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went and felled the tree, and cut off the top of it, and
came back and stayed in his house. On the morrow he
returned to the tree, which he found had been put up
again as though it had never been cut down. He again
cut it down and cut the top off, and came back to his
house, and said to his mother, " When I went to the tree,
it was standing as though it had never been cut down."



70 ANCIENT MAOBI HISTORY.

She askcfl, "What did you do to the tree?" He said, "I
(mt it down without liaving first propitiated the gods by
performing tlic usual ceremonies and repeating the ineanta-
tions for such an act.'' Slie said, " It is not well to cut
your ancestor (d) down ignorantly." He said, " Yes, I at
once cut it down, without any ceremony." She said,
" Go, return." He Avent and cut it down again, and cut
the top off, and went on one side and hid himself, and
heard these words repeated by some beings : —

It is Rata — it is Eata of Wah.ie-roa.

You ignorantly cut down

The sacred forest of Tane,

The sacred chips of Tane.

The chips of the root fly,

The chips of the top fly.

They adhere, tliey go near.

They are all bound on again.

Stand up and wave (0 tree! in the wind).

The tree again stood in its old position. He rushed out
and stopped those creatures, who flew hither and thither ou
every side of him, and left the tree. He said, " Why do
you meddle with my tree ? " They replied, " Go, return to
your home ; leave your tree here, and we will make your
canoe." He went home, and his mother asked, " What is
the state of your tree ? " He answered, " I found it stand-
ing up again, and cut it down, and cut off its head, and
stood aside and watched, and heard my name repeated."
He slept, and on awakening on the morrow found a canoe
had been made and brought to the side of his house.
On the morrow of another day the canoe was taken to the
sea, and the ceremony of naming it was performed ; and
it was taken out to sea, and with line and hook fish were
caught, and were brought to the settlement, and the canoe
hauled up on the beach. One of the fishes was roasted,
and taken, and, with appropriate incantations repeated, was
offered to Mua. Some of the other fishes were roasted
and eaten, and some seaweed taken and shaken before
]Mua. Rata slept, and on the morrow another of the
fishes was cooked in a hangi (Maori oven) fd). This was the



THE ATTACK.

fellow of the one whicli had been roasted ; and the covering's
which were put around those fishes to cook them in^ were
hung up before Mua. On the morrow the canoe was again
dragged into the water_, and it was called Niwa-reka (great
delight) . A war-party embarked in it, and went to the land
of Kiore-roa (long rat), and of Kiore-poto (short rat). Two
incantations — one short, the other a longer one —
were repeated by the war-party. This was one of the in-
cantations repeated : —

Rat, rat, look to the north.

Leave rat to rest in his house.

The house of Tu-nui (great standing ; the whale),

The house of Taka-roa.

Noose caught, quite caught

At the first glimmer of day.

Pull it tight, dash it,

Strangle it till it is red (in the face).

Come, A-o ! and add thy power.

They attacked these people, and Kiore-poto escaped, but
Kiore-roa was killed. Kiore-roa, who was killed, was brought
by Rata to his mother, but she was not satisfied that ample
revenge for the death of her husband had been taken.

Again Rata collected his warriors, and went out on the
sea to the place called Te Railii (a plot of ground enclosed
by a fence), where Tama-uri-uri (the black son) lived, in
the country called Pu-horo(oro)-nuku (land of bad weather);
and Pu-oro-rangi (stormy sky) and asked Tama-uri-uri
" Where is your man ? " (head chief ) . He said, " He is
at home. I am left here in charge of the cultivations."
The war-party asked, " Can he be induced to come here ? "
The vassal said, " No. On his departure he said to me,
not till the seventh or eighth month would he return to
chant the incantations and perform the ceremonies for our
cabbage-plot." They asked, '' Will you call him ? " He
called and said, " Matuku, come and repeat the thank-
offering for our cabbage-plot." Matuku answered, " You
are confusing the seasons of jMatuku. On the seventh or
eighth month I will come and perform that ceremony
again." Tama-uri-uri called and said, " Matuku, come



72 ANCIENT MAOIil HISTORY.

and perform the ceremony over our cabbage-plot." He
answered, " You are arousing tlie anger of Matuku : you
will be scorched l)y the wrath of Matuku.''

