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The ancient history of the Maori, his mythology and traditions .. (Volume 1) online

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This is the lament of Papa for Rangi : —

Tanc, my husband, now laid prostrate —
Sing tlie dirge, sing tlie dirge ; we must part.
Sing the dirge, sing the dirge ; \vc must part.
Here we loved, and lived together —
Sing the dirge, sing the dirge ; we must part.

Paia requested that Rangi should he taken up and car-
ried ahovc. Tane said it could not he done — there were
not sufficient beings to accomplish such a feat. But Paia
persisted in her request ; so the attempt was made, and
failed. Tane called, and said, " Who are above ? '' and
was answered, " Dig the trench, and follow on.^' Again
Tane called, and said, " Who is below ? '^ and was an-
swered, " Dig the trench, and follow." Tanc then said, —

Tu ! thou of the long face ! lift the mountain.
• O Tu of the long face ! lift the mountain.
And separate it from Tane.

All the hosts above and those below joined and carried
Rangi away ; and Avhen they had returned Tane looked iip
at his father and saw that he had no covering. He there-
fore went to 0-kchu, to the plain of Kura-ki-awa-rua,
where he found the red clouds, and brought some, and
adorned his father Rangi with them. He came down to
view him, and saw that they looked dark and black ; so he
went and swept them off, and toolc them back to 0-kehu.
He now got stars, and placed them on his father. He put
the Magellan Clouds in their place, and Pa-nako-te-ao
(harbingers of dawn), Nga-pa-tari (lesser ^Magellan Cloud),
and Au-tahi (the star of the year) in their places ; and
came down and looked at his father, and Avas delighted
with the change in his appearance.

Then Tane remembered his mother Papa had nothing to
cover her; so he took of his trees, and put their heads up
and their feet down, and set them on her, and stood aside
and looked ; but he did not like the appearance. He
threw the trees down, and put the heads in the earth and
the feet up, and then stood aside to look, and was much
pleased and satisfied.


Rangi now sent out Te-aki (tliraslier) and Watia (Wliatia)
(breaker) to collect news. They found so many birds at
Papa-te-inaho (flat overflowed) that they stayed to partake of
them. Rangi then sent Uru (red) and Kakana (Ngangana)
(bright) above, where they found the blossoms of trees and
grasses, of which they partook, and did not j-eturn to him.

Ocean Made. (Nga-i-tahu.)
Tane spread the sea out flat ; so did he also with the sky ;
and then was the origin of water, and it became Te-au-
.whiwhi (the entangled current), and Te-au-wawae (the
separating current), and Te-au-puha (the blurting current) ,
and Te-au-mahora (the expanded current), and Te-au-titi
(the piercing current), and Te-au-kokomo (the entering
current), and Te-au-huri (the turning current), and Te-au-
take (the original current), and Te-au-ka-kawlia(ngawha)
(the split current), and it died away. Again the current
began to go forward, as Te-au-komiro (the entwined cur-
rent), and Te-au-puha (the spurting current), and Ka(Nga)-
pokiki(pokihikihi) (the spluttering current), and Titi-tc-au
(piercing current), and Tata-te-au (the dashing current),
and Maro-te-au (unimpeded current), and Whaka-hotu-te-
au-ki-Hawaiki (sobbing current to Ilawaiki), and To (drag),
and Tapa (the brim), and ISTga Rimu (the moss, or seaweed),
and Te-taka-pau (the sanctity departed), and Hinc-i-ahua
(the daughter formed), and Hine -i - te - raka(ranga) -tai
(daughter of the seashore company), and Tc-kare-nuku
(the beloved of earth), and Te-kare-raki (the beloved of
heaven), and Plotu-a-tea (sob of day-dawn), and Te-wiwini
(the trembling), and Te-wana (the bud), and Tc-pa (the
obstruction), and Te-kare-tua-tahi (the first ripple), and
Tc-kare-tua-rua (second ripple), and Te-kare-tua-toru (third
ripple), and Tc-kare-tua-wha (fourth ripple), and Te-kare-
tua-rima (fifth ripple), and Te-kare-tua-ono (sixth ripple),
and Tc-karc-tua-whitu (seventh ripple), and Tc-karc-tua-
waru (eighth ripple), and Tc-karc-tua-iwa (ninth ripple), and
Te-kare-tua-kahuru (ngahuru) (tenth ripi)lc),and Te-tarawa-
tua-tahi (suspended first), and Te-tarawa-tua-rua (suspended


