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and Hine-ti-tama (daughter of the evil son). These were
disobedient to Rangi, and would not obey his commands,
but persisted in evil, and were swept by Rangi down to the
Po ; and by them mankind are dra^\^l into the lower worlds.
They are constantly employed in tempting mankind to
do evil, and combine with Hine-a-te-uira (daughter of
lightning), the Ti-tama (evil child) oE Tanc, to corrupt
and destroy the race of man.

Rangi and Papa-tu-a-nuku begat another family, of
whom Rchua was first-born. His coming was as the flash-
ing of light, and from him sjDrang Tama-i-tc-oko-tahi (son
of the one bowl), Avho begat Te-whai-tu-tahi-a-iwa (the
joint-following of the nine), from whom descended the
Tihinga (pinnacle of the hill), who was father of Rakeka
(Rakenga) (bare), avIio was father of Rangi-ma-kawe-kawc
(locks of hair of heaven), Mdio begat Raugi-whaka-upoko
(head of heaven) . The sister of Rehua was called Ha-
kina (breath of the sea-urchin) . These were all spirits, and.



30 ANCIENT MAOEI HISTORY.

witli the innumerable hosts of Rehua, inhabited the upper
licavcns : they did not appear in this Avorld.

The next offspring of Rangi and Papa_, and intimately
associated with Rehua, was Tane the great artificer. Then
followed Paia (shut), Wchi-nui-a-raamao (great fear of the
distance), Tu-taka-hinahina (Tu of the grey hairs), Te-aki
(the one who gives blows), Whati-ua (run from the rain),
Tu (stand), Rongo (fame), Ru (earthquake), U-ako (taught
at the breast), Hua (fruit). Puna (spring of water), Whe-
rei (extruded) , Uru (enter), Kakana (Ngangana) (red), Wai-
o-nuku (water of the earth), Wai-o-rangi (water of the
heaven), Aio-hou-take-take (long-continued calm), Ka-
mau-ki-waho (caught outside), Ka-mau-ki-tahito(tawhito)-
o-te-raki (rangi) (caught with the ancient of heaven), Kai
(Ngai) (heel), Kai-roa (long heel), Kai-pehu (angry heel),
Kai-aki-akina (heel beaten again and again), Tapa-tapa-i-
waho (curse by calling names outside), Te Manu-aero-
(waero)-rua (bird with two tails), Toi (summit), Rauru
(hair of the head), Ritenga (policy), Wha-tonga (south-
ward) , Apa (body of workmen) , Rongo-mai (whale) , TaTia-
titi (nailed side), Rua-tapu (sacred pit), Pipi (ooze out),
Ara-tu-ma-heni (hengi) (path of the gentle breeze), Rangi-
roa (long day), Rongo-mai (whale), Pou-pa (post of
the fortification), Rangi-whaka-maru (day of shade),
Hou-nuku (delving into the earth), Hou-rangi (ascend
to heaven), Hou-a-tea (ascending into open space), Ue-
nuku (trembling earth), Ka-hutia-te-rangi (the heaven
drawn up), Ru-tapu (sacred trembling), and Paikea (sea-
god) .

After Rangi recovered from the severe wounds he had
received in his conflict with Taka-roa (long in taking ac-
tion), he begat by Papa the generations of the deformed.
Their names imply inferiority to the former offspring he had
with this wife. These deformed were called the Whanau-
tuoi (lean offspring), and were named Whanau-takoto (off-
spring lying down), Tane-kupapa-co (Tane lying on the
rocks), Tane-tuturi (kneeling Tane), Tane-pepeke (Tane
with his legs drawn up), Tc-oi (the shudderer), Upoko-uui



GODS OF MISFORTUNE AND DISEASE. 31

(great head), Upoko-wliaka-ahu (head that grows), and
Tane-i-te-Avai-ora (Tane at the living water) .

Raugi's union with Heke-heke-i-papa (coming down
flat) (d) produced some of the great lords of the heavens :
Tama-i-waho (the son outside), the first-born, who occu-
pied the highest heaven ; then followed Tama-rau-tu (son
that gathers as he stands), Tama-nui-a-rangi (great son of
heaven), Tama-he-rangi (son of the heaven), Rangi-whaka-
ipuipu (bowl of the heavens), and Rangi-whaka-ka (kindled
heaven) .

