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guments often brought to prove the Great-
nefs, to me clearly demonftrates the Little-
nefs of it; namely. The thirty thoufand Let-
ters of their Alphabet. To keep an Alpha-
bet of thirty hundred Letters, could never be
reconciled to common Senfe: Since every
Alphabet aught to be as lliort, fimple, and
eafy as poffible. . No more can we reconcile
to any Degree of common Senfe, their crip-
^'pling all the. Women in the Empire, by a
filly fenfelefs AfFedration of fqueezing their
Feet, 'till.. they bear no Proportion to their
Bodies: So that the Feet of a Woman at
thirty, muft ftill be as fmall, as they would
.be naturally when four. Years old. But m

order



42 The D0CTRINE5/*

order to fee the true Meafure of their Under-
ftanding in the cleareft Light, let us look
not at Women or the Vulgar, but at the
Nobility, the wifcft the politeft Part of the
Nation. Look at the Majidarins^ the Glory
of the Empire; and fee any, every one of
them at his Meals, not deigning to ufe his
own Hands, but having his Meat put into
his Mouth, by two Servants, planted for
that Purpofe, one on his Right-hand, the
other on his Left ! O the deep Underftand-
ing of the noble Lubber that fits in the
Midft, and
""^"-Hiafy cell fidha hinmdimsr

Gapes, as the young Swallow for his Food.
Surely an Englijh Ploughman, or a Dutch
Sailor, would have too much Senfe to endure
it. If you fay. Nay, the MandarmwoulA.
not endure it, but that it is aCiiftom: I an*
i'wer, Undoubtedly it is -, but how came it
to be a Cuflom? Such a Cuftom could not
have begun, much lefs have become general,
but thro' a general and marvellous Want of
common Senfe.

V/hat their Learning is now I know not:
But notwithftanding their Eoaft of its Anti-
quity, it was certainly very low and con-
temptible in the laft Century, when they
were fo ailoniihed at the Skill of the French
Jefuits, and honoured them as almoft more
than human. And v/hatever Progrefs they

may



Original Sin. ^^

may have made fince in the Knowledge of
Aftronomy, and other curious rather than
ufeful Sciences, it is certain, they are ftill
utterly ignorant, of what it moft of all con-
cerns them to know. They know not God,
any more than the Hottcjitots : They are all
Idolaters to a Man. And fo tenacious are
they of their national ldolatr}% that even
thofe whom the French MiHionaries called
Converts, yet continued, one and all, to
worfhip Confucius^ and the Souls of their
Anceftors. It is true, that when this was
ftrongly reprefented at Ro^ne^ by an honeft
'Dominicajt who came from thence, a Bull
was iffued out and fent over into Chinas for-
bidding them to do it any longer. But the
good Fathers kept it private among them-
felves, faying, The Chinefe were not able to
bear it.

Such is their Religion with Refpedl to
God. But are they not eminent for all fe-
cial Virtues, all that have Place between
Man and Man ? Yes, according to the Ac-
counts which fome have given. According
to thefe, they are the Glory of Mankind,
and may be a Pattern to all Europe, But
have not we fome Reafon to doubt, if thefe
Accounts are true ? Are Pride and Lazinefs
good Ingredients of fecial Virtue ? And can
all Europe equal either the Lazinefs or Pride
of i^z Cljimfe Nobiiit\^ and Gentry? Who

are



44 72^ Doctrine of

arc either too ftately'iir too indolent, even to
put "the Meat into their own Mouths? Yet
they are not too proud ot too indolent to
o"pprcfs,"to rob, to. defraud all that fall into
their Hands: How fligrant Inftances of this
may any one find, even in the Account of
Lord jinfons Voyage? Exaftly agreeing with
the Accounts given by all our Countrymen,
who have traded in any Part of China : As
well as with the Obfervation made by a late
Writer, in his Gecgrafhical Grammar, "Trade
and Commerce, or rather Cheating and O-
ver-reaching, is the natural Bent and Genius
of the Chine/e. Gain is their God: They
prefer this to every Thing befides. A Stranger
is in great Danger of being cheated, if he
trufls to his own Judgment. And if he em-
ploy a Chinefe Broker, it is well if he does
not join with the Merchant to cheat the
Stranger.

