son Thomas to perpetuate the family
name — the only son to survive childhood.

Thomas Cadwalader became a noted phy-
sician, obtaining his professional education
largely in England. He practiced first in
Philadelphia, then went to live at Trenton,
Xew Jersey, where in 1746 he became the
first burgess under the charter granted by
Governor Belcher, of Xew Jersey. In 1750
he returned to Philadelphia and there rose
to eminence in his profession, served in
many positions of honor and trust. He was
an ardent patriot, and lived an honorable,
useftd life that terminated November 14,



720



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



1779, at the age of seventy-two years, at
his farm "Greenwood," about one mile
from Trenton, New Jersey. He is known
in history as Dr. Thomas Cadwalader, the
"Councillor," having served with Chew and
Mifflin as a member of the Provincial Coun-
cil from November 2, 1755, until the Revo-
lution. He also served as a member of
Philadelphia common council, 1751 until
1774. He was one of the original incor-
porators of the Philadelphia Library Com-
pany, founded in 1731, and was a director
in the years I73i-i732-i733-i739-i752-
1769- 1 773- 1 774. He married, June 18,
1738, Hannah, daughter of Thomas Lam-
bert, of New Jersey. She died in Philadel-
phia, in 1786, aged seventy- four years, and
was buried in Friends' burying ground at
Fifth and Arch streets; Dr. Thomas Cad-
walader was buried in Friends' burying
ground in Trenton, New Jersey, in which
city he had founded a public library. His
daughters married distinguished men of
tlieir day, except the youngest, Elizabeth,
one of the flower girls at Washington's re-
ception in Trenton, in 1789, vi'ho died un-
married ten years after that event, aged
twenty-nine years. His sons — John, of
further mention, and Lambert — both at-
tained distinction in business, military and
official life.

General John Cadwalader, eldest son of
Dr. Thomas, the Councillor, was a merchant
of Philadelphia in company with his brother,
the firm being known as John & Lambert
Cadwalader. In 1771 he erected a large
double house in Second street, below Spruce,
with gardens extending to Third street. At
the outbreak of the Revolution he was cap-
tain of the company of the Philadelphia, an
organization familiarly known as the "Silk
Stocking Corps," many members of which
later became officers of the Continental
Line. He was a member of the Committee
of Safety, colonel of a city battalion, and
brigadier-general in command of Pennsyl-
vania troops. He led one of the divisions
of Washington's army that crossed the Del-



aware, December 27, 1776, remaining on
the Jersey side, fought at Princeton, Janu-
ai'y 3> ^777^ and won from General Wash-
ington the encomium: "A man of ability, a
good disciplinarian, firm in his principles
and of intrepid bravery." He declined in
1777 the appointment of brigadier-general,
and a later appointment by Congress of
brigadier-general of cavalry of the United
States, believing the war practically over
and preferring to remain in command of
Pennsylvania troops. Later, at Washing-
ton's request, he organized the militia of the
Eastern Shore of Maryland, joined the
army under Washington, fought at Brandy-
wine and Germantown as a volunteer, and
performed valiant service at the battle of
Monmouth, June 28, 1778. Soon after-
ward he fought a duel with General Con-
way, whom Washington characterized as a
"dangerous incendiary." General Cadwala-
der was uninjured, but wounded his ad-
versary. In 1779 he succeeded his honored
father as trustee of the University of Penn-
sylvania, and returned to his home in Mary-
land, becoming a member of the Assembly
of that State. He died at Shrewsbury, Kent
county, Maryland, February 10, 1786, just
past his forty-fourth birthday. General
John Cadwalader married (first) Elizabeth,
daughter of Edward Lloyd, of Wye House,
Talbot county, Maryland, (second) Wil-
liamina, daughter of Dr. Phineas Bond, of
Philadelphia, and granddaughter of John
Moore, judge of the Admiralty in Pennsyl-
vania. His daughters by both wives mar-
ried men of distinction and rank.