The offspring of Tama-nui-a-rangi were Hau-mia (add
to), Manu-i-aka(anga) (the bird that went f orward) , Maru-
nui-a-ka(nga)-hoe (great shade whilst voyaging), Hua-
wai-wai (returning health), Tahito-kura(kuru) (ancient
red; A-wrw, blow) , Kohu-rere (flying fog), Te-ao-hi-awe (dawn
of day with dark streaks), Haere (proceeding), Ue-nuku-
pokaia (trembling of the earth doubled up), Ue-nuku-
horea (trembling bald earth), Raugi-whitiki-ora (day of life
putting the belt on), and Pu-ki-tonga (stability at the
south) . Some of these inhabited this earth.

Another family of Rangi was by Hotu-papa : these Avere
Tu (stand erect), Rongo (fame), ' Kan apu (brightness),
Haere-mai-tua (come from beyond), Haere-mai-whano
(come on and prcceed onwards), Haere-aro-aro-uri (go with
a black front), Haere-i-te-ao-pouri (go on in the dark
world), Haere-i-te-ao-potako(potango) (go in the black
world), Te-kitea (cannot be seen), Te-whaia (cannot
be followed), Ao-mataki (world gazed at), Turu-melia
(pleasant fifteenth day of the moon), Ko-ka(nga)-ihi (the
rays of the sun) , U-ki-mate-ho-ata (landing on the third day
of the moon's age), Rei (sailing), Pou (all consumed), Pou-a-
taka-taka (consumed and staggering), Pou-raka (ranga) -
hua (consumed, but fruit bursting forth), Tuhuku(Tu-
hunga)-tira (birds caught on their perch), Tama-taka-ariki
(son slowly following the supreme chief), Wai-tu-rangi
(water standing in heaven), Tu-kau-moana (Tu who swam
the sea), Kiri-rua (two skins), Hotu-ma-moe (sob in the
sleep), Tu-mai-o-nuku (rainbow standing), Tu-mai-o-rangi



32 ANCIENT MAOKI HISTORY.

(heaven stood forth), Tu-te-pewa (new moon seen), Tu-
ma-koha (expanded) , Utu-poraki (poranj^i) (payment for the
insane) _, Ilika-ara-roa (long in obtaining fire), Ue-nuku-
pokai-whenua (rainbow spanning the land), Uc-nuku-horea
(dim rainbow). Some of these also visited this earth.

Another Heading of Creation. (Nga-i-tahu.)
lo (power, god) begat lo-nuku (god of the world),
who begat lo-rangi (god of the heavens), who begat
Tahito-te-raki (ancient of the heavens), who begat Tahito-
te-rca (ancient abundant one), who begat Wai-o (water
sufficient), who begat Wai-o-whaka-tangata (sufficient water
for man), who begat Te-anu-mahana (the world become
warm) , who begat Te-anu-mato (budding world) , and Wero
(pierce), and Wero-kohua (pierce the mist), and Te-anu-
ka-wewero (the nipping cold). Te-anu-mahana (the warm
earth) begat Tura (in open day) ; Te-anuku-ka-wewera
(warm breath of the world) begat Heke-lieke-u-nuku (de-
scend on the breast of the world), Heke-heke-i-raki (de-
scend from heaven), Heke-lieke-i-j)apa (descend from the
earth), and Whatu-rewa (the sacred stone) ; [d). These
four were all females ; Whatu-rewa was also granddaughter
of Taka-roa.

Anu-ka-wewera also begat Rau-mati (summer) ; and
Rau-mati, who was also descended from Anu-mahana, begat
Tura-te-waru-tu-aha (clear day of the eighth moon) . Tura-
te-warii-tu-aha took to wife Hau-kura-matua (parent with
the red plume), and begat Ira-tu-roto (marked deeply
on the skin) . Ira-tu-roto took Waha-mata-reka (beautiful
face and sweet voice) to wife. She was daughter of Ahu-
kuma-wiria (inclined to tend fondly) , and begat Iwi (bone) ,
a daughter, and Ui-roa (long inquiry), a son, and Poraka-
(Poranga) -hau (invoke the winds at night), a daughter.

Ui-roa went on a journey. He arrived at the settle-
ment of Te Tue (yelping), or Te-We (yelp). He took
Te-We as his wife. Tvoav, Pakura-tauranga (unsettled red
one) was the elder brother of Te-We. He led Ui-roa to the
grounds where thev cultivated the kumara, where Ui-roa



PRODUCE OP THE EARTH EATEN. 33

observed that Te-We ate the kumara raw, which made him
think she would soon be a mother.

