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Bv KIMON



No. 290.




By KIM ON



No. 291.



SYRACUSAN MEDALLIONS-ENLARGED TWO DL^METERS.



OF THE

UNIVERSITY



GREEK COINS

AND THEIR PARENT CITIES

By JOHN WARD, F.S.A.

Author of " Pyramids and Progress "
"The Sacred Beetle," Etc.

ACCOMPANIED BY A CATALOGUE OF THE AUTHORS COLLECTION
By G. F. hill, M.A., of the British museum

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS



WHEREER WE TKEAU, TIS HAUNTED HOLY GROUND,
NO EARTH OF THINE IS LOST IN VULGAR MOULD,
BUT ONE VAST REALM OF WONDER SPREADS AROUND
AND ALL THE MUSES' TALES SEEM TRULY TOLD.

BVKON.




LONDON
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREP:T

1902



SATHER






KicHAiii) Clay and Sons, Limited,

LONDON AND BUNOAY.




KitdM iiiK Picture by IIenbiktta Ram, 1000,



We shall not toot- vjton his tike again.

THE MARQUIS OF DUFFERIN AND AVA.

DiKB Kebiuahy, 11102.



TO



THE MAEQUIS OF DUFFEEIN and AYA

P.C, K.P., G.C.B., G.C.S.L, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E.,
D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S.,

WITH DEEP EESPECT



119GU9



CHEEK COINS AND THEIK
PARENT CITIES

IN TWO PAETS
CONTENTS

PAGE

IxTRODrcTORY CHAPTER xiii-xxvii

The Old Greeks as Pioneers of Trade— Their Artistic and Literary Taste— Survival of
Hellenic Types.

PAET FIRST

CATALOGUE OF ANCIENT GREEK COINS

Spain and Gacl 1

Italy 1-20

Sicily 21-55

Makkdon, Paionia 57-64

Thrace 64-67

Thessaly 68-70

Illyris, Epeiros, Akarnania, Aitolia 70-74

lokris, pliokis, boiotia 74-76

EuRoiA, Attika, Megaris, Aioina 77-81

KoRiNTHiA, Peloponnese 81-88

Krete, Kyklades, Melos 89-93

PoNTOs, Paphlagonia, Bithynia, My.sia, Troas 95-103

AioLis, Lesbos, Ionia 103-110

Karia, Rhodos, Lydia, Lykia 110-116

Pamphylia, Kilikia, Kappadokia 117-122

Kypros, Syria, Babylonia 122-135

PpR.siA, Baktria, India 135 142

Egypt 142-146

Kyrenaika 146 148

Libya, Karth.aoo 148-150

Supplement 151-154

( vii )



viii CONTENTS



PART SECOND

IMAGINARY RAMBLES IN HELLENIC LANDS



CHAPTER I.

PAGE

Magna Graecia. Part 1 157

(Spain — Gaul) — Cumae — Neapolis — Capua — Roman Campania — Paestum — Velia.



CHAPTER II.

Magna Graecia. Part II. — Lucania, Calabria, Bruttium 169

Taranto — Heraclea — Metaponto — Sybaris — Tliurium.

CHAPTER III.

Magna Graecia. Part III. — In the Bruttian District 179

Croton (Cotrone) — Terina — Vibo— Caulonia — Locri — Scylla — Reggio.

CHAPTER IV.

The Island of Sicily. Part 1 189

Messina — Taormina — Naxos — Aci Reale — The Cyclops — Catania — Etna — Centoripa —
Lentini.

CHAPTER V.

The Island of Sicily. Part II 203

Syracuse — Ortygia — Cathedral — Fort Euryalus — Latomiae, &c.

CHAPTER VI.

The Island of Sicily. Part III 217

Camarina — Gela — Girgenti (Akragas) — Himera — Selinus — Segesta — Panormus — Africa —
Carthage — Numidia, &c.

CHAPTER VII.

Hellenic Colonies of Turkey in Europe and their vicinity 239

Byzantium — The Dardanelles — Thrace — Paeonia — Macedonia — Thessaly — Epirus —
Corcj'ra — Acarnania — Aetolia.

CHAPTER VIII.

Excursions in Old Greece. No. 1 259

Euboea (Negropont) — Sunium — The Piraeus — Athens.

CHAPTER IX.

Excursions in Old Greece. No. II 267

The Sacred Way — Eleusis — Megara — Daphne.