Rata had placed a noose on the entrance of the cave, called
Puta-aroaro-nuku (the hole in the breast of the earth), in
which Matuku lived. As Matuku-uri-uri was coming up,
Rata repeated this incantation : —

This my noose,

To tie the elevated —

To tie to a man

Followed by a war-party.

Tied to the house of the earth [or, tied to the earth] —

Tied and beaten ;

Caught, revenge gratified, and taken away.

Before he could be seen, his hair (or feathers) appeared.
On he came, and the noose encircled his neck. Rata pulled
it tight, and with an axe gave him a blow, and killed him.
Thus was the death of Wahie-roa avenged, and full satis-
faction obtained.

Rata and Matuku. (Nga-i-tahu.)

When Rata had grown to man's estate he spoke to his
mother, and said, " O mother ! where is my father, by
whom I am ? " His mother answered, " Who knows ? On
the inland side of our house, perhaps, or on the opposite
side, perhaps, or where ? — at the back of our house, per-
haps." He said, " Why are you confusing me ? Do you
not perceive that I ask, With whom did you cohabit ? "
She said to her son, " O son ! hearken. I have told you of
old, and you have heard my words which I said to you.
Long ago your father was killed by Matuku." He asked,
''Where does he live who killed my father ? " She said,
" O son ! can you not understand where the land is where
the man resides who killed your father ? " He asked,
" Can I not go there ? " She said, " You may go ; but
you will not arrive there, because where the sun comes up
is the place where Matuku resides. But do you really
wish to go there ? " " Yes," said the son, " I wish to go



THE STONE AXES. 73

there/' She said, " You cannot get there, as the ocean is
the only road thither." He said, "Well, then, where
is the road to the place ? " She said, " O son ! hearken to
me : if your msh is great you must adze out a canoe, as
a path by which you can get to it."

Rata then went along the plains of Hekea (descended),
and near to the land at Raki-tahua (heaven of plenty),
and saw the men of that land, and, standing in the midst
of that multitude, he called, "O friends ! where is Kahue ? "
(Ngahue) (swarm) . The multitude around him said, " He
is at the Papa-tu-ano-hawaiki-a-kahue (calm plains of Ha-
waiki of Ngahue), where he resides." Rata called again to
the multitude, '' I have come to see him." He then went
over the beautiful plain of Wai-kapua (water of the clouds),
and arrived at the plain of Hawaiki, where he met Kahue,
to whom he said, " O friend ! will you not turn with kind-
ness to me ? I have come to obtain stone axes of you."
Kahue heard, and said, " It is good, O young man ! I will
break a stone for an axe for you," And Kahue broke a
slab of stone for axes ; and the name of the axe which
Kahue gave to Rata was Te-papa-ariari (the admired
block of stone). Now, the name of the axe (which Ka-
hue gave to Kupe) was Tauira-a-pa (the model, is it not ?) .
Kahue kept the one called Nga-paki-tua (the fair weather
beyond) for himself. Rata was delighted in having pos-
session of an axe. He brought it away with him. On his
departure Kahue said, " O friend ! now that you have an
axe, on your arrival at home do you place it on the back
of Hine-tu-a-hoanga " (the daughter of the whetstone) .
These words Rata kept in his memory, and when he had
come up to Hine-tu-a-hoanga and Tu-hina-po (dusk of even-
ing), the gods whom he had formerly visited, he put it on
to Tu-a-hoanga ; and when he had obtained the handle and
other necessaries for his axe — namely, Kanga(Ekenga)-te-
maku (the damp come up), and Engaka(Ekeuga)-te-rangi
(the ascent to heaven), and U-oroia-te-ati-tipua (offspring
of the goblin sharpened), and U-oroia-te-ati-tahito (tawhito)
(offspring of the ancient sharpened) — he completed his axe



74 ANCIENT MAOllI HISTOKY.

with a lashings and he called the name of it Mapu-nai-ere
(expression of delight).