second), and Tarawa-tua-toru (suspended tliird), and
Tarawa-tna-wlia (suspended fourth), and Tarawa-tua-riina
(suspended fifth), and Tarawa-tua-ono (suspended sixth),
and Tarawa- tua-whitu (suspended seventh), and Tarawa-
tua-waru (suspended eighth), and Tarawa-tua-iwa (sus-
pended ninth), and Tarawa- tua- kahuru(ngahuru) (sus-
pended tenth), and Hiwi (hilltop), and Amo (carry on a
litter), and Riaki (lift up), and Hapai (carry in the hand),
and Tiketikc (very lofty), and Tc Rairahi (Rahirahi) (thin),
and Kapuka (Kapunga) (palm of the hand), and Te-wha-
tika (stand up), and Te-horoka(horonga) (the swiftness),
and Te-whaka-huka (becoming frothy), and Whati-tata
(breaking close to), and Puke-maho-ata (vessel floating at
dawn of day), and Te Rimu (moss or seaweed), and ]\īai-
ra-uta (coming overland), and Takapau (sanctity departed),
and Tc-whatu-moana (eye of the ocean), and Tira (company
of people), and Moana-nui (great sea).

Tane and Ao-nui produced and collected the Pai-ao

Tane-nui-a-raki was of the first-begotten or senior
family of Raki and Watu (Whatu) -papa. He was younger
brother of Rehua.

Tane ordered the women of Xuku-roa and Tama-tea to
cut some flax-leaves — harareka (harakcke) — with which he
made nooses. The wind blew, and the birds alighted to
obtain Avater. Tane put the nooses over the water, and
the birds were caught. The nooses were pulled on shore,
birds and all. By the time it had become evening he had
caught many birds. Then he returned to the settlement
and commanded the women to go and fetch the birds.
They did so, and tied them in two lots. Each had as many
as she could carry. These they put up in the storehouse
(ivhata), and used them as food.

Tane closed up the mouths of the winds with his fingers.
Te-mai-haro (the skimming one) went to each, and pulled
out the stopper with which Tane had. closed them up, that
the winds might sigh. And now, when the trees make a
noise with the wind it is their sifrh of decay.


When Tane and liis fellows had placed Raki in the posi-
tion he now occupied, they used four props to hold him
.up. The outside props were called Toko-rua-tipua (the
prop of the god-pit) and Toko-ka-puka (the prop of
jealousy) . Those inside were called Toko-maunga (the prop
of the mountain) and Toko-tupua (god-prop). While they
were in the act of lifting him up, Tane said, " Perhaps he
is high enough ;" but Raki said, " No ; lift me up higher,
that the winds may blow on me.'^ Then Papa called to
him, and said, " O Raki ! go ; but in your absence regrets
will follow you.^' Raki called from above, and said, " O
Papa ! stay there ; I will send my love down to you."
Tane, to encourage his fellows to lift Raki up with spirit,
called out, " Oh ! stand up father ;" and then the gods
who were above came and assisted them to put Raki in his

Tane gave orders that the winds should not blow ; but
he left two winds, which he did not shut up. Te-mai-haro
objected, and said, " Why should the winds be closed up ?
Pull the stoppers out and let the wind sing, that we may

The weapons of war of Tane are a matika (matav) (fish-
hook), and the mat'ika-paua (pearl-shell hook), and the fish-
ing-line. These are the weapons by which he slays his
enemy Tanga-roa. And the weapons of war of Tanga-roa
are lie tuke (d) (perch on which birds are snared), and bird-
spears, and the ^i-leaf, which is made into bird-snares.

The reason the moon does not shine on certain nights is
because a disease consumes her. This disease is ever de-
vouring her, and causes her to decrease in size until she is
nearly all consumed. When she is excessively weak she
goes and bathes in the Wai-ora-a-tanc (the living Avater of
Tane), which gradually restores her strength until she is
as great in power and life as when first created ; but again
the disease consumes her, and again she bathes in the

It is because the sky is as flat as a calm sea that the sun
and moon go so correctly on their way.