General Thomas Cadwalader, only son
of General John Cadwalader to survive
infancy, was a child of the second wife,
Williamina Bond. His father, a man of
great wealth, gave him every advantage of
education, and in 1795, he graduated A. B.,
University of Pennsylvania. He then
studied law, was admitted to the bar, but
becoming trustee of the Penn and other
large estates he withdrew from active prac-
tice. In 1799 he served with the cavalry



721



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



troops sent out to quell an insurrection in
Pennsylvania, which grew out of resistance
to the enforcement of a law levying a tax
to defray the charges of the French War.
He was a lieutenant colonel of cavalry in
the War of 1812, was also in command of
the "advanced light brigade," and later
major-general, First Division, Pennsylvania
Militia. He was solicited by President
Monroe to accept the diplomatic appoint-
ment of Minister to England, but declined
that and other civic positions. He was ap-
pointed with General Scott and Colonel
(afterwards President) Taylor in 1826 to
revise the tactics of the United States
Army. He was the author of numerous
articles in various journals, and his man-
sion at Ninth and Arch streets, Philadel-
phia, was the resort of the most accom-
plished scholars of the country.

He married, June 25, 1804, Mary, daugh-
ter of Colonel Clement Biddle, Assistant
Quartermaster-General of the Revolutionary
army from Pennsylvania, and United States
Marshal. General Cadwalader died Octo-
ber 31, 1841, leaving five sons — John, of
whom further; George, brevetted major-
general in the United States regular army
for gallant conduct at Chapultepec, Mexico,
and major-general of volunteers for service
during the Civil War, a large landowner
and man of affairs, died in Philadelphia,
February 3, 1879; Thomas; Henry, an
officer in United States navy ; and William.

Judge John Cadwalader, the third in
direct line to bear the name, was the eldest
son of General Thomas and Mary (Biddle)
Cadwalader. He was born in Philadelphia,
April I, 1805, died January 26, 1879. He
was a graduate of University of Pennsyl-
vania, A. B., class of 1821. When sixteen
years of age he studied law, and before
arriving at legal age, was admitted to the
Philadelphia bar, September 20, 1825. He
soon after his admission became solicitor
for the Rank of the United States, and soon
became conspicuous even among the bril-
liant men of that day who composed the



Philadelphia bar. He was retained by the
government in the famous Blackburne
"Cloth Cases," and with Walter Jones and
Daniel Webster represented the complain-
ants in the Girard Will Case. When twenty-
eight years old he was admitted to the Su-
preme Court of the United States, in 1834.
From 1833-1853 he was vice-provost of the
Philadelphia Law Academy. In 1844 he
commanded a well-known company of
Philadelphia militia that served during the
riots and disturbances of that year. He
was active in securing the consolidation of
the several districts of which Philadelphia
was formerly composed, and in 1854 was
elected to Congress after a hotly contested
canvass in the Fifth District, then com-
posed of Montgomery county and Kensing-
ton. He served with honor, but declined
renomination. In 1858 he was appointed
by President Buchanan to succeed Judge
John K. Kane, deceased, as Judge of the
United States District Court for Eastern
Pennsylvania. This honorable position he
held until his death, a period of twenty-one
years. During the Civil War the jurisdic-
tion of the court was greatly extended, and
afterwards by the Internal Revenue Acts
and the Bankrupt Law. In 1870 the Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania conferred upon
Judge Cadwalader the honorary degree of
LL. D. He was a member of the Amer-
ican Philosophical Society, elected in 1867;
and a Democrat in politics.

He married (first) January 26, 1879,
Mary, daughter of Horace and Elizabeth
(Cox) Binney, (second) Henrietta Maria,
widow of Bloomfield Mcllvaine, and daugh-
ter of Charles N. Bancker, an eminent mer-
chant of Philadelphia. Children : Mary
Binney, married William Henry Rawle:
Elizabeth Binney, married George Harrison
Hare. Children by second wife: Sarah
Bancker ; Frances, deceased ; Thomas, died
in childhood ; Charles Evert, graduate of
LTniversity of Pennsj'lvania, A. B. and A.
M. ; enlisted in 1861 in First City Troop,
afterwards was first lieutenant, 6th Regi-



I





^/tt /■^;2^^s^6>zM^



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



ment Pennsylvania Cavalry, attaining the
rank of lieutenant-colonel on the staff of
General Meade ; Anne, married Rev. Henry
J. Rowland; John, of whom further;
George, died young.