Pakura-tauranga made thirty ko {d) (wooden staves to
cultivate with), and stuck them up on the ridges which
divided the cultivations into beds or plots, and left them
there, and then he performed ceremonies and clianted
incantations, that his deified ancestors might come and use
these staves, and turn up the soil of the beds preparatory to
the planting of the kumara crop. Those ancestors came,
and in two days they had set a large space of ground with
the kumara.

Ui-roa, his wife, and her brother left their home and
went to Te-aka-matua (the parent cliral)ing-plant), the
settlement of Ira-tu-roto. As they approached it the
father of Ui-roa dreamt his son had come back to his
home, and in his sleep the father called out, Ui-roa
answered the call of his father. The reply awoke
the old man. Ui-roa began to work in the land culti-
vated by his father; but, not having sufficient kumara
bulbs to set the whole field, he planted the karaka,
tawa, ivhinau fhinau), jwkaka, poporo, and karamu
trees. Also he planted the kauru ftiij root (dj, and
feiioi itoetoe) grass, harakeke {korari) (flax, or Phormium
tenax), and the ngaio, matai, and kahika-tea trees. At
harvest-time he gathered in the kumara cvo]); but tlie trees,
and roots, and grass became permanent. The fruit only
of the trees was eaten, and the root of the kauru. or tJi
was cooked for the saccharine matter it contained. Th(!
wife of Ui-roa brought forth a son, who was called Taliito-
ta-rero (Tahi-to-ta-rere) (ancient flying one). The people
of Tc-we presented warm water to her : hence this is pro-
vided by the relatives of a mother in all similar cases.
Another child, a son, was born to them, who was called
Ra-kai-nui (great consuming sun), who toolv a wife and
begat Te-ao-mata-rahi (cloud not dense), avIio, when hv.
had become a man, followed a party which was proceeding
to war. He was taken prisoner by a marauding party of
the enemy, and killed. On the return home of the party
3



34 ANCIENT MAORI HISTORY.

with whom he was connected, he was missed. Those who
had killed liira cut his head off and buried his body. The
head was taken by them to the settlements of Ra-kai-paka
(day oi' eating scraps), lia-kai-waka-iri (day on which food
was hung up), Ra-kai-mako (day on which shark was
eaten), and Ra-kai-kou-nuku (day on which the good
things of the earth were eaten). Tahi-to-ta-rere then
became chief leader of the many tribes.

Now, from Te Anu-i-waho (cold outside) came Te-
pounamu (greenstone) ; and from Te-anu-matao (dense
cold), Wiro (Whiro) (second day of the moon) and Hua
(bloom) ; and from Te-anu-mahana came Tura; and from
Te-anu-ka-wewera the four women called Heke-heke-u-
nuku, Heke-heke-i-raki, Heke-heke-i-papa, and Whatu-
rewa. Thus the origin of Te-Anu (cold) and of Te-
Kahui (flocks or tribes) is one with that of the offspring
of Taka-roa.

Now, the work on the left side of the Kahui-anu,
and the omens observed there, relate to death, evil, and the
lower worlds ; but the work on the right side, and the
omens observed there, relate to good, life, and prosperity
in this world.

The Kahui (company) of Rehua, Te Waka-ha (cause
breath), Naku-roa (long scratch), Te-matea (the longed-
for), Wati-hua (Whati-hua) (pluck the fruit), Hou-nuku
(descend in the earth) , Hou-raki (enter the heaven) , f and
Hou-tea (enter the light), were originally below, but they
fled above.

Te-Rangi-popoki (the sky with the concave side down-
wards) was father of Tane and of Hine-mata-ora (daughter
of the healthy face) , who begat Hine-kai-taki (tangi) (weep-
ing daughter), who was the supreme of the Nga-i-tahn
people.

These are the leaders of the senior family tribe : Rongo-
u-matu (fame of the corpulent), Kahu-kura (red garment),
Maui (on the left hand), Te Haerenga-taha (going on the
side), Rongo-i-tua (news from outside), and Ra-kai-ora
(day of plenty).