142 ancient maori history.

Another Heading. (N«a-i-taiiu.)
"VVlien the moon dies slic goes to the living Avater of
Tane — to the great lake of A-ewa (lake of god set loose
from a bond) — to the water whieh can restore all^ even
the moon to its path in the sky.

The Living Water of Tane. (Another Reading — Nga-


When man dies, his body does not come to life again :
it is sucked into the mouth of Hine-nui-te-po (great daughter
of night) . Not so is it with the moon : the mopn, when it
dies, goes to bathe in the great lake of Aiwa, or AcAva
(wander), the living water of Tane, which renews life; and
so it comes forth, and is seen high in the heavens, with
life restored and strength renewed, to travel again its path
over the sky.

Tane was of Te-ika-whenua (fish of the land) .

Tiki-tohua Avas of the first-begotten family of Rangi, and
was the progenitor of birds.

Tild-kapakapa was of the second-begotten family of
Rahgi, and was the progenitor of fish, and of the koho (or
tin, parson-bird) and the maka (manrjaaj (barracouta) .

Uru-tahi (one head) and Kakana(Ngangana)-tahi (only
red) were twins-, and were messengers. Kakana-tahi was
sent inland for food ; Uru-tahi Avas sent elsewhere for
food. Having found it, they stayed to eat, and did not
come back. Kakana-tahi was mother of the maka fmanyaaj
(barracouta), and Uru-tahi was mother of the koko {tui-
bird) .

Tiki-au-aha Avas of the fourth-begotten family of Rangi,
the progenitor of man.

lo-wahine was also of the fourth-begotten family.

Tiki-Avhaka-caca Avas of another family of Rangi. He
begat Huru, who took Pani and begat the kumara.

Tane. (Another Reading — Nga-ti-rua-nui.)
Tane took ]\Iu-mu-whang6 (gentle noise of the air) to
Avife, and begat the totara-tree. He took Pu-whaka-hai'a


(great origin), and begat the kahika (a creeper or vine),
and ake-rau-tangi {ake, tree of the "weeping leaf) . He
took Te-ata-tangi-rea (the voice coming down), and
begat the maire-rau-nui {maire of the great leaf) tree;
He took Parauri (the black one), and begat the hn or
koko (parson-bird). He took Papa (flat), and begat the
khvi (as the proverb calls it, ''the hidden bird of Tane ").
He took Haere-awa-awa (wanderer in the brooks), and
begat the iveka-hh-H. He took Tu-wae-rore (the foot
canght in a trap), and begat the kahika-tea, rimu, and tane-
kaha trees.

Hence Ihese proverbial sayings : as applied to a canoe
— " The narrow path used in crossing belongs to Tane ;"
as applied to houses — " The bold and daring children of
Tane, defying the storm ;" and these are the bark of the
kahikatea and ake-rau-tangi trees, which are made into a
house in which Kahu-kura (god of the rainbow) may

It is said also that Avhen Tane propped the sky up the
trees were growing with their roots up in the air and their
heads down; but Tane reversed them, r.nd they are now
called "the defiant offspring of Tane.'^


Wliere, where are now the houses

Where all the twinkling stars were made? —

The houses called the " Sparliling Flash of Xight,"

And the " Sparkling Flash of Day ;"

The house of Eangi, from whence were brought

The multitude of stars now sparkling in the sky

To give thee light, O man ! ujion thy voyage through life.

An ancient lament for the dead.

His Progeny. (Nga-i-tahu.)
Tane took INIaunga to wife, by whoni he liad Tc Piere
(called), and Tc Matata (carried on a litter), and Toe-
toe (split in slireds), and Te Kawlia (Nga^vlla) (split
open) .

Then Tane took To-hika (the baptized) to wife, by
whom he had Hme-i-te-knknra-a-tane (daughter of the red
glow of Tane), and Te-haka-matna (dwarf parent), and Te-
wai-puna-hau (the water-spring of baptism) , and Tahora-atea
(unencumbered plain) , and Tahora-a-moa (the plain of the
birds), and Papani-tahora (plain blocked up), and Te Pakihi
(plain of dried-up licrbage) , and Te Parae (open, undulating
plain), and Hine-i-mata-tiki (daughter of the face of the
first man).