John, son of Judge John and Henrietta
Maria (Bancker) Cadwalader, was born in
Philadelphia, June 27, 1843, ^"d has passed
his life principally in the city of his birth.
He prepared for college in the city schools,
entered the University of Pennsylvania,
graduated A. B., class of 1862, received
A. I\I. in course in 1865; received the de-
gree of LL. D. in 1912, and is a trustee of
the University of Pennsylvania. He was
admitted to the Philadelphia bar in 1864,
and has from that time been actively con-
nected with the legal profession, practicing
in all State and Federal courts of the dis-
trict. He has acquired large financial inter-
ests, and is identified with many Philadel-
phia institutions, philanthropic, patriotic and
social, and from 1889 to 1897 was president
of the Trust Company of North America.
He is president of the Philadelphia and
Baltimore Steamboat Company; manager
and president of Philadelphia Institution
for the Blind; served as school director,
1875-1885 ; was collector of the Port of
Philadelphia, 1885-1889, appointed by Pres-
ident Cleveland ; was jury commissioner.
United States Circuit Court; and in all
things honorable, upright and honored.
Through the distinguished service of his
ancestors he gains admission to the patriotic
orders, and is president-general of the So-
ciety of the War of 1812, and belongs to
Pennsylvania Society, Sons of the Revolu-
tion. He is also a member of the Historical
Society of Pennsylvania, the American
Philosophical Society, and vice-president of
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila-
delphia, serving as a member of the council.
In political faith he is a Democrat. His
clubs are the Metropolitan of Washington,
the University of Philadelphia, of which he
has been president since 1896; the Ritten-
house, Art. Penn and Philadelphia Country.



He married Mary Helen, daughter of
Joshua Francis Fisher, and a descendant
of Logan Fisher; children: Sophia, Mary
Helen, John, Thomas Francis. The family
home is No. 1519 Locust street, Philadel-
phia.



JOHNSON, Frederick Charles,

Physician, Jonrnalist, Litteratenr.

The subject of this sketch, though ac-
tively interested in medical science, attained
eminence as a journalist. He was of the
sixth generation of his family in this coun-
try. Thomas, Robert and William Johnson
were the progenitors of the American
branch.

Robert, who, April 3, 1655, deeded land
to his kinsman Thomas (supra), was the an-
cestor of those eminent educators and
clergymen of the Church of England and
United States : Rev. Samuel Johnson, S.
T. D., first president of King's College,
New York, 1754-63; and Rev. William
Samuel Johnson, LL. D., first president of
Columbia (formerly King's) College, 1792-
1800, and member of the Continental Con-
gress, 1784, etc. Thomas came from Eng-
land to New England with the Puritan
immigration in a company headed by Eze-
kiel Rogers.

William Johnson came from England
about 1660, settled at New Haven, Con-
necticut, and ten years later became one
of the proprietors of Wallingford, and one
of the signers of the compact. He married,
in 1664, Sarah, daughter of John and Jane
(Woolen) Hall, and died in 1716, his will
being recorded in New Haven. They had
thirteen children.

