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saving all the blood, and with incantations and ceremonies
offer the body to the gods and then deposit it in the sacred
place. The blood alone of the bird is used in the ceremonies
when the offering is made. This being done the army
return home dancing and singing and chanting incanta-
tions to Tu-(mata-uenga), and then remain for one or two
months, devoting a great portion of their time in throwing
the niu (d) . Then a war-party is selected, and the army leaves
the settlement, and when some distance on the road they all
join in chanting incantations to Tu (the god of war), so
that the power of the enemy may not be able to repel
their attack.

This was all done when the army to revenge the death
of Hotu-a attacked and took the 2)a of Rau-riki. He him-
self escaped, but all the people were either slain or taken
prisoners. When the fight was over, they assembled the
prisoners, and, after killing the first one captured, they took
his heart and presented it to the high priest ; this he
cooked, and when he had eaten it they killed all the other
prisoners, carefully saving all the blood, which they offered



ORIGIN OF CANNIBALISM. 43

with great ceremony as a sacrifice to the gods ; and then
the bodies of all those slain were cut up and cooked and
eaten by the army. This was the commencement of can-
nibalism in this world, and the practice has been con-
tinued down to the present time.

Rau-riki fled and took shelter with Kura-tahea (sacred
red ochre obtained) . The army pursued, and, in the attack
which followed, Rau-riki was slain, and his blood was drunk
by the high priest whilst it was warm. His head was cured:
the brains were first taken out and a piece of wood placed
in each nostril ; the skin of the neck sewn round a hoop of
kare-ao [Rhipogonum scandens) , so that it might not shrink ;
the lips were sewn together to prevent the teeth appearing ;
it was then carefully covered up with grass and placed on
the top of an umu and cured fd). His bones were made
into needles to sew the garments then used by the people,
some into hooks to catch fish, and some into barbs for
birds and eel-spears. The hands were dried with the
fingers bent in towards the palm, and the wrists were tied
to a pole which was stuck into the ground, and baskets
containing the remains of a meal were hung up on these
fingers.

At this time Kahu-kura (the god of the rainbow) was
personified by a figure carved in wood. To this incanta-
tions were chanted, and the effigy was held up in the hands
of the priests and shaken about to delight the people.

The practice of curing the heads of distinguished
enemies has continued down to the present time, so that
the trophies of war and the power of the people might be
seen. These were set on the tops of the posts surrounding
the enclosure of the marae (courtyard), so that visitors
might see them.

Rebellion in Heaven. (Another Reading —
Nga-i-tahu.)

The family of Rangi by his second wife, Poko-harua-te-
po, was the multitude of the Tahu. Amongst them were :



'■44 ANCIENT MAOEI HISTOKY.

Ka-tUj Wcroliia, Whaka-iria, Tao-kai-maiki, Tao-iti-a-
pac-kohuj Talma-tu, Taliua-roa, Karanga-a-tuhea, Ika-
rimu, Wliakatu-koroua, Kokiri, and Kopu-nui.

Immediately connected with these are the hosts of Te
Ann and Tao. Rangi begat Ka-mau-ki-waho^ who begat
Pari-nui, who begat Pari-mate, who begat Moe-waho, who
begat Anu-matao, who begat Te-anu-whaka-rere, who
begat Te-anu-whaka-toro, who begat Anu-mate. These are
the source of death.

To these also must be added many of the deformed off-
spring of Eangi, as Tane-tuturi, Tane-pepeke^ Tane-ku-
nawhea^ Tane-tuoi, Tane-te-wai-ora, together with some of
the offspring of Tane and Hine-tauira, as Tahu-kumea and
Tahu-whaka-ero. These were not willing to obey the
commands of Rangi; they persisted in disobedience and
wrong-doing, and were swept by his orders down to the
lower worlds. Rangi commissioned Tane to drive these
rebels from the worlds above to the worlds below. By
these mankind is drawn down to the dark worlds. They
are ever employed to tempt and draw man to great evil
and death.



Rebellion in Heaven. (Another Reading —
Nga-i-tahu.)