Kata went into the sacred forest of Tane to search
for a tree. Having found one, he thoughtlessly cut it
down ; but he did not offer to Tane, the god o£
forests, the propitiatory offering, and repeat the in-
cantations, customary on such an occasion. He made
four blows above and four below. On the fifth the
tree fell, and with his axe he cut the tree into the shape of
a canoe. Then he saw the multitude of heaven replacing
on the body of the tree the chips he had cut off, and he
heard the multitude of the Para-rakau (gum of the tree)
singing these words : —

Leave it, leave it, Rata — Rata, of Wahic-roa !

You have cut it ignorantly —

The sacred grove of Tane.

The chips fly,

The root flies.

They are near,

They are sticking.

unavailing ! follow on.

Rata showed himself to them so that they could see his
face. They at once condemned him for his ignorance, and
said, " Hearken. Go to your home, and leave the canoe
where it is.^' So he returned. In one night he was at
his home, and on the morrow he found the canoe had been,
taken to his settlement, and the sight of it rejoiced the
heart of his mother as well as of himself, as it was the
fulfilment of the promise made by the gods when he left
it to them ; and he called the name of the canoe Niwa-
ru (throbbing of the heart in joy). Then he pondered
how he should obtain satisfaction for the death of his
father, AVahie-roa. He collected an army and proceeded
towards the sunrise, and arrived at the settlement of
Tama-uri-uri (black son). Now, Tama-uri-uri lived in a
cave called Pu-aro-nuku (facing the earth). He, ad-
dressing Rata, said, '^ Matuku (the crane-bird) is still
alive : he dwells in the cave called Pu-aro-rangi (facing
the sky), and is now there." Hearing this, the hearts of



MATUKU KILLED. 75

Rata's army were glad. So they landed at Kaiwhaia (the
pursuers), aud went to the top of the mountain at Whiti-
haua (the coAvardly have crossed), and went cautiously up
to the rim of the cave, because Matuku was engaged in
his daily avocations. Rata called down to him, but
Matuku did not heed his words. He spoke a second
time; when Matuku called up to the army and said,
" These are not the propitious nights of Matuku,^' (meaning
On the seventh, eighth, or tenth month you and I can
meet and thrash each other — in the heat of summer, when
Titi-puha (the night mutton-bird) issues from its burrow.)
Rata again said, " O old man, Matuku ! climb up here ;
here is property for you.^^ He answered, '^ Theil I am
defeated, as my words are without effect : words are un-
availing, and forebode evil.'' He ascended, and Rata put a
noose called Rua-wharo (pit of the coughing) over the
mouth of the cave, and caught Matuku by the neck and
killed him. Then Rata said, " Property is a good bait to
hold out to decoy man, that his heart should not ponder,
and he be cau":ht as the fish of the ocean."



Rata and Matuku. (Nga-ti-mahuta.)

When Rata had grown to man's estate he asked his
mother, Hine-tu-a-haka (daughter of low estate) , " Where
is my father ? " She answered, " He was killed by an
alien people who reside on the other side of the ocean."
He inquired the way by which he could arrive there, and
was instructed by her ; but she said, " You must build a
canoe to go there."

Rata built a canoe in which to voyage in quest of those
who had killed his father while he was quite a child. He
built it of the kahika (/coroi-tree — white pine). He cut
a tree down, but the gods put it up again : this they did
because Rata had not chanted the incantations and per-
formed the various ceremonies, which are repeated and per-
formed on such occasions. When he had cut the tree down
three times, and it had been as often replaced by them.



76 ANCIENT MAORI HISTORY.

lie lay in ambusli ; hut, l)cinf^ discovered hy tlicm, they
said, " Go to your settlement/^ On the following day at
dawn, a canoe was found at the home of llata.

Rata gathered the people together and selected a crew,
and sailed away towards the home of his enemies. Having
arrived there, the bones of his father rattled together, and
made a noise of welcome to him. They sang, "To, to, to"
(Pull, pull, pull).

llata found a slave at the place, of whom he asked,
"Where are the people of this settlement?" The slave
said, " They are down in the cave." Rata put a noose
over the mouth of the cave to snare Matuku (the murderer
of his father), who was caught in it, and killed in payment
for the death of Rata's father.