" Their Laws oblige them to certain
Rules of Civility in their Words and Actions.
And they are naturally a fawning, cringing
Generation : But the greateft Hypocrites on
the Face of the Earth/V '-

'5^! 'Such is the boafted Virtue of thole
who 'are^^tyond all Degrees of Comparifon
the beft and' wifeft of all the Heathens in
Afttf. ' Attd'how little preferable to them ar©
thofc*tlf'fe/r^/e? Rather, how miny De-
greei^b^tieath them ?' Va;ft Numbers of thefe
- '*' ^' are



v,pjlIGINAL Sl-N. 4 J

are within, the. Borders of Mufcovy. But
how arnazingfy igtiorant ? ,How totally void
both . of civil . and facred Wifdom ! How
ihockingly favage both in their Tempers
and Manners ? Their Idolatry is of the
bafefi and vlleft Kind. They not only wor-
fhip the Work of their own Hands, but
Idols of tlie moft horrid and detellable
Forms, that Men or Devils could devile.
Equally favage (or more fo, if more can be)
as is well-known, are the Natives of Lap^
land'y and indeed of all the Countries which
have been difcovered to the North of Muf-
covy or Sweden, In Truth, the Bulk of thefe
Nations, feem to be confiderably more bar-
barous, not only than the Men near the
Cape of Good Hope^ but than many Tribes
in the brute Creation. ^ , «\<.cy;> ^ vc q

Thus have we feen, what is tneprefent
State of the Heathens, in every Part of the^
known World. And thefe ftill rnake up,
according; t^o the preceeding Calcvdation very
near Two-thirds of Mankind. Let us- now^
calmly and impartially confider, WhatMan?*>
ner of Men the Mahometans in general are^

6..; . An ingenious Writer, who a few Years
ago,, pul;>h{h'd a pompous Tranflation of the
Krirany^ takes great Pains to give us a very
favourable Opinion, both of Mahomet and
his Followers. But he cannot wafh the

Ethlopk, white. After all. Men who have

" '^' ' ■ ' but



46 The Doctrine of

but a moderate Share of Reafon, canftot
but obferve in his i&r^?;;, even as polifh'd
by Mr. Sale^ the nioft grofs and impious Ab-
fordities. To cite Particulars is not now my
Bulinefs. It may fuffice, to oblerve in gene-
ral, That human Underftanding muft be
debafed to an inconceivable Degree, in thofe
who can fwallow fuch Abfurdities, as di-
vinely revealed. And yet we know the?
Mahometans not only condemn all who can-
not fwallow them to everlafting Fire ; not
only appropriate to themfelves the Title of
Mujfulmen^ or T^rue Believers : But even a^
nathematife with the utmoft Bitternefs, and*
adjudge to eternal Deftru6lion, all their Bre-
thren of the Seft of Hali, all who contend
for a figurative Interpretation of them.

That thefe Men then have no Knov^-^
ledge or Love of God is undeniably mani-
feft, not only from their grofs, horrible
Notions of ^ Him, but from their not loving
their Brethren. But they have not always
fo weighty a Caufe, to hate and murder
one another, as Difference of Opinion, Ma-
hornet ans will butcher each other by Thouf*
ands, without fo plaufible a Plea as this.
Why is it that fuch Numbers of T^urks and
Perjians^ have ftabbed one another in cool-
Sood ? Truly, becaufe they differ in the
Manner of drejjing their Head, The Ottoman
vehemently maintains, (for he has unqueft-
- .- ionable



Original Sin.' ^

ionable T*radition on his Side) That a Mujfui^
man fhould wear a round Turbant, Whereav
the Perfian infifts upon his Liberty otCon-
fcience, and will wear it picked before. So,:
for this wonderful Reafon, when a more
plaufible one is wanting, they beat out each
others Brains from Generation to Generation,

It is not therefore ftrange, That ever
fince the Religion of Maho-met appeared in
the World, the Efpoufers of it, particular-
ly thofe who under the Tiirkijh Emperor,
have been as Wolves and Tygers to all other
Nations, rending and tearing all that fell
into their mercilefs Paws, and grinding them
with their Iron Teeth. That numberlefs
Cities are rafed from the Foundation, and
only their Name remaining. That many
Countries which were once as the Garden
of God, are now a defolate Wildernefs;
and that fo many once numerous and pow-
erful Nations are vanifh'd away from the
Earth ! Such was, and is at this Day the
Rage, the Fury, the Revenge, of thefc De-
ftroyers of Humankind !