CONTENT!^ ix



CHAPTER X.

I'AdK

Excursions in Old Greece. No. Ill 277

Elensis to Boeotia by Elcutlierao- 'I'anagra — Thebes — Chaeroncia — I'lioci.s — Delphi —
Locris — Parnassus.

CHAPTER XI.

Fro.m Attk'.v to the Peloponnesus by the Isthmus ok Corinth 285

The Ishuul of Aegina — Corinth — Sicyon — Phlins.

CHAl'TER XII.

In the Pelotonnese. Part I '29.S

Patras — Olynipia ami its Discovei-y — Elis — The Olj'inpic Games.

CHAPTER XIII.

In the Peloponnese. Part II 305

Bassae — Phigalia — Phenens — Phlius — Nemea — Mantinea — Megalopolis — Argos —
Epidaurus — Herniione.

CHAPTER XIV.

The Isles of Greece 315

Crete — Cnosos — Lyttos — Itanos — Rhankos — Gortj'na — Phaistos— Hierapytna — Aptera —
Cydonia — Chersonesvis — Eleiithernai, &c. — The Cyclades.

CHAPTER XV.

The Hellenes in Africa — Cyrenaica 327

Cyrene— Barce — Hesperis — ApoUonia — Teuchria — Ptolemais.

CHAPTER XVI.

AsiA'MiNOR. Part I. — Pontus, Bithynia, Mysia, Ionia, &c 337

The Enxine — Sinope — Aniisns — Amasia — Amastris — Abydos — Troas — Lesbos — Pergamon
— Smyrna — Teos— Chios — Ephesiis — Clazomenae — Calymna — Miletus, j

CHAPTER XVII.

Asia Minor. Part II. — The Mausolei'm and other Monuments of Caria 355

Halicarnassus — Cnidus — Myndus — Rhodes — Lindas — Camirus — lalysus — Sanies— Lj-cia.

CHAPTER XVIII.

Asia Minor. Part III.— The Kingdom of CroesUs — Lydia, &c 'Mu

Sardes — Lydia— Ljcia — Xanthns — Pamphylia — Perga — Cilicia — Aspendus — Tarsus —
Cappadocia.

CHAl"i'KR XIX.

Cyprus 379

Cyprus Ancient and Modern — Nicosia^^ — Larnaca — Liniassol — Paphos — Eaniagusta —
Salamis — Kyrenia, &e.

CHAPTER XX

The Seleucid Empire — Phoenicia — Armenia, &c 393

Syria — Babylon— Antioch—Seleucia— Tripoli — Tyre — Sidon — Damascus — Beyrout —
Jerusalem, &c.



CONTENTS



CHAPTER XXI.

PAGE

The Asiatic Campaigns of Alexander the Great— The Founding of Alexandria . . 409
Macedonia— Greece — Asia Minor — Syria— Egypt — Babylon — Persia — Ariana — Parthia—
Bactria — India.

CHAPTER XXII.

The Greeks in Egypt — Alexander the Great— The Ptolemies 423

Alexandria — Naucratis — The Fayum — Ptolemaic Temples — Cleopatra VII. — Egypt
under the Romans — Under British Guidance.

Notes 439-450

Indices — No. I. General Index 451-454

,, ,, II. Personal Names and Epithets 455-458

,, ,, HI. Index to Imaginary Rambles 459-464




Unknown Portrait.

Bronze from Heroulaneum. (Naples Jluseum.)



GREEK COINS AND THEIR
PARENT CITIES

IN TWO PAKTS
FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS

INTRODUCTION

STRAcrsAX Medallioxs, Enlarged Frontispiece

The Python, By Lord Leighton p. xiii

A Visit to Aesculapius To face xx

The Maid of Athens ,, xxii

Lord Byron ,, xxvi

PART FIRST

ANCIENT GREEK COINS

Portrait, Dr. B. V. Head Tofaccp. xxxiv

Map of ^L\gna Graecia, &c ,, 1

Autotype Plate I. — Coins of Magna Graecia ,, 6

II ,, 12

TIL „ Sicily „ 21

IV. „ ,, „ 28

V. „ ,, „ 32

VI. ,, Syrakuse ,, 36

VII. ,, „ ,, 44

VIIL ,, „ ,, 48

Map of Greece and Archipelago u 56

Autoty'pe Pl.\te IX. — Coins of Makedon >. 58

X. ,, Makedon, Thrace, &c ,, 62

XL ,, Thessalia, Epeiros, &c ,, 70

XII. ,, BoEOTiA, Attica, &c ,. 76

XIII. ,, Elis, &c ,, 83

XIV. ,, Arkadia, Krete, &c ,, 88

Map of Asia Minor x 94

./iuTOTYPE Plate XV. — Coi.vs of Mysia, Tro.vs, &c -. 98

,, ,, XVI. ,, Lesbos, Ionia, &c ,, 104

„ ,, XVII. ,, Karia, Rhodes, Lydia, &c ,, 114

„ XVIIL „ KiLiKiA, Syria ,, 119

( xi )