Rata discovered and taught the art of cutting and
polishing greenstone with the stone called Hine-tu-wa-
hoaka(hoanga) (daughter like the whetstone).

Another Reading of Rata. (Nga-rauru.)

Rata built a large canoe called Pu-nui (great original),
in which to voyage to Tu-makia (trouble ever remembered)
and Nui-owhiti (great sorrow). These places were some-
where in the great ocean. The inhabitants had killed his
father, whose death he longed to avenge.

Having built his canoe inland, he got his people to haul
her to the seashore ; but they were not able to accomplish
the task. He then chanted incantations to 0-matangi
(the winds), and went to Te-puru-o-te-utu-tu-matua (the
plug of the reservoir where parents whilst standing dip
water up), and drew it out. Then a flood came and lifted
the canoe, and she floated down to the sea-shore, and he and
his war-party embarked and went to Tu-maki-nui-o-wara-
(whara) (standing of the sick one who has been smitten),
and lighted a fire, the smoke of which was seen by Mau-
matuku (or Matuku) (the bittern caught), who went to
see why the fire had been lighted. A trap had been laid
for him by Rata, in which he was caught, and Rata killed
him.



PraSOXEES TAKEN. 77

Tlie food taken by Rata and his people for the voyage
was all eaten by a few of them ; the other portion of his
company were therefore starved.

The party attacked the inhabitants of the land^ and
killed all but one man, who was called Te-mate-oro-kahi
(difficulty in grinding a figure out of stone). This man
they carried away captive, and burnt the fortification of
Mau-matuku, and returned to their own land.

E/ATA. (AXOTHER ReADIXG NgA-RAURU.)

At the time Wahie-roa was murdered, Hawea (doubt-
ing) died. Rata determined to build the canoe Pu-nui ;
but the people questioned the wisdom of making such a
canoe and the expediency of embarking in an expedition to
avenge the death of "\Vahie-roa. But Rata proceeded, and
when it was finished the people were called together to
drag the canoe to the sea. All joined in the effort, but
they dragged in vain ; the canoe would not move. Then
they called on the heavens to open the fountain-head of
water. Their prayers were granted, and the waters
descended and carried the canoe to the sea — to Te-awa-
roa (long stream), at Pikopiko-whititia (the crooked tied
together) .

Rata and Matuku. (Nga-ti-hau.)

Rata made the canoe called Pu-niu (origin of the nhc,
the conjuring-sticks of the priests). When it was finished,
the people attempted to drag it to the sea, but they were
too few in niimber, and were not able to accomplish their
object.

Now, Rata had built this canoe that he might go on a
voyage to Tu-makia (trouble ever remembered) and Nui-
owhiti (great sorrow), to seek revenge for the death of bis
father, 0-matangi (the air) [or Au-matangi (the current
of the air)].

As the people were unable to drag the canoe to the sea.
Rata went to the Puru-o-te-utu-tu-matua (stopper of the



78 ANCIENT MAOIII HlSTOIlY.

reservoir, Avlicre the parents, -vvliilst standing, dip up tlie
water), and pulled it out, which caused the water to flow
and rise; then Pu-niu floated, and llata got in and sailed
to Tu-maki-nui-o-wara(whara) (long standing of the sick one
who has been smitten) ; there he lighted a fire, the smoke
of which was seen by Mau-Matuku (crane-bird carried),
who also came and landed from his canoe. So Rata
captured and killed him.

Rata and his crew then laid siege to the fort of Mau-
Matuku. The food which the besieged had in store was
all captured by the besiegers, and those in the fort were
gradually starved to death. Eventually only one of the
party of Matuku survived, named Te-mata-oro-kahi (the
obsidian to sharpen the wedge) . He was taken prisoner,
the fort burnt, and Rata, with his warriors, returned home.