After Tane had arranged the stars, and had made his
father Rangi beautiful, and had formulated the laws of tapu,
he visited the earth, and again went up to the heavens. After
his departure, the spirits who occupied the lower worlds
(they who had been driven from the heavens for their dis-
obedience to Rangi) sought to be revenged on Tane for
the part he had taken in dri^dng them thence. They first
caused evil amongst the fish of the sea, and multitudes of
them were destroyed. Then they caused evil amongst the
birds of the air, and flocks of them perished. And when
men were made and had multiplied, they also caused evil
-amongst them, Tu-mata-u-enga and Rongo-ma-rae-roa



ORIGIN OP DEATH. 4-5

were the leaders of the hosts of the war spirits whicli slew
mankind. Thus was evil introduced into this world, and
man, hirds, and fish became antagonistic, Man killed man,
birds destroyed birds, and fish devoured fish; and thus^
death was first known in this world.



CHAPTER IV.



stay, omens, stay. The One Supreme has come,
And signs now tell of his disciples near.
They come, and, peering forth, gaze
Into space of beauty and of good.

I, the scholar, hold the sacred stone of power (whatu) (d)
Soul of power, soul of earth and heaven,

Accept delight and ecstasy unlimited.
Hold all beauty ; let it spread around.

The soul now climbs , and high ascends —
The soul of the Supreme and his disciples.

O Heaven 1 the soul is far above —
Above, in all creation's space,
In light supreme, in blaze of day.

Ancient incantation cTianted over invalids.

DIVISION OF HEAVEN AND EARTH.

(Nga-i-tahu.)

Raki, though speared by Takaroa, still adhered to the top
of Papa; and Raki said to Tane and his younger brothers,
" Come and kill me, that men may live."

Tane said, " O old man ! how shall we kill you ? "

Raki said, " O young man ! lift me up above, that I
may stand separate; that your mother may lie apart from
me, that light may grow on you all."

Then Tane said to Raki, " O old man ! Rehua shall
carry you."

Raki answered Tane and his younger brothers, '' O
young men ! do not let me be carried by your elder brothers
only, lest my eyes become dim. Rather all of you carry
me above, that I may be elevated, that light may dawn on
you."

Tane said to him, " Yes, O old man ! Your plan is
right — that light may grow into day."



DIVISION OF HEAVEN AND EAKTH. 47

Raki said to Tane, " It is right, O Tane ! that I be taken
and killed (separated from my wife), that I may become a
teacher to you and your younger brothers, and show you
how to kill. If I die, then will light and day be in the
world."

Tane was pleased with the reasons why his father wished
them to kill him ; and hence Tane said to another branch
of the offspring of Raki — to Te Kore-tua-tahi (the first
broken), and even to the Kore-tua-a-ngahuru (the tenth
broken), and to Te Kore-au-iho (the broken tending down-
wards), and to Te Kore-au-ake (broken tending up-
wards), and to the Makore-kore-te-po (broken of night),
and to the Makore-te-ao (broken of the light), and Kore-
a-te-ao-tu-roa (broken of the long-standing world), and to
the Makore-a-te-ao-marama (broken of the world of light) —
'' Tread on Papa, tread her down ; and prop up Rangi,
lift him up above — to Tu-moremore (the bald, or open
space), to Tu-haha (stand breathing) — that the eyes of
Raki, who is standing here, may be satisfied. Behold Te-
Huinga (the assembly), Pu-tahi (the first, or origin). Take-
take (the root, or foundation) , and Rehua." Now, this was
the origin of the heaven. It was made by Tane and
admired by him, and he uttered the words of his
prayer to aid Rehua to carry their father above. It
was at this time that Tane hid some of Te-Kore (the
broken or imperfect beings) in the Maunga-nui-o-te-whenua
(great mountain of the earth), in which they remained for
ever.

Tane now took Raki on to his back ; but he could put
Raki no higher.

Raki said to Tane, " You two, you and your younger
brother (Paia) carry me."

Then Paia prayed his prayer, and said, —

Carry Raki on the back.

Carry Papa.

Strengthen, big back of Paia,

Sprained with the leap at Hua-rau (the many hundred»).