xu



FULL-PA GE ILL USTBA TIONS



Autotype Plate XIX.— Coins of Syria To face p. 124

XX. ,, Syria ,, 130

XXI. ,, Baktria ,, 136

,, ,, XXII. ,, Egypt, Kyrene ,, 1+4

Monograms ox Coins • >> 155



PART SECOND



IMAGINARY RAMBLES IN HELLENIC LANDS

Portraits— Archytas, Hannibal, Aesop, Pindar To face p. 188

.... ,, 214

.... ,, 263

.... ,, 264

.... „ 265

.... „ 266

.... ,, 272

.... „ 276

.... „ 336

„ 378

.... „ 410

.... „ 424

,, 426



SiMONiDEs, Archimedes, Theocritus, Moschus . .

Solon, Aristophanes, Pericles, Aspasia

Socrates, Xenophon, Plato, Speusippus

Antisthenes, Sophocles, Alcibiades, Thucydides
Demosthenes, Aeschines, Aristotle, Menander .

Snapshots at Megara

Portr.\its — Aeschylus, Euripides, Hesiod, Themistocles . .
,, Pythagoras, Epicurus, C.\rne.\des, Galen ....

,, Hippocrates, Anacreon, Aratus, Zeno (of Cyprus)

Map of Alexander's Campaigns

,, Alexandria

Portraits of Alexander



[For Illustrations in Text, see p. xxvii. )




Head from Per'samon.



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER

THE OLD (;REE1vS AS PIONEERS OF TRADE

Til El H ARTISTIC AND LITERARY TASTE

SURVIVAL OF HELLENIC TYPES




IXFLUEXCE OF GREEK SCULPTURE UPON MODERN ART

THE PYTHON.
By the late Lord Leicjuton, P.K.A.

THE PROPERTY OF THE NATION — PURCHASED UNDER THE ( MANTKEY HEyUEST.
EXHIIUTED IN THE TATE CALLERY, LONDON.



( xiii )




Whex the World was Yorxa." (By Sir E. J. Poynter, P.R.A.)
(Hy permission of T. McLean, Esq.)



INTRODUCTORY

" Fair Greece, sad relic of departed worth !
Immortal, though no more ; tliough fallen, great ! " — Byrok.

The Greeks of old, who gave us our Architecture, our Arts, and
our Literature, were pre-eminently the men of business of their day.
In this wonderful combination, of the Ornamental side of life with the
Practical, they have never been equalled. To these qualities they
added Statesmanship and Military skill. With all these engrossing
occupations, they seem to have found time to make their homes
beautiful, and even the decoration of their coins, the medium of
commerce, was not forgotten. And this was in the period of their
highest mental development, and at a time when their fleets held the
trade of the civilised world from East to West, from the Pillars of
Hercules to India, from the Euxine to Gyrene.

Their Golonies were trading centres carrying on extensive
business among themselves, and with their Parent Gities. These
Golonies kept pace in arts and refinement with the mother country,
and were able by their wealth to tempt philosophers, poets, sculptors,
painters, orators, and soldiers from the lands of their birth to settle
in the adopted homes of their kinsfolk.

( XV )



INTRODUCTORY




The new settlements were not
bound by old traditions as to their
coin types, and the coins of Syracuse,
Tarentum, Thurium, and others, far
eclipsed, as works of art, those of
Athens and Corinth, and their pieces
became models for imitation by the
cities of the old comitry.

Money was struck for purposes of
trade, but the Greeks were the first to
beautify coinage and ruake the pieces
of metal into works of Art.