GODS OF FOOD. 35

And these are the divisions of the Tahu (opulent in
all that sustains life ; adequate to the necessities of all
creatures) : Tahu the food-seeker^ Tahu the cultivator of
food, Tahu the gatherer-together of food_, Tahu the fructi-
fier of food, and Tahu of peace and plenty.



CHAPTER III.



The evil one has fallen — altogether fallen.
Tane was before, the j^ouuger brother behind ;
And Tane would not deign to turn or answer him.
Then dried up streams, the di-eaded lizard died,
Thou beaten, broken, and forsaken vessel.

One i^rop is above, and one below.
One night, the nights of the gods ;
One night, the nights of the ancients.

Abhorrent brightness gleams on night,
And wails of woe fill all its gloom.

Give soul and gi-eater power.
And give thy living spirit now.
Thy spirit now is overcome.
Thy spirit is subdued.
And in the wicker basket closed ;
And, though subdued, life now can live.
Thine is the breath, but mine the soul,
And mine enjoyment, mine delight.

Bow on thy knee, be cautious still ;
Submit to thy defeat : now thy dejected mien
Cannot again provoke fierce ire.

An ancient incantation, chanted together by contracting partiet
at the ratification of terms of peace.



TANE AND REBELLION OF SPIRITS.
(NGA-I-TAHU.)

When Tane had gone up to heaven, Tu-mata-u-enga
(Tu of the inciting face) and Iloko(Rongo)-ma-rae-roa
(Rongo of the long forehead) said, '' Now that Tane has
gone, let ns kill some of the creatures he has made, that
we two may see if they are palatable." They killed one of
the offspring of Tiki-kapa-kapa (Tiki the flapping one —
birds) , and offered it as a sacred sacrifice to Rehua, to whom
they said, " O aged ! to what do you liken that food of
man ? " Rehua answered, " Is it not palatable ? Perhaps
you think it is sweet." Now, Rehua did not know what
the food he had eateu was. Tu-mata-u-enga and Roko



FIRE FIRST KNOWN. 37

then killed another o£ Tane's creatures^ which they
again took and offered to Rehna, saying, " O friend !
how sweet is that food ! " Rehua answered, " O you ! you
two agreed to kill those offerings. Now hearken : these
creatures were made by Tane to live in the world, for
the use of man." Tu-mata-u-enga and Rongo captured
and plucked of the offspring of the many different families
of Tiki. Hence the offspring of Tiki-kapa-kapa (flapping-
Tiki) and Tiki-to-hua (Tiki fruit-bearer) have been cap-
tured and plucked.

Then there was another killing of sacred offerings by
Tu and Roko : these were of the offspring of Puku-puku-te-
rangi (the mounds of heaven) . The lungs of these offerings
were taken and offered to their lord Rehua.

Fire was first kindled by Rehua, on which was roasted
the korari (Phormium teriax), the fruit of trees, and fish.
Then commenced the art of cooking by fire.

The Tau-mata (temple, or holy peak of a hill) of Rehua
was called Te-taki-taki (the recitation of song), and Avas in
the fourth and fifth heavens.

Then Tu and Roko determined to go up into heaven and
there make war, and kill the occupants of that region. They
went to Tau-mata (the peak), and to Kahu-raki (the blue sky),
and to Puke-nui-o-hotu (the big hill of sobbing), and to
Puke-nui-papa (large flat hill), and to Puke-nui-tauranga
(hill of battle), and slaughtered the tribes as they went.
After this the battle of Taku-tai-o-te-raki (the border of
heaven) took place. And after this another battle took
place called Awa-rua (the two rivers), where Tu-mata-u-
enga was mortally Avounded. Now, before the battle Rongo
had counselled the slaughter of all the enemy ; therefore, as
Tu lay dying he said, " You remember my advice, when
you replied, ' Let us allow jmrt to escape by making faint
blows at them.' Now you will die, and it will be left for
me to obtain revenge for your death in this world."