7. Proceed we now to the Chriftian
World. But we muft not judge of Chrifti-
ans in general, from thofe who are fcattered
thro' the I'urkifi Dominions, the Armcniarfy^
Georgian^ Mengrelian Chriflians: Nor in-
deed from any others of the Greek Commu-
nion. The grofs, barbarous Ignorance, the



48 T'he Doctrine of

deep, ftupid Superftition, the blind and
bitter Zeal, and the endlefs Thirft after vain
Janghng and Strife of Words, which have
reigned for many Ages in the Greek Church,
and well nigh banifh'd True Religion from
among them ; make thefe fcarce worthy of
the Chriftian Name, and lay an infuperable
Stumbling-block before the Mahometans,

8. Perhaps thofe of the Romijh Com*
munion may fay, " What Wonder, that this
is the Cafe with Hereticks ? With thofe who
have erred from the Catholick Faith, nay,
and left the Pale of the Church?" But what
is the Cafe with them, who have not left
that Church, and who retain the Roman
Faith ftill ? Yea, with the moft zealous of
all its Patrons, .the Inhabitants of Italy ^ of
Spain and Portugal'? Wherein do they ex-
cel the Greek Church, except in Italiajiifm ^
Received by Tradition from their Heathen
Fathers, and diffufed thro* every City and
Village. They may indeed praife Cnaftity
and rail at Women, as loudly as their Fore-
father Juvenal. But what is the Moral of
all this ?

' ' Nonne pittas melius^ quod tecum pujlo dormit ?"
This, it muft be acknowledged, is the Glory
of the Romifh Church. Herein it does ex-
cel the Gr^eek,

They excel it like wife in Deifm. Per-
haps there is no Country in the World, at

leaft.



Original Sin. ^o

le^ft in: that Part of it, which bears the
Chriftian Name, wherein fo large a i'ropoi-r
tion of the Men of Education, are abfolute
Deifts, if not Atheifts, as Italy. And ii om
hence the Plague has fpread far and wide ;
thro' France in particular. So that did not
temporal Motives reftrain, no fmall Part of
the French Nobility and Gentry, would pay
no more Regard to the Chriftian Revelation,
than do the Mandarim in China,

They excel ftill more in Murder, both
private and publick. Inftances of the for-
mer abound all over Italy^ Spain and Forin-
gal. And the Frequency of (liedding Blood
has taken away all that Horror which other-
Wife might attend it. Take one Inftance of a
thoufand. An Englifh Gentleman was feme
Years ago at an Entertainment in Erefcia^
when one who was near him whifper'd a
few Words in his Ear, which he did not
well underftand. He aik'd his Hoft, ^*What
did that Gentleman mean by thefe Words?"
And was anfwer'd, " That he will murder
you. And an Italian is never worfc than
his Word in this. You have no Way but
to be before-hand with him." This he re-
jefted with Abhorrence. But his Holt, it
feems, being not of fo tender a Confcicncc
fent a Stranger to him in the Morning, who
laid, " Sir, look out of your Window. I
have done his Bufmefs. ..There he lies.
isL- D You



50 The Doctrine of

You will pleafe to give me my Pay." He
pull'd out an Handful of Money, in great
Diforder and cried, " There, take what you
will." The other replied, *' Sir, I am a
Man of Honour : I take only m.y Pay :"
Took a fmall Piece of Silver, and retired.

This was a Man of Ho?20ur among the
Chriftians of the Romifi Church ! And ma-
ny fuch are to be found all over Italy ^ whofe
Trade it is, to cut Throats ; to ftab, for
Hire, in cool Blood. They have Men of
Confcience too. Such were two of the Ca-
tholick Soldiers under the famous Duke of
Alva, who broke into the Houfe of a poor
Countryman in Flanders, butcher'd him and
his Wife w^ith five or fix Children ; and af-
ter they had finifh'd their Work, fat down,
to enioy the Fruit of their Labour. But in
the Midft of their Meal, Confcience awaked.
One of them ftarted up in great Emoti-
on, and cried out, '' O Lord! What have I
done ? As I hope for Salvation I have eaten
Flefli in Lent /"