Strange to say, however, the ear-
liest coins of the Greeks were of rude
archaic style. The element of beauty
was introduced about the same time
that their architecture suddenly came
to the wonderful perfection of the days
of Pericles, Beside the remains of
the incomparable Parthenon, there has
lately been excavated the ruins of the

(By pemiission o^fth^artist^MnE Barclay, and of oldcr Tcmple (uot VCry mucll oldcr)

destroyed by the Persians. The sculp-
ture of this temple was of rude archaic work. In the same manner
the "Period of the High Art" of the coins came suddenly, and
showed itself simultaneously at Hellenic places widely apart.

We nowadays emulate the deeds of the emigrating Greeks in
sending out new colonies and on a vast scale — but we make our
pieces of money ugly and inartistic. With the glorious collection of
Hellenic coins at our British Museum, w^hich should be our models,
we produce (in another Government Department in London) a
coinage that becomes more unattractive every year ! If the Master
of the Mint would request his designers to study the treasures of
the Coin Eoom of the British Museum some improvement might
result. They would see how much they are behind the times
of Ancient Greece.






Peasants of Capri.
Descendants of Greek colonists.



PLEASURES OF GRECIAN TRAVEL



xvii



Hkllexr' coins afionl a foscinating study, interesting in sevenil
leinaikable features beyond any medallic art the world has ever seen.
1 was first attracted to them l\v tlieir l)eauty and acquired a few
pieces as specimens of an art, ahnost ecpial in merit to fine Greek
sculpture, although more of the character of gem-engraving.

As I found that these, my first, treasures, had their origin in
Sicily and Southern Italy. T thounht I should like to see the lands
that had produced such beautiful works, and I set out to visit them.
The journey was successful as a delightful pilgrimage to ancient
shrines, but I found that the old Greek coins were not now to be seen
in any numbers in the lands of their origin, and that our own British
Museum possessed a far finer collection than any to be found else-
where. This led me subsequently to study Greek coins nearer home,
and after some years of patient waiting to form gradually a ftiirly
good collection of my own.

Dr. Barclay Vincent Head, through the study of his monumental
work Historia Numorwn, was my instructor. That delightful book, and
frequent associations with its courteous
author, taught me all I desired to know,
and led me gradually to devote my atten-
tion to the coinage of other Hellenic
lands, and finally to visit Greece itself.

I thus derived increased pleasure
from my coins through visits to their
" parent cities," and during my travels
made important additions to the little
collection. So when I was told by
friends at the British Museum that I
could do a useful work by publishing
a Descriptive Catalogue of my coins, I
willino-lv consented to do so. Mr. G. F.
Hill, of the British Museum, kindly
undertook the arduous labour of com-
piling the Catalogue, a task which he
has performed with much care and skill,
deserving my warmest thanks, the arrangement being that of the
British Museum and of the Historia Numomm. Mr. Hill also supplies
elaborate Greek and other Indices for the use of numismatists.

b




Classk' Fita liK w i Hi a .\1a>k kko.m

Tana(;ka.

(Hritish Miiseinii.)



^~f



XVlll



INTRODUCTORY




Gold Cups from Vaphio, Sparta.

(Athens Museum.)



As a rule numismatists do not concern themselves so much about
the topography of the countries where the coins were produced as
about the coins themselves. I have therefore supplied three sketch-
maps which I hope
may add to the use-
fulness of the volume
by showing the prin-
cipal localities, in
Magna GtRaecia, An-
cient Hellas, Asia
Minor, and the
Islands.

As the work pro-
gressed I was more
and more impressed
by the idea that no
book had been pub-
lished connecting ancient Greek coins with the interesting localities
which had produced them. I therefore determined to embody in the
volume notes of a series of Imaginary Rambles to the ancient sites
and cities of the Hellenic race ; commencing with the best known
western colonies and gradually work-
ing eastward. Of those places that
I had personally visited I had, in some
cases, my own sketches and photo-
graphs for illustrations. For the
more remote regions I collected what
interesting information and material
for illustrations were obtainable.

Short historical notices have
I)een inserted where they seemed to
1)6 appropriate to the coins them-
selves, to the localities from which
they come, or to the devices which
they bear, with references to the
great men of their time.




The coins of the old states of
Greece, Athens, Corinth, Thebes,



Relief ix Bronze on a Mirror Case
FROM Corinth.

(British Museum.)



SPECIMENS OF ANCIENT ART, PORTBAITS OF PHILOSOPHERS




Tekkacotta Fkjikk KKCI.M
Tanagra.