Then Roko rose to revenge the death of Tu ; and this was
the war that was waged even up to the high peaks of the
hills of heaven. The name of that battle was Tc-uru-rangi



38 ANCIENT MAORI HISTORY.

(tlic head o£ Heaven) . A great many beings fell —
namely, Puku-nui (great stomach) , Puku-roa (long stomach),
Puke-i-ahua (stomach that was caused to swell), Puku-i-
kakia(ngakia) (fostered stomach), Te-whaka-whenua-i-ere-
no-tu (the exhausted land of Tu)_, and Hua-take (fruit
of the root), and Koe-erea (joy exhausted), and Kura-
waka (red plumes of the medium), and Kura-tahia (plume
that was cleaned), and Tipia (skim lightly), and Pito-
rei (point of the chest), and Hutihuti-maukuku (the
ti-root drawn up). And also Tahi-uri (black side) was
killed there; and Taha-tea (light side), and Taha-ma (white
side), and Taha-poko (dark side), and Taha-whero (red
side) . But two men escaped and fled into the forest :
one was called Tama-he-raki(rangi) (child bewildered in
heaven), the other was Raki-whakaka (heated heaven).
From this time were known and practised the incantations
used by the Maori people.

Tu-mata-u-enga and Rongo-ma-rae-roa were the origi-
nators of evil in ancient times. They caused disobedience and
war in the heavens ; they were powerful for war and battle,
and also caused confusion among their adversaries. But this
was the cause of sorrow to Tane, and made him say to those
disorderly companies, " I will not allow you to live here.
Go ye below.^^ He then threw all that company — that tribe
and their chief Roko — tumbling down to the worlds below ;
and this party, which had gone up in confidence, returned in
confusion, and came to the place Kai-hewa (eat in doubt),
where they lived in dismay and dread.

Rebellion in Heaven. (Another Reading —
Nga-i-tahu.)
It will be remembered that Tane, and Rangi his father,
dwelt in the upper worlds with their spirit-hosts. Of
these the Kahui-anu (flock of cold) persisted in their efforts
to draw the Kahui-tahu (flock of plenty) and the Kahui-tao
(flock of blessings) to evil and rebellion. Raki therefore
gave the order to expel them, and to Tane the power to
cast them out and throw them down from the first heaven.



BATTLES IN THE HEAVENS. 39

that they might all fall down to the various Pos. Because
those flocks continually persisted in doing evil, Raki said,
"^ Chase them away, as they will not hearken to teaching,
and will not live peaceably.''

On their arrival in the Pos they did not cause very great
evil, but they taught Tama-tau-weka (son of persistent
battle) and Rongo-ma-rae-roa (fame of the long forehead)
to kill the creatures Tane had made on earth, and thus be
revenged for having been thrown down from the heavens.

(Hine-) Ti-tama (the absconding wife of Tane) joined
those flocks, to assist in taking revenge on the creatures
made by Tane.

Then was killed one of the offspring of Tiki-kapakapa
(image of the flapping — fish). This first one killed was
offered to Rehua. There was also killed one of the off-
spring of Tiki-to-hua (image pregnant with egg), which
was also offered to Rehua. Then first men began to eat
fish and birds.

Another and second rebellion was caused by Ru (tremble)
and Ro (inherent), who gave battle in the heaven, called
Puku-puku-te-rangi (swellings in heaven). They were
spirits who were fostered by Tane, and fled down into this
world, and from them sprang the aruhe (fern-root) and
many other sorts of food which have been lost to man.
This is why the fern-root was used by man as a sacred
offering to be given to the gods.

Another and third rebellion was fought on the back of
Raki. This battle was called Awa-rua (the double river),
also Taku-tai-o-te-raki (sea-coast of the heaven). From
Awa-rua arose the angry feelings of Tane to those rebels
Tu-(mata-u-enga) and Roko-(ma-rae-roa). Tu was killed
by the beings of Tane, and his spirit allowed to go to the
Po. Thousands of the rebels were killed — that is, as far as
spirits could be killed — in that battle.

Tane and Raki consulted. Tane persisted in his deter-
mination to kill all, but Raki referred to a proposal he
had made some time previously — that the world should be
divided and the heavens separated from the earth, so that



40 ANCIENT MAORI HISTORY.

these spirits could become human by assuming bodies — but
Tane wouhl not agree. Through tliis misunderstanding
these spirits were doomed to stay in darkness. This was the
result of this second rebellion. These rel)els were driven
from the upper heavens, and their unalteraljle fate was, to
live in doubt in this world and in the worlds of darkness.

It is from the Kahui-anu (flock of the cold space) that
all the evils which now afflict the Maori race came. Our
seers say, when a sudden death occurs, that the Atua-
kikokiko (the god of flesh) is killing the people ; and when
two or, may be, three deaths occur on one day, incantations
are repeated and ceremonies performed to avert death
from the tribes. These incantations and ceremonies were
repeated and performed to Mihi-mihi-tea (acknoAvledge the
obligation, and lament for the fair one) and also to Tapa-
tapa (the one called for).