The fame Sort of Ccnfcience undoubtedly
it was, which conftrained the late moji Chrif-
tian King, in Defiance of the moft folemn
Treaties, yea, of all Ties, divine and hu-
man, moil: gracioufly to murder fo many
Thoufands of his quiet, unrefifting Subjeds :
To order his Dragoons, wherever they
found the Proteftants worfliipping God, to

fall



Original Sin. 51

fall in upon them, Sword in Hand, with-
out any Regard to Sex or Age. It was
Cojjjaence^ no Queftion, which induced lb
many oi xi^c Dukes oi Sa^-jcy, notwithilanding
the Publick Faith engaged over and over,
to fhed the Blood of their loyal Subjedls, the
Vaudoisj like Water, to ravage their Fields
and deftroy their Cities. What but Ccnfci-
ence could move the good Cath clicks of a
neighbouring Kingdom in the lall Century,
to murder (according to their own Account)
two hundred and fifteen thoufand Proteftants
in fix Months ! A cofi:ly Sacrifice this!
What is an Hecatomb, an hundred Oxen,
to two hundred thoufand Men ? And yet
what is even this to the whole Number of
Victims who have been ofFer'd up in Europe
fince the Beginning of the Rcfcrmatic?! ?
Partly by War, partly by the Inquifition^ and
a thoufand other Methods of Romip Cruel-
ty ? No lefs within forty years, if the Com-
putation of an eminent Writer be juft, than
five and forty Millions !

Such is the Confcience, fuch the Reli-
gion of a Romijld Chriftian ! Of their luQuili-
tion (the Houfe of Mercy as it is mod unfor-
tunately called) I ihouid give fome Account,
but that it has been largely defcribed by o-
thers. Yet it may not be improper to give
a Specimen of that Mercy which they ihew
to thofe under their Care, At the AB of

D 2 Fciith,



52 ne Doctrine of

Faithy fo call'd, which was celebrated fome
Years ago, when Dr. Geddes was in Portugal^
a Prifoner, who had been confin'd nine
Years, was brought out to Execution. Look-
ing up and feeing what he had not feen for
fo long a Time, the Sun in the Midft of
Heaven, he cried out, " How can any who
fees that glorious Creature worfhip any but
the God that made it ?" The Father who
attended, immediately ordered a Gag to be
run thro' his Lip, that he might fpeak
no more.

See the Chriftians, who have received all
the Advantages of Education, all the Helps
of antient and modern Learning! " Nay, but
we have ftill greater Helps than them : We
who are reform d from the Errors of Popery :
We who proteji againft all thofe novel Cor-
ruptions, with which the Church of Ro?ne
has polluted antient Chriftianity. The Enor-
mities therefore of Popijh Countries, are not
to be charged upon us : We are Protejiants^
and have nothing to do with the Vices and
Villanies of Romijh Nations."

9. Have we not? Arc Pr(?^5/?^;7/ Nations
nothing concerned in thofe melancholly Re-
fled:ions of Mr. Cowley. " If twenty thou^
fand naked Americans were not able to reiift
the Affaults of but twenty well-arm'd Spa-
iiiards^ how is it poffible for one honeft
Man to defend himfelf againft twenty thou*

fand



Original Sin. ^^

fand Knaves, who are all furnifli'd cap-.a-pe
with the defenfive Arms of worldly Pru-
dence, and the offenfive too of Craft and
Malice? He will find no lefs Odds than this
againfl: him, if he have much to do in human
Affairs. Do you wonder then that a virtuous
Man fhould love to be alone? It is hard for
him to be otherwife. He is fo when he is
among ten thoufand. Nor is it fo uncomfor-
table, to be alone without any other Creature,
as it is to be alone in the midft of wild
Beafts. Man is to Man all Kind of Beafts,
.a fawning Dog, a roaring Lion, a thieving
Fox, a robbing Wolf, a diffembling Croco-
dile, a treacherous Decoy, and a rapacious
Vulture. The civilleft, methinks of all Na-
tions, are thofe whom we account the moll:
barbarous. There is fome Moderation and
Good-nature in the T^Giipinamhaltiam^ who
eat no Men but their Enemies : While we
learned and polite and Chriilian Europeans^
like fo many Pikes and Sharps, prey upon
every Thing that we can fvvallow."