Tane took to wife Hine-hau-one (daughter of the soil
aroma), by whom he had Hine-i-te-ata-ariari (shadow of
the daughter of the eleventh-day moon).

Tane took to wife Tu-kori-ahuru (standing restless with
heat) ; but among all these were not found any worthy to
bedeck his father (Rangi) ; therefore Tane took to wife


Puta-rakau (hollow of a tree), by whom he had Hine-ti-
tama (daughter of the funeral ceremony) and Hine-ata-
uira (daughter of gentle lightning) ; and in time Tane
took Hine-ata-uira, his own daughter, to wife, by whom
he had Tahu-kumia (hushand^s breath), and Tahu-whaka-
ero (husband dying away), and Tahu-tuturi (husband
kneeling), and Tahu-pepeke (husband with legs drawn up),
and Tahu-pukai (husband folded up) . Even with the
assistance of these he could not find anything to adorn
his father Raki. Then he went into the heavens in search
of his elder brother Rehua, and of something to beautify
Raki. He journeyed on till he came where Rehua was, at
Whiti-nuku (shining earth), and Whiti-raki (shining sky);
then climbed up over Te-ure-nui-o-raki (the great procrea-
tive power of Raki) to Take-take-nui-o-raki (the great
foundation of Raki), to Pou-tu-te-raki (the meridian of
Raki), the settlement of Rehua, where he found Rehua,
and was requested by him to stay. Tane replied, " You
live here. I will return to our father." Rehua then sup-
plied Tane with food {tui, or parson-bird), which he took
off his head ; but Tane would not partake of it, because of
the sanctity of the place whence it was taken. Tane was
sad ; but, surprised at the fatness of the birds, he requested
leave to take some away with him ; but Rehua said, " Do
not take any (of the birds) below (on to the earth) — there
is no food (for them there) : rather take trees down and plant
them." To which Tane acquiesced. He took some of each
sort of tree. Therefore trees are called to this day, " ie
tira Tane i te maivake-roa^' (the travellers of Tane of
the south-east sea-breeze). Tane returned to the earth.

AVhilst he had been absent Hine-ata-uira had put this
question to the people : " O, you people ! where is my father
by whom I am?" The people replied, ''That is he with whom
you live." Then did the woman die with shame, and hid her-
self and children by going into the lower world, and was there
when Tane arrived at his home. Tane was so grieved at the
absence of Hine-ata-uira that he forgot to plant the trees,
and resolved to follow her. She had arrived at Te Po, the


place of Ilinc-a-tc-ao (dau^^litcr of the light). Iline-a-
to-ao said to licr, " Go back. I, Ilinc-a-tc-ao, am here.
This is the division between night and day." llinc-ata-
uira took no heed : she persisted in her endeavours to go,
and prevailed over Hine-a-te-ao, and passed on. Then Tane
arrived. Iline-a-te-ao asked him, " Where are you
going ? " Tane answered, " I am in pursuit of ray wife."
Iline-a-te-ao replied, " She will not be overtaken by you.
She has rushed recklessly on. She Avill not be overtaken by
you." Tane said, "Nevertheless let me pass." That tipua,
the goblin, liinc-a-te-ao, said to Tane, '^Come on. Follow
your Avife." On Tane went till he came to the Po of Hine-
a-te-po. She asked him, " Where are you going ? "
Tane replied, " I am in pursuit of my wife." She said,
" I have spoken thus to her, ' Return from this place, as
I, Hine-a-te-po, am here. I am the barrier between night
and day;' but she would not hearken to me."

Tane said to Iline-a-te-po, "Let me pass," and the
goblin gave him permission. When Tane had arrived at
the Po of Hine-ruaki-moa (daughter of the vomiting moa)
his wife had some time before gone into the house of Tu-
kai-nanapia (Tu the eye-consumer) . He scratched on the
outside of the door of the house, but could not succeed in
obtaining admission, for the door had been securely barred.
Tane asked his wife, "O mother! Come, let us two re-
turn to our place above." She replied, " Return you to
the world (day) and nourish some of our progeny, and
leave me down below, so that I can drag some of them
down here." She would not agree to what Tane proposed.
She again called to him and said, " You go to the world
(light) ; I will for ever dwell in the house of Tu-kai-nana-
pia, in Pou-te-rere-ki (words are all in vain)."