48 ANCIENT MAORI HISTORY.

Now, I{,aki was raised with the aid of this prayer, and
spoke words of imroporoaki (farewell) to Papa, and said,
'' O Papa ! O ! You remain here. This will be the (token)
of my love to you : in the eighth month I will weep
for you.'^ Ilenee the origin of the dew, this being
the tears of Raki weeping for Papa. Raki again said to
Papa, " O old woman ! live where you are. In winter I
will sigh for you." This is the origin of ice. Then Papa
spoke words of farewell to Raki, and said, " O old man !
go, O Raki ! and in summer I also will lament for you."
Hence the origin of mist, or the love of Papa for Raki.

When the two had ended their words of farewell, Paia
uplifted Raki, and Tane placed his toko (pole) , called Toko-
maunga (prop of the mountain), between Papa and Raki.
Paia did likewise with his toko. The name of the toko of
Paia was Rua-tipua (tupua) (pit of the god) ; and whilst
in the act of propping up Raki, Paia repeated this
prayer : —



The prop of whom ?

The prop of Rua-tipua (god's pit).

The prop of whom ?

The prop of Rua-tahito(tawhito) (ancient pit),

To prop the gentle slope,

To ward oiī the

Blast of the south.

The prop ascended up —



The prop of this heaven.

Again Paia prayed, and said, —

Prop the big cloud,

The long cloud,

The thick cloud,

The door of Raki(Rangi)-riri (fountain of fish),

The gathering of Raki(Rangi)-ora (heaven of life),

O Rongo ! come forth.

Then Raki floated upAvards, and a shout of approval was
uttered by those above, Avho said, —

Tu of the long face,
Lift up the momitain.



ORIGIN OF STAES AND CLOUDS. 49

Such were the words shouted by the innumerable men
(beings) from above in approval of the acts of Tane and
Paia ; but that burst of applause was mostly in recognition of
Tane's having disconnected the heaven^ and propped up its
sidesj and made them stable. He had stuffed up the
cracks and chinkSj so that when Raid was complete and
furnished^ light arose and day began,

Tane saw that Eaki had no covering by which he could
appear seemly. He went to fetch_, and obtained_, the rahui-
kura of Ao-kehu (sacred red)^ and fastened it on Raid;
but it did not suit him^ as at night it was not seen —
only in the light of day was it seen ; so that he swept
it off, and Raki again became naked. Then he went
to the Kores he had hidden in Maunga-nui-o-te-whenua
(great mountain of the land), and drew forth Riald (lift
up), and Hapai (carry), and Te Tihi (the pinnacle), and Te
Amo (carry in a litter), and Katari (Nga-teri) (vibrate), and
Te Mania (the slide) , and Paheke (the slippery) , and Tu-horo
(stood on the slip), and Ta-wharu-wharu (sag down), and
Tapokopoko (sink in), and Awa (river), and Tipu-nui-a-uta
(great growth on shore), and Para-whcnua-mea (scum of
the flood), and from these obtained suitable covering for
Raki.

Another Reading of Raxgi. (Nga-ti-iiua-xui.)

This is the genealogy of the offspring of Papa-tu-a-nuku,
and the tribes of Rangi which became ^ars : —

Rangi begat Tupua (goblin), who begat Tawhiti (tlie
snare), who begat Tu (stand erect), who begat Te-ku (the
silent) and Wawau (stupid) . Wawau begat Te-para-ku-wai
(the scum of the Avater), who begat Para-koka (dry scum of
water) , who begat Te-pora-pora (the flat toji) . These were
taken and lifted up to become eyes for heaven, to adorn
Rangi, and from them came the first glimmer of light.

Before them was long and dense darkness, and all was
void, but with them came the first germ of life ; for
Rangi took Tc-ata-tuhi (glimmer of light), and begat the
4



50 ANCIENT ISrAORI niSTORY.

moon ; he then took Wero-wcro (inciting, probing, piercing),
and hcgat the sun. These two were also taken and placed
for eyes in the sky.

Another Reading of Rangi, (Nga-rauru.)

Rangi Avas floating on the earth. Then he took Te-
ata-tuhi to wife, and begat the moon. He took Wero-wero,
and begat the sun. These two were taken and thrown up
into the sky as eyes for heaven ; and light stood in heaven,
and dim light stood on the mountain Hiku-rangi (end of
heaven).

Another Reading of Paia and Rangi. (Nga-ti-hau.)