Are Frotejlant Nations nothing concerned
in that humourous, but terrible Pidure
drawn by a late eminent Hand? " He was
perfedly aftonifli'd (and who would not,
if it were the firft Time he had heard it?)
at the Hiftorical Account I gave him of our
Affairs, during the laft Ccntur>': Protcfting
it was only an Heap of Confpiracies, Rebcl-

P % hon$,



54 ^h^ Doctrine cf

lioBS, Murders, Maflacres^ the very worft
EfFeds that Avarice, Fad:ion, Hypocrify,
Perfidioulncfs, Cruelty, Rage, Madnefs,
Hatred, Envy, Luft, Malice and Ambition
could produce.— Even in Times of Peace,
How many innocent and excellent Perfons,
have been condemn'd to Death or Banifh-
ment, by great Minifters prad:ifmg upon
the Corruption of Judges, and the Malice of
Fadions? How many Villains have been
exalted to the highcft Places of Truft,
Power, Dignity and Profit? By what Methods
have great Numbers in all Countries pro-
cured Titles of Honour and vaft Eftates?
Perjury, Oppreffion, Subornation, Fraud,
Pandarifm were fome of the moft excufable.
For many owed their Greatnefs to Sodomy
or Inceft: Others, to the proftituting of their
own Wives or Daughters: Others, to the
betraying of their Country, or their Prince :
More, to the perverting of Juftice, to deftroy
the Innocent." Well might that keen Author
add, '■ If a Creature pretending to Reafon,
can be guilty of fuch Enormities, certainly
the Corruption of that Faculty, is far worfe
than Brutality itfelf "

Nov/ are P^/^//7j Nations only concerned
in this? Are the Frotejiant quite clear? Is
there no fuch Thing among them (to take
one Inftance only) as " perverting of Juf-
tice," even in publick Courts of Judicature ?

Can



Original Sin. jj

Can It not be faid in any Frotejlant Country.
*' There is a Society of Men among us, bred
up from their Youth in the Art of pro\'ing,
according as they are paid, by Words mul-
tiphed for the Purpofe, That white is black,
and black is white? For Example : If my
Neighbour has a Mind to my Cow, he hires
a Lawyer to prove that he ought to ha\'e
my Cow from me. I muft hire another, to
defend my Right, it being againft all Rules
of Law, that a Man fliould fpeak for him-
felf. In pleading they do not dwell on the
Merits of the Caufe, but upon Circumftanccs
foreign thereto. For Inftance : They do not
take the fhorteft Method to know, what
Title my Adverfary has to my Cow : But
w^hether the Cow be red or black, her Horns
long or jfhort; whether the Field ilie graze
in be round or fquare, and the like. After
which they adjourn the Caufe from Time to
Time, and in ten or twenty Years Time,
come to an IlTue. This Society llkewife has
a peculiar Cant and Jargon of their own,
in w^hich ail their Laws are WTitten. And
thefe they take fpecial Care to multiply:
Whereby they have fo confounded Truth
and Fahliood, Right and Wrong, that it
will take twelve Years to decide. Whether
the Field left me by my Anceflors for fix
Generations, belong to me or to one three
hundred Miles off."

D 4 Is



56 The Doctrine df

Is it in Popijh Countries only that it can
be faid, '' It does not appear that any one
Perfeftion is required toward the Procure-
ment of any one Station among you: Much
lefs, that Men are ennobled on Account of
their Virtue; that Priefls are advanced for
their Piety or Learning, Judges for their
Integrity, Senators for the Love of their
Country, or Counfellors for their Wifdom."

10. But there is a flill greater and more
undeniable Proof, that the very Foundations
of all Things, Civil and Religious, are ut-
terly out of Courfe, in the Chriftian as well
as the Heathen World. There is a ftill
more horrid Reproach to the Chriftian
Name, yea, to the Name of Man, to all
Reafon and Humanity. There is War
in the V/orld! War between Men! War
between Chriftians ! I mean between thofe
that bear the Name of Chriji^ and profefs to
walk as He aljh walked. Now who can re-
concile War, I will not fay to Religion,
but to any Degree of Reafon or common
Senfe ?