(British Muscuiu.)



are comparatively uninteresting, and
there seems little to say aljout them
(rom an artistic point of view. And us
to their cities there is not much left to
depict, the hand of time having l)een heavy
on them. The Parthenon is a confused
heap of ruins, Corinth lias disappeared
entirely, and of Boeotia, no traces of its
towns are left. But to pass them l)y with-
out pictorial recognition would be unfair.

At Corinth, Sparta, and Boeotia,
though no ruins exist, wonderful specimens
of ancient art have been turned up by the
spade. The celebrated gold cups of Vaphio
were thus discovered — and disclose an art
of high merit, possibly of a date long before
the time of coins.

The sculptures of the Parthenon
are nearly all in the British Museum. Lord Elgin found the
ruined fane of Athene in danger of being used for building pur-
poses or being burnt for lime. He no doubt saved the greater
part of these sculptures from destruction by pur-
chasing them and carrying them off to England :
these glorious works of Pheidia.s and his school
are too well-known to need illustration here.^



But we can conjure up the ancient Makers
of Athens, by studying the many portraits
that exist of the poets, orators, philosophers,
dramatists and statesmen of the palmy days
of the great city. No portraits are found in
Greece, all were^carried off to Rome to adorn the
palaces of the rich dilettanti of two thousand
years ago ; kind Nature in overwhelming Pompeii
and Herculaneum preserved many of these for
us. When Rome was destroyed, thousands of
works of art must have perished, the finest
the world ever produced.

^ Note J — Shield of Athene with portrait of Pheidias.




Lady with Sunshauk

FROM TANAtiRA,
(British Museum.)

h 2



XX



INTRODUCTORY



Unfortunately of many of the greatest heroes and literary men
of Greece no memorial remains. I have engraved about fifty of the
best specimens of these antique busts that can be identified. Hundreds
of fine Greek heads exist in the various museums, labelled " Unknown
Portrait," and possibly some of the attributions of those I have en-
graved, are doubtful ; still they are
all interesting as memorials of the
educated men of the time.

Of the ordinary mortals of two
thousand years ago, an interesting
collection of portraits was found,
some twenty years ago, in the an-
cient cemetery of Tanagra, a small
Boeotian town. These seem to have
been the household o-ods of the de-
parted, and portray the costume and
everyday life of the simple folk of
about 300 B.C., or earlier.

Thus we have the portraits of
philosophers, poets, and warriors of
old Greece on the one hand, and
of the well-to-do citizens of a country
town, on the other, preserved for
our study. A little group of
girls in terracotta resembling these,
is engraved on p. 168 ; it wa,s
found at Capua and possibly sup-
plied the accomplished President
of our Eoyal Academy with the idea for one of his best pictures,
which is engraved at the head of this chapter. Of the Tanagra
figures those in ordinary costume are the most striking. The two
ladies gossiping on a sofa (page 280), and the one enjoying an
afternoon nap, those wearing sunshades, another hooded for an out-
door walk, and the Imllet-dancer, are not very difi'erent in their attire
from the costumes of the present day, while some of them seem to be
portraits of noted actresses of their time.

The marbles and bronzes of the Greek sculptors were the finest
the world has ever seen ; the bronzes have nearly all disappeared, the




Girls of CAriii. (Uv Ulnner.)
(Luxembourg, Paris.




_; «



f. <■ "s t: 5 p



P5






MODEEN ART FOUNDED OX THAT (fF GUEErE



XXI



metal being too tempting a prize for barbmian liuides, and even for
invaders from "civilised" nations. But the few antifjuc bronze
works we have (or marble ones copied from the originals in 1>ronze)
liavc called forth the emulation of modern artists.

Of such one of the most successful was the Athlete .stiiug(;linu
WITH A Python, of the lamented Lokd Leighton, which is perhaps
equal to an ancient work.

( )f ancient painting by such as Apelles and Zeuxis no specimens




Grecian' Coast Scenery — Cape Ducato, Corfu (Corcyra).



are preserved ; all have perished. But no doubt the painting of these
renowned artists of antiquity was of equal merit to the sculpture.
Some of our modern painters have caught the classic vein.