It was Rehua who dispersed sadness and gloom from
the minds of the weak as well as the strong. He was
lord of kindness. His innumerable host reside in the
heavens. It was Tu-mata-uenga and Rongo-ma-rae-roa
who caused war and its attendant evils. Rehua (host of
kindness), Kahu-kura (red garment), and Tane were great
leaders ; and besides, there were Rongo-nui-a-tau (the great
news heard) and Weka ( Wheka) -i-te-ati-nuku (garments of
those driven into cold space). The latter was guardian
and sustaining god, who, with the aid of Tu-hina-po (Tu
of the twilight), conducted our race over the vast ocean.
They are gods of the ocean, and therefore sea-weed is the
offering presented and laid before them.

After the battle at Tai-o-rua-tapu (the tide of the sacre d
pit) Ue-nuku (trembling earth) and his son Rua-tapu (sacred
pit) were, and continue to this day to be, the protecting
gods of their descendants. If any of their offspring are
inclined to evil they correct them, and they are the
guardians of those who lead good and untainted lives.

Kahu-kura and Rongo-nui-a-tau are the arbiters of life
and death in war or peace, and are the gods who care for
invalids, and are also the guardian gods of travellers.



FIEST MURDER IN THE WORLD. 41

Prayer must be offered to Kahu-kura when the body is
afflicted by disease, so that the disease may be sent elsewhere.
Kahui-tahu-o-rangi (flock of warm ones of Rangi) camiot
cure those who are sick ; but, though they are unable to
heal, submissive prayers must be made to them, and offer-
ings of sea- weed and grass presented to them, so that they
be not enraged, but that they may be pleased and act
kindly towards man, over whom their power is such that
nothing can in any case remove it.

Incantations and ceremonies repeated and performed for
life and health are performed and repeated to Rangi ; so
also are those that are repeated and performed to guide
the spirits of men to the lower worlds, or to conduct them
to the heavens of brightness, where they may ramble and
live (dj. Rangi is also the god of battle, and to him are
incantations repeated and ceremonies performed to obtain
bravery and power for an army, that it may overcome its
enemies. Raki is a good god.

Some of our high priests state it was Tu- (mata-uenga)
and Rongo- (ma-rae-roa) who first made war and killed
men; but the beings killed were not like man as he now
is — they were gods. The men of Tiki were those who first
killed each other.

Rau-riki (gather the small ones) was the first to kill
man in this world. He killed Hotu-a (eagerly desire for god) .
Rau-riki was envious of Hotu-a because the females loved
Hotu-a, and because he was a noble-looking and beautiful
man. When the news of his death reached his relatives
and tribes they sought for satisfaction : they repeated
their incantations to Tu-(mata-uciiga) and Rongo- (ma-rae-
roa), and went and dipped the first finger of their left hands
in the blood of Hotu-a and held their hands up to heaven ;
then they pointed with their fingers to the thousands below ;
then they took some of the clotted blood of Hotu-a in their
left hands, and with them pointed to the sky, and then
again pointed below, with each movement repeating their
incantations, and naming each god of the heavens and all
those below, also the names of all the heroes above and



42 ANCIENT MAOBI HISTORY.

below ; then they repeated the incantation of " Life/' and of
the "Origin of all Things;" then they repeated the incanta-
tion " Incense of Gum/' and went in a body and attacked
the settlement of Rau-riki, and killed him, and cooked and ate
his body ; then they repeated the grand incantations of the
Ika-nui-a-tahua (the slain offering) and Te-umu-titia (the
burnt offering adorned with feathers) . These last two were
repeated in the sacred place. Retiring thence they presented
the heart of the slain to the high priest, and not until he
had eaten it could the army partake of ordinary food.

When war is proclaimed, and men have fallen, the
heart of the first one slain is taken out and presented as
an offering to the gods.

The most delicate part of man is the thigh, which is
placed in a bowl made of sea-kelp, and cooked in an
umu (d). The chiefs alone partake of this.

When a party is about to set out on a war expedition, they
catch and kill a bird called a ma-tata (swamp wren) , carefully



Online LibraryJohn WhiteThe ancient history of the Maori, his mythology and traditions .. (Volume 1) → online text (page 4 of 27)