But is there not a Caufe ? O yes, " The
Caufcs of War (as the fame Writer obferves)
are innumerable. Some of the chief are
thefe: The Ambition of Princes; or the
Corruption of their Minifters. Difference
of Opinion ; as whether Flejfh be Breads or
Bread be Flejh 'i Whether the Juice of the
>4 dijo Grape



Original Sin. p^

Grape be Blood ov JVi?ie? What Is the befl
Colour for a Coat, whether black, white or
grey; and v/hether it fliould be long or
fliort? Whether narrow or wide ? Nor are
there any Wars fo furious, as thofe occafion'd
by fuch DiiFerence of Opinions.

" Sometimes two Princes make War,
to decide which of them fhall difpoflefs a
Third of his Dominions. Sometimes a V/ar
is commenced, becaufe another Prince is roo
ftrong; fometimes becaufe he is too weak.
Sometimes our Neighbours want the Thines
which we have, or have the Things which
we want. So wc both fight, untill they tpke
Ours, or we^ take Theirs. It is a Reafon for
invading a Country, if the People have been,
wafted by Famine, deftroy'd by Peftilence,
or embroil'd by Fadlion : Or to attack our
neareft Ally, if Part of his Land would make
our Dominions more round and compa(ft.

" Another Caufe of making War is
this. A Crew are driven by a Storm they
know not where; at length they make Land
and go afhore : They are enteitain'd with
Kindnefs. They give the Country a new
Name ; fet up a Stone or rotten Plank for a
Memorial ; murder a Dozen of the Natives,
and bring away a Couple by Force. ITcrc
com.mences z.w^^ Right of Dominion -, Ships
are fent, and the Natives driven out or de-
ftroy'd. And this is done to civilize and
convert a barbarous and idolatrous People."



58 The Doctrine of

But whatever be the Caufe, let us calm-
ly and impartially confider the Thing itfelf.
Here are forty thoufand Men gathered to-
gether on this Plain. What are they going
to do? See, there are thirty or forty thoufand
more at a little Diftance. And thefe are go-
ing to (lioot them thro' the Head or Body,
to ftab them, or fplit their Sculls, and fend
moft of their Souls into everlafting Fire, as
faft as poffibly they can. Why fo ? What
Harm have they done to them ? O none at
all. They do not as much as know them.
But a Man, who is King oi France^ has a
Qiiarrel with another Man, who is King of
England, So thefe Frenchmen are to kill as
many of thofe EngUJJ:}me7t as they can, to
prove the King of Fra?ice is in the right.
Now what an Argument is this ? What a
Method of Proof? What an amazing Way
of deciding Controverfies ? What mufl Man-
kind be, before fuch a Thing as War could
ever be known, or thought of upon Earth ?
How iliocking, how inconceivable a Want
muft there have been of common Under-
ftanding, as well as common Humanity,
before any two Governors or any two Na- '
tions in the Univerfe, could once think of
fuch a Method of Decifion ? If then all
Nations, Pagan, Mahometan and Chriftian,
do in Fad: make this their laft Refort.
What farther Proof do v/e need of the utter

Degeneracy



Original Sin. *g

Degeneracy of all Nations, from the plain-
eft Principles of Reafon and Virtue? Of the
abfolute Want both of common Senfe and
common Humanity, which runs thro* the
whole Race of Mankind ?

In how juft and ftrong a Light is this
placed by the Writer cited before ? " I gave
him aDefcription of Cannons, Mulkets, Pif-
tols, Swords, Bayonets : Of Seiges, Attacks,
Mines, Countermines, Bombardments; Of
Engagements by Sea and Land : Ships funk
with a thoufand Men, twenty thoufand kil-
led on each Side, dying Groans, Limbs fly-
ing in the Air : Smoke, Noife, tramphng to
Death under Horfes Feet, Flight, Puriiiit,
Vidiory : Fields ftrew'd with Carcafes left
for Food to Dogs and Beafts of Prey : And
farther, of plundering ftripping, ravlfliing,
burning and deftroying. I alllu-ed him, I had
fecn an hundred Enemies blown up at once
in a Seige, and as many in a Ship, and be-
held the dead Bodies drop down in Pieces
from the Clouds to the great Diverfion of tlie
Spedlators."

Is it not aftonliliing, beyond allExpreffion,
that this is the naked Truth. That within a
fliort Term of Years, this has been the real
Cafe, in almoft every Part of even the Chril-
tian V/orld ? And mean while we gravely
talk of the " Dignity of our Nature," in its
prefent State ! This is really furprizing, and



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