Sir Edward Poynter, P.R.A., to whose work I have already
referred, shows the thoroughness of his classic knowledge in his
picture, "A Visit to Aesculapius." It was painted in 1880, ten
years before the discoveries at Epidaurus, and yet one would fancy
that the artist had seen the enclosure of the ancient physician's
dwelling outside the great temple as now uncovered. The head of
Asklepios (as I prefer to call him) is like his authentic portrait
recently found there, his attitude, and the dog under the seat, are
all as depicted on one of my coins of Epidaurus. Aphrodite and
her attendant maidens are not, however, to be found nowadays any-
where l)ut in the lovely ideals of their author's imagination !



INTRODUCTORY



This undoubtedly (as Lord Leigh-
ton once remarked to me) is the finest
picture of its class of our time. For-
tunately it is the possession of the
British nation (thanks to the Chantrey
Bequest), and at last fittingly shown
in the Tate Gallery, London.

The Greeks were also masters of
decoration, and that, too, at a very
early period. Mr. Arthur Evans has
discovered fresco paintings (ornament
and figure, &c.) on the walls of the
Palace of Minos, in Crete. In Greece
itself all traces of internal decoration
have perished. But in Rome, in
Raphael's time, remains of wall-paint-
ing were discovered on the ceiling of
an Imperial palace, which was doubt-
less the work of Greek artists. These
designs were copied by Raphael in
the decoration of the Stanze and
Loo-gie of the Vatican.
In modern times, ornament of a similar style was found at the
Palace of the Caesars. Pompeii and Herculaneum have shown us
decoration, also by Greek artists, but of rather a declining style.
Doubtless the mural adornment of the celebrated temples of old
Greece was of equal merit to their architecture. Some of the scenes
lately found at Pompeii are interesting ; one, especially so for us
numismatists, showing AisiORiNi busily engaged in weighing out the
precious metals, and in striking medals or coins (page xxvi.).




Modern Greek Types. (By Hubert.)

Natives of Southern Italy.
(Luxembourg, Paris.)



It is a notable fact that almost every spot selected for the cities
of the ancient Greeks, whether within their own native land or in
their colonies, is remarkable for its picturesque beauty. The whole of
the Coast Scenery of Greece and the Islands is extremely fine,
and rendered doubly so by the exquisite hues of the sky and sea.

We are told that the appreciation of fine scenery is quite a
modern discovery. But the Greeks, who cultivated the beautiful in
their literature and in their art, seem to have keenly appreciated




" ZaTj nov, iras a^oiri. '
THK MAID OF A I'll HNS.

PoRTKAlT FROM LiKK, ISl".'.



. [ '/>. xxii.



ANCIENT OBEEK TYPES STILL SURVIVE



xxm



landscape scenery as well, and have thus given much opportunity, by
the selection of their sites, for illustrating a work such as the
present volume.

The enjoyment of a pilgrimage through such lands is greatly
heightened when we find at unexpected places survival of classic
times. The tall, dignified carriage of the women, their regular features
and fair complexion, recall the ancient type, and in some districts the
very costumes still are found. We happen on religious festivals little
changed from those of old, though Hera or Demeter may be replaced
by the Virgin Mary, in the honours paid to their ideal of what the
best of womankind should be.

In Italy, in old Greece and in the Islands (at Easter especially,
and on other religious festivals), the peasantry, dressed in their best
costumes, and wearing jewellery handed down from mother to
daughter, still join in dances which are evident survivals of the
ancient classic celebrations. Among these assemblages one can
recognise the fair skin and fine eyes, and often the auburn tresses of the
old Hellenic race.^ Among the upper classes also I have noticed the
fair complexion and regular features of the "Maid of Athens " of to-day.
When the recently
discovered Delphic
Ode to Apollo was
performed by a so-
ciety of amateurs
at a concert in
Athens, I was
much struck Avitli
the fact, and also
remarked the num-
ber of tall hand-
some men, of evi-
dent Greek de-
scent.

This and the
fact of the Greek tongue being still the language of the country is

1 In Italy one sees much of a similar survival of Hellenic types of feature. Lonl Leighton,
who knew all these countries well, told me that the natives of tlie Island of Capn, were, he
considered, entirely Greek in origin, for when the (ireek towns of the mainland were overrun
by invaders, Capri was spared, being too poor for pillage. To this day the natives will not
intermarry with the people of the mainland. Thus their Greek element is preserved.




Modern Greece— National Dances.



INTBODUCTORY




Dancing Girl from
Tan AGRA.



extraordinary, after the vicissitudes through
which that land has passed, and the many
invasions of two thousand years, showing that the



Online LibraryJohn WardGreek coins and their parent cities → online text (page 1 of 35)