When Paia carried Rangi up on his back, Rangi wept

and said, —

Straighten out, big back of Paia,
Pain is at the altar at Hua-rau.

This was the incantation repeated at the time Rangi
and Papa were separated : —

Separate Ransi and Papa,

That they may be parted.

Sing the resounding song, sing the resounding song.

We two are being separated.

Sing the resounding song, sing the resounding song.

Separate the damp part.

Sing the resoundmg song,

That parting may take place.

Sing the resomiding song.

Separate Ari (eleventh day of the moon's age), and Hua (full

moon) be separated.
The resounding song.
Separate Echua, and Tama-rau-tu
(Son of the erect leaf) be separated.
Sing the resomiding song.

Separate Uru (the glow), and Kakana (Ngangana)
(Brightness) be separated.
Sing the resounding song.

Separate Te-aki (dash), and Wha-tuia (the sewn-up)
Be separated. Sing the resomiding song.
Separate Tu, and Eoko (Kongo)
Be separate. Sing the resovmding song.



oeigin of sun and moon. 51

Another Reading of Rangi. (Nga-ti-hau.)

Rangi took Te-ata-tuhi (first streak of dawn) to wife,
and begat Te-marama (the moon).

Rangi took Wero-wero to wife, and begat Te-ra (the
sun), Te-ata-rapa (first glow of dawn), Te-ata-i-mabina
(twilight). Then the light of day shone dimly on Hiku-
rangi (the end of heaA'en).

Rangi took Papa-tu-a-nuku to wife. At the time they
were separated Whai-tiri, an old female goddess of the
first generation of the Po (lower worlds), composed and
chanted this incantation, which caused the division between
Rangi and Papa : —

Bough be their skin — so altered by dread
As bramble and nettle, repugnant to feel.
So change, for each other, their love into hate.
With dire enchantments, oh, sever them, gods,
And fill with disgust to each other their days.
Engulf them in floods, in ocean, and sea.
With dire enchantments, oh, sever them, gods.
Let love and regret for each other be hate ;
Nor affection nor love of the past live again.

Another Reading of Rangi. (Nga-i-tahu.)

Te Kore (incomplete) begat Te Maku (damp). Maku
took Mahora-nui-a-tea (great expanse of light) and begat
Raki (Rangi). Raki took Hotu-papa (sobbing earth),
and begat Te Hunga (assembly), Pu-tahi (the origin),
Rehua (multitude), and Tane. Rehua came forth as a
flash of lightning, but when he went up to the heavens he
assumed the form of man. Tane became restless, and
went to see him.

Raki left his wife Hotu-papa, and took Takaroa's wife in
her husband's absence, and begat Tu-mata-waka (face of
the medium), Rongo-ma-rae-roa (fame of the long fore-
head), Tane-nui-a-raki (great male power of Raki), and
Paia-nui-a-raki (great closed one of Raki). "When Taka-
roa (long in taking action) returned and found his
wife living with Raki, he took his hiiata (barbed spear) and



52 ANCIENT MAORI HISTORY.

fought with Ruki, and wounded him, and laid him pro-
strate. The people came for him. Some who were above
pulled him up, whilst Paia, Tane, and their followers
carri(nl him. These were the props which they used to
elevate and keep him up : Ma-tu-pua (stand elevated) , Rua-
tahito (old pit), Pi-naki (gentle slope), Kai-he (wrong eat-
ing), Nga-mau-ki-tua (the taken behind), Ko-nga-mau-ki-
Avaho (the taken outside), and Ko-nga-mau-ki-tahito-o-te-
rangi (taken to the ancient heaven). When Raki was
steadfastly secured and perfectly separated from Papa it
was found he had taken away with him the root of kakaho
farundo conspicua) , the kura-tawhiti fkumaraj, the hara-
keke-taunga-wiri (flax), and the aruhe (fern-root).

Tane saw that his father Raki was naked ; so he went
and obtained kura (red) to make his father look comely ;
but this did not suffice. He then went to bring the
stars from the Pae-taku-o-roko, and from Te-tupini-o-
wahi-mua-mamau (the mat of dread and of the sacred
holding) . The names of these tiipini (mats) were : Hi-ra-
uta (fish by the land), Hi-ra-tai (fish by the sea), Pari^
nuku (clifl: of the earth), Pari-raki (cliff of the sky).
Stars were the fastenings of these mats.