Rev. Jacob Johnson, grandson of Wil-
liam and Sarah (Hall ) Johnson, was born
April 7, 1713, in Wallingford, and died on
March 15, 1797, in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsyl-
vania. His record of public service was
notable. He was a sergeant in the Walling-
ford Train Band ; deputy in the general
court in 1732-33-36; graduate of Yale; pas-



723



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



tor of Congregational church, Groton, Con-
necticut, from 1749 to 1772; first pastor of
Wilkes-Barre Congregational (afterward
Presbyterian) Church from 1772 to 1797.
He made missionary excursions to the Six
Nations, and preached to the Indians in
their own tongue. He wrote the articles of
capitulation following the destruction of the
Wyoming Valley settlements by the British
and Indians in 1778, and was a sturdy and
selfsacrificing defender of the Connecticut
title throughout the protracted land contest
in the Wyoming Valley. Several years be-
fore the revolution, at a public banquet dur-
ing the treaty conference, he was called
upon for an address, and made this pro-
phetic response, matching the spirit of the
famous words of Patrick Henry in Vir-
ginia : "I drink to the health of George III.
of Great Britain, comprehending New Eng-
land and all the British colonies in North
America, and I mean to drink such a health
as long as His Royal Majesty shall govern
the British and American subjects accord-
ing to the great charter of English liberty,
and so long as he hears the prayers of his
American subjects. But in case His Brit-
ish Majesty (which God in great mercy
prevent) should proceed contrary to char-
ter rights and privileges, and govern us with
a rod of iron and the mouth of cannons.
then I should consider it my indispensable
duty to join my countrymen in forming a
new empire in America." Rev. Jacob
Johnson married, at North Groton, Con-
necticut, Mary, a daughter of Captain
Nathaniel and Mary (Williams) Giddings,
of Preston, and they had a number of chil-
dren. He was an extensive land and slave
owner, and as attested by the foregoing was
a man prominent in large affairs.

One of the sons of Jacob Johnson was
Jehoida Pitt Johnson. The latter espoused
the Connecticut side in the Yankee-Penna-
mite struggle. He, with a hundred others,
was arrested in Wilkes-Barre by the Penna-
mites on the charge of "treason," and sent
to jail. He had a large part in the public



affairs of the community. He married Han-
nah Frazer, a relative of Sir Simon Frazer,
the Scottish chieftain, known in history as
Lord Lovat. Her father served with the
British against the French before the Amer-
ican Revolution, was wounded at Quebec,
where he was a sergeant under Wolfe, and
was in Colonel Obadiah Gore's regiment of
Continentals during the Revolutionary War.
Wesley, son of Jehoida and Hannah
(Frazer) Johnson, was educated for the
law, and had attained distinction in practice
when he abandoned it for a more peaceful
mode of life than that of continual litiga-
tion. He was one of the originators and
leaders in the Wyoming Centennial Cele-
bration of 1878; was secretary of the Wy-
oming Commemorative Association from its
inception to the day of his death, and the
"Memorial Volume." compiled by him, is
one of the standard works among the annals
of Wyoming. He married (first) Cynthia
Henrietta, daughter of David Sands and
Mary (Tuttle) Green, and (second) Fran-
ces Wilson, widow of Frederick McAlpine.
Dr. Frederick Charles Johnson, son of
Wesley and Cynthia Henrietta (Green)
Johnson, was born in Marquette, Green
Lake county, Wisconsin, on March 2, 1853.
and died at his home at Orchard Knob
Farm, Dallas, Luzerne county, Pennsyl-
vania, on March 5, 1913. His earlier educa-
tion was secured in the public schools of
Wilkes-Barre, and returning to his native
State. Wisconsin, he took a partial course in
Ripon College, with the class of 1873. Re-
turning to Wilkes-Barre in 1871, he had ten
years of business training, during which
time he developed his taste for newspaper
work, contributing to the local papers, and
undertaking special correspondence from
the coal regions for the "Chicago Tribune."
One of these years he spent in Chicago, on
"The Tribune" staff.

He was graduated with the degree of

Doctor of Medicine from the University of

Pennsylvania, class of 1883, and following

graduation obtained appointment on exami-

24



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



nation as resident pliysician in Wilkes-
Barre City Hospital. It was while attached
as stated that he purchased, with the late Jo-
seph C. Powell, the "Wilkes-Barre Record,"
then an old established newspaper, and then,
as since, a power for good in the community
and in the newspaper world. At the time
he became a joint owner, the paper had been
faring precariously, and Dr. Johnson, with
an enthusiasm born of his newspaper in-



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