Then Tane was grieved for his wife, and sang this song

of love to her : —

Are you a child,

Am I a parent,

That Ave are severed

By Kohi-te-kura (trembling red bloom) ?

Throbbing is my lonely heart,


Being left by you.

In Te Rake-poliutukawa (dry-summer tree ; name of a

house and home of Tane)
I will enter and cry ;
I will pass out of sight through the door
Of the house called
Pou-tere-rangi (gone in the swimming heaven). O me!

Hine-ata-iiira also sang a song to Tanc, to express her
great love. These are the words of her song : —
Are you called Tane,
And are you my father,
Great provider of food

At Ilawaiki [haiva, gills of a fish ; i let, were filled),
The priest of the sacred ceremony
Of the kuviara crops,
Left by me in Kake-pohutukawa ?
I will pass out of sight
Through the door of the house
Of Pou-tere-rangi. O me !


Iline-ata-uira inquired of Papa-tu-a-nnku, " AVlio is
my husband ? " to which Papa-tu-a-nuku replied, " O
young woman ! (do you ask) who is your husband ? (He is
ti'ul}^) your father." She was so ashamed of the faet that
.she went to the Po (darkness), and hid herself.

This is the song of Tane to his Avife Hine-ata-uira : —

Are you a child.

That you discard the fondlings of years ?

The house Kura-ma-hukihuki (trembling red colour)

Is now my road to llaki (heaven).

You left me in Te Eangi-pohutukawa.

I will depart and weep

At the door of the house

Pu-tere-rangi. O me, !

This is tlie song of Hine-ata-uira for Tane : —

Arc you Tane,

And arc you my father,

The provider at Ilawa-i-ki

Of the red, sweet aroma (the ktimara) ?

This is now my road to Rangi.

You have left me

In Te llangi-pohutukawa.

I will depart and weep

At the door of the house

Pu-tcrc-rangi. me, !


Tauo rcturucd from tlic Po of Ilinc-rnfiki-mou to tlic Po
oF I[ino-a-tc-ao, Avlierc he slept, and in tlio night he saw
some of tlic ofl'spring of Ira [these -were a host of stars],
called Toko-nieha (lonely South) and Te-pae-tai-o-te-rangi
(the shore of heaven), with whom he was delighted. He
joyfully coutemp]at(.'d the sight, and admired their beauty,
and said to the gohlin (Iline-a-te-ao), "^ There are beautiful
things standing up yonder." Ilinc-a-tc-ao asked, " AVhat
would you do with them ?" He answered, " Clothe and
beautify my father : he is standing naked." She asked,
" Have you a desire to go to Avhere they are ? " " Yes,"
he said ; " my heart throbs with joy at the beauty of those
objects." The goblin said, " O young man ! there is no
road thither ; but go you by the way you made when you
went to sew up the rents in Rangi — that is the road to Te-
pae-tai-o-te-rangi. But, O Tane ! you. may catch all the stars,
but one you will not catch, as it rests on the very lip of
the cave." Tane said, " The reason I wish to go where they
arc is because those things appear so very good." She said,
" Go. But I do not know whether they are kept in houses
or not." Tane asked, " What are the names of the
liouses ? " The goblin said, " Koro-riwha-te-po (cracks of
the night) is the name of one, and Koro-riwha-te-ao
(chinks of the day) is the name of the other; and the
mountain on which these stars rest and display their
light is called Mahiku-rangi (end of heaven)." Again she
said to Tane, " O young man ! go ; and if you catch the
stars, keep fast hold of two of them to be a sign for
winter." Tane came back to his settlement, called Te
Hake-pohutukawa, and, having slept two nights there, he
left and went out to see the offspring of Te-pae-tai-o-te-
rangi, and of Ira, and of Toko-meha; but on his arriv-
ing there his younger brother, Wehi-uui-a-mamao (great
dread of a distance), had arrived some time before him, and
had already caught the stars, and placed them as ornaments
on the outside of his houses called Hira-uta (many on
shore), and Hira-tai (many on the sea), and Pari-nuku (pre-
cipice of the earth), and Pari-rangi (precipice of heaven).