Rata, Matuku, and Whiti. (Nga-ti-mahvta.)

Matuku (the crane-bird) and AYhiti (to cross) were
murderers. They had murdered many people. But at
last Matuku murdered "Wahie-roa, and took the wife of
Wahie-roa to his bed. The relatives of Wahie-roa as-
sembled and went into the forest to select a tree for a
canoe. Having found one they lighted a fire at the root, and
the tree fell ; but the gods Tini-a-haku-turi (the many bow-
legged) came in the shape of little birds in the night, and
put the tree up again in its position. Three times this
tree was felled by the people ; three times it was restored to
its place by these little gods. The men became angry, and
felled the tree again, and then hid themselves in the forest
close by. These gods again came ; but the people rushed
out from their hiding-place, and made such a baMling noise
that not only did the gods fly away, but some of the trees
standing close by were so frightened that they hung down
their heads. The foi {Cordi/Iine indivisa) was one who did
so, the ponga {Cyathea decdbata) and kare-ao {Rhipogonum
scandens) were others ; and they hold their heads down to
this very day.



WAEPaOKS EMBARK. 79

When the canoe was made and the side-boards were put
on they began to drag her towards the sea; but the scrub
through which she had to be hauled was so dense that they
w^ere unable at that time to drag her out ; so they sang the
following tail (song) to give spirit to the workmen : —

Now, now shake your knees,
O company of workmen !
Now, now shake the bramble.
Come forth, Whiti and Matuku !

And this song has become a proverb^ and is to this day
repeated by any one who may foresee a quarrel arising.
This song, being sung in chorus by the workmen, made
such a loud noise and gave them such energy that the scrub
parted and opened a road, and that canoe was taken out.

The warriors embarked and crossed the sea to the
district in which stood the house of Matuku ; but he was not
at home. The woman they were in search of, the wife
of Wahie-roa, was there. The braves asked her, '' How
shall we capture Matuku? ^' She said, "Make a noose and
place it in front of the door of his house, and hide your-
selves in the sides of the house. ^' She also cautioned them
not to catch Matuku by his neck, but by his waist ; because
his neck was so powerful he coujd not be secured, but his
waist was powerless.

They heard Matuku coming. The ground trembled with
the force of his tread and the weight of his feet. He was
carrying a load of human flesh on his back, which, on his
arrival in front of the door of his house, he threw on to the
ground. He appeared to suspect something was wrong, and
stood sniffing the wind and saying, —

Stink, stink ;

Odour, odour.
The woman called out, —

No, no ; all is right.

No ; there is not anything wrong.

Matuku bowed down and entered the door of the house.
When his head and back were within the noose the braves
pulled it tight, and he was caught. They cut one of his



80 ANCIENT MAORI HISTOKY.

arms (hands) off ; then he said, " You cannot kill me,"
"When each of liis other limbs was cut off he still asserted,
" You cannot kill rac.'^ Then they cut off his head, and
thought they had killed him, but found that his appearance
only became changed, and he assumed the form of the
matuku (bittern-bird) . And this is the origin of that bird,
as "well as its name.

Now that Matuku had been disposed of, the warriors
asked the wife of Wahie-roa, " How may Whiti also be
captured ? " She described the cave in which he was then
living, and said, " Place a noose over the entrance of the
cave ; then make as much noise as you can by bawling aloud ;
this will cause him to come out and rush after you, as
is his custom when any one goes near his cave/'

The noose was made as she advised, and Whiti came out,
and was canglit in it and killed.



CHAPTER VI.



Keen sorrow day and night,
And pain of lacerated flesh,
My rembling frame o'erpowers.

Oh ! would some priest
Enchantments bring, and in the stream (a)
Bevive my soul, and drown my love,
That I may grieve no more
My loss of him, my all in life,
Whose form the waves now babble over in the deep.

Go, O loved one ! ne'er by me
Shall all thy fame and noble deeds
Amidst the crowd be lost.

Yes, e'en in war, and all that
Man calls great in sport or love,
I'll hold thee forth to public view.
E'en as the beauteous prow of war-canoe
Attracts the gaze