Tupu-ranga-o-te-po (growing of the night) and Tau-arai-

o-te-ao (partition dividing the day) were two names for

him who advised Tane to take the fastenings of the mats

(the stars). Tane returned to his own home by another

way from that by which he had gone, and Tupu-ranga-o-te-po

took the stars and brought them for Tane. He brought —

O Manako-tea (white Magellan Cloud),

® ]Manako-uri (black Magellan Cloud) , and also

^^E^^^^^zEi Te-ika-o-te-raki, called Mango-

roa (big Magellan Cloiul).

He also brought Ao-tahi (first light), the sacred star, and

Ariki (queen of all the stars of the year). Pu-aka (in

a heap) was her father, and Taku-rua (double rim) was

her mother. She w^ll not associate with the others. "When

she appears in the east the people repeat incantations,

■weep, and welcome her.



STARS AND THEIR NAMES. 53

When Pu-aka twiukles and flashes its rays towards tlie
north, it is an omen of a fine year; when it twinkles and
flashes its rays towards the south, it is an omen of a bad
year of rain and wind. These seasons are called after the
stars which influence those periods of the year for good or
evil.

These are the positions of these stars : —
^ Ao-tahi.
-)(■ ^ Pu-aka and Taku-rua.

^ Tama-re-reti (swift-flying son).
•^ Te-waka-o-tama-rereti (his canoe).
® Puanga (dark cloud, called the anchor of
the canoe of Tama-re-reti).
Tane placed the stars on Raki in the daytime, but they
were not beautiful ; but at night his father Raki looked
grand.

The dewij^-the frost, the snow , and the rain are the pro-
creatiug power from Raki to Papa, and make all shrubs
and trees grow in the summer.

Another Reading of Raki (Rangi). (Nga-ti-hau.)

Raki was also father of Ka-mau-ki-waho (will be caught
outside), who begat Pari-nui (big cliff), who begat Pari-
mate (the clifc of death), who begat Moe-waho (slept out-
side), who begat Anu-matao (cold wind), who .begat Anu-
whakarere (e?:ceedingly cold), who begat Anu-whakatoro
(cold creeping on), who begat Anu-mate (death cold).
These are they who draw man to death.

Also, Anu-whakatoro (cold creeping on) begat Anu-wai
(cold water), who begat Taka(Tanga)-roa (long assembly),
who begat Te Pounamu (the greenstone) .

Raki and his wife Ha-kina (breath of the sea-egg) begat
Te Rupe (the pigeon), who was driven inland. Rupe begat
Te Kau-nunui (the great sAvimmers), Avho begat Tc Kau-
roroa (the long swimmers), wlio begat Te Kau-wheki (move
on the fern), who begat Tu-pari (stand on the cliff), who
begat Tu-mata (stand on the peak), who begat Tc Moa



54 ANCIENT MAORI HISTORY.

(jump forward) and Pckc-i-tua (jumped bcliiud). Pelcc-i-tua
begat Peke-aro (jump before), ■who begat Peke-hawani
(mirage), Avho begat Po-halia (bewildered), who begat Kai-
tangata (man-cater) .

Raki was also father of Rehua. Rehua begat Tama-i-te-
oko-tahi and Ao-nui. Ao-nui begat Ao-roa, who begat
Ao-pouri (dark world), who begat Ao-potako(potango)
(intensely dark world), who begat Ao-toto (world of blood),
who begat Ao-whero (red world), who begat Tu-korokio
(stand in the shade), who begat jNIo-uri-uri (the black
darkness), who begat Mo-rearea (the disgusted), who begat
Mo-haki-tua (past words of the divination), who begat Mo-
haki-aro (first words of divination), who begat Kupa
(hiccup), who begat Wai-hemo (exhausted water), who
begat Ika-tau-i-raki .(the fish sign in heaven), who begat
Maroro-ki-tu-a-raki (strong at the back of heaven), who
begat Te-uira (lightning), who begat Te Kanapu (the flash),
who begat Turi-whaia (obstinate pursued), who begat Whai-
tiri (the following crashing noise) .