Taue said to Wehi-imi-a-mamao, " O friend ! I have come
for the things I saw here." His younger brother said, " I
have caught them." Tane said, " I have come for those
things to beautify our father, who is standing naked/'
His brother answered, " Yes ; I am willing that you should
take those stars away." Tane brought them away, and dis-
tributed them on Te Pae-taku-o-roko(rongo) (the rim of
the mountain-range of Kongo). He saw that those stars
Avere good, and his heart was glad with their beauty. He
threw up to the heaven Te-ika-matua-a-taka-roa (the
parent fish of Taka-roa) (Great Magellan Cloud), and after
this he threw Nga-patari (the inviters) (Lesser Magellan
Cloud), and Manako-uri (anxious darkness), and j\Ianako-tea
(anxious light) ; after which he adorned all the heaven with
stars, thus making use of all that he had procured except
five. These were Puaka (Puanga) (blazed-up) (star E,igel)^
Taku-rua (rim of the pit) (star Sirius) — these two stars
were to preside over planting and harvest time ; Wero-i-te-
ninihi (arouse the absconding), and Wero-i-te-kokoto
(arouse the expanse) — these stars were to preside over
winter ; and Wero-i-te-ao-marie (arouse the quiet world)
was to preside over summer. Tane saw that the heaven
Avas good which he had made.

He then planted the trees which he had obtained on his
first going to Rangi. He planted them in his garden.
In the second year all the trees had grown greatly, and
in the third year the kahinrja-tea (kah'ika-tea — white pine)
began to bear fruit, and the birds of heaven alighted on it,
because of the abundance of fruit, and did eat.

Tane then thought he could make man ; so he formed
of the earth a model of that which he contemplated making.
He formed it at Ha-i-ki (breath that was full). The arms
stood forth, and the head, and the feet, and the thighs, and
the whole body; and all were fashioned to the design he
had formed in his mind — made to resemble the bod)'- of man.
He patted it with his hands into form from the soil of
Hawa-i-ki (the gills that were full). "When he had com-
pleted it, he raised it up and stood it erect. llua-tai-cpa


(pit oL' till! objection) liad tlio tarn (clitoris), and Wliatai
(stretch out the neck) liad tlie kiko (labia minora) , and
Puna - weko (sprinj,^ dammed up) had the huruhuru
fcapillaj, and Mahuta (spring fortli) had the ure (membrum
virile), and Tarcwa (hung up) liad the tona fylaiis clitoridis).
These Tane obtained from the gods, and lie fastened some
of them to the model he had made of the earth.
Then he prayed his prayer thus : — •

Pi-haca (flow dreaded),

Ko Haea (it is dread inspired),

Ko Ee-naia (stretch out),

Hae-hae Tu (inspire Tu with dread),

Hae-hae-pae (inspire the horizon with dread),

Hae-hae-kj-ruuga (inspire above with dread),

Hae-hae-raro (inspire the depths v/ith dread),

Hae-hae-ki-roto (inspire iusido with dread),

Tama-te-rangi (Rangi is younger brother),

Ka kore ua, i a kore ua (not raining, no rain),

Id Torenga (Tore-ka) (god-heat, burn),

Makiki (filled up tight),

Torenga (Tore-ka) (god-heat, burn),

Makaka (crooked),

Kai-nga-nene (with the sport),

Ka-reka (is delightful),

Ko Tiki (it is Tiki).

Tiki, or Tiki-au-a-ha (brought forth the stream of
breath), -svas the name Tane gave to the form he made of
the earth, Avhich was the first inhabitant of the world.
Tane was delighted with the man he had made to live in
the world.

■ «»«»(t>a >


My soul is weary of all the cares of home,

Confused with him, the son of Pu-whaka-horo.

My wonder is, why all the crowd

So occupy their days beneath tho shady trees.

But now I linow — the temp)tiug

Fern-root and tho sweet fcauj-w-stem

Entice them there


Ye thousand stars above, who twinkle

O'er the highest bough of forest-tree,

Pierce into darkest shado of

Forest gloom at 0-tu-whaia,

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