Whai-tiri took as her husband Kai-tangata, avIio begat
Hema (procreating power). Ilema took as her husband
Hu-aro-tu (standing silently), who begat Karihi (the stones
to sink the net), a son, and Pupu-mai-nono (bind up the
intestines), a daughter, and after these was born another
son, called Ta-whaki (rush about). Ta-whaki was nou-
rished by his parents and his elder brother and sister
until maturity. He became quite enamoured of Hine-nui-
a-te-kawa (the great daughter of baptism), who had been
betrothed by her seniors to one of their several relatives ;
but Hine-nui-a-te-kawa did not like any of those for whom
she was intended — she loved Ta-whaki. Her elder relatives
saw that she was constantly in the company of Ta-whaki,
and they secretly conspired to kill Ta-whaki. He, knowing
this, remembered the words of his grandmother, Whai-tiri,
who had, when she was leaving Kai-tangata to go to heaven,
said, '' You stay here, and call our child Hema, in remem-
brance of my living with you as your wife ; and do you
carefully attend to her, and rear her up tenderly. O old



TA-WHAKI WORSHIPPED. 55

man ! hearken to my word addressed to you : If our cliild
fret after me do not let her follow me, lest she should not
be able to climb to the heaven of sacred ceremonies and
incantations ; and when we have a grandchild, call his
name Ta-whaki, in remembrance of my rushing down from
the heavens to you. He shall be the man to climb to the
heaven of sacred ceremonies/^ So ended the farewell
words of Whai-tiri to her husband, and she was taken by
the clouds to heaven.

Now, Hema had acted in a thoughtless manner : she did
not reverence the words of her mother, but followed and
climbed after her to Tc Tini-o-waiwai (the many fol-
lowers), who beat her back. For this reason great was
the desire of Ta-whaki to go and find his parent ; and the
discovery of the conspiracy to murder him greatly increased
that desire.

Ta-whaki. (Nga-ti-hau.)

Ta-whaki at one period lived on earth, and was in ap-
pearance like a man. His garments were like those of a
poor man. He went up to the top of a mountain and sat
down, w^here he put off his earthly garments and clothed
himself in lightning. Now, there was a man on that moun-
tain, who, when he saw Ta-whaki coming, secreted himself^
and from his hiding-place he saw Ta-whaki thus transform
himself. He informed the people of the fact, and thence
the people looked on Ta-whaki as a god, and all the tribes
chanted incantations and offered sacrifices to him.

Ta-whaki caused the deluge by stamping on the floor of
the heaven until it cracked, and a flood of water flowed
down and covered the earth.

Ta-whaki was killed by his brother-in-law ; but he was
innocent of the deed for which he was killed. At his death
the kaka [Nestor pvoductus) and kaka-riki (small green
parrot) took some of his blood and stained their feathers
with it. Hence the red on the feathers of those birds to
this day. Ta-whaki by his own inherent power came to
life agcain.



56 ANCIENT MAORI HISTORY.

Wliati-tiri (sound of crasliiug),liis father, wished Ta-whaki
to go and live with him ; but, as tlie mother of Ta-whaki
had l)cen taken prisoner ])y some foreign people, he wished
to reseue her before he complied with his father's request.
The people who had his mother in custody — Patu-pae-a-rehe
(beat on the ridge till weary) — lived on an island difficult
of access. They were not men, but a sort of demons of the
woods. The duty assigned to his mother in her captivity
was to slec]! on the verandah [ivhaka-mahau — shady, cool),
and warn the i)cople in the house of the first appearance of
day. As soon as she warned them of the dawn they rose
and went to the woods.

Ta-whaki found her whilst the people were away in the
forests. They consulted together, and agreed that he
shovild hide himself in the thatch of the side of the house.
They closed every aperture by which light might enter,
leaving the door only open.

When the people returned in the evening, the first to
arrive had some suspicion that a visitor had been there.
They inquired of her ; but she answered evasively, and lulled
their fears. The people slept in the house that night, and
when it began to dawn one of them called to her and asked,
" Is it dawn ?^^ She answered, "No," and described the
situation of the stars in the heaven to show that, it would
be some time ere dawn. They slept, and awoke again and



Online LibraryJohn WhiteThe ancient history of the Maori, his mythology and traditions .. (Volume 1) → online text (page 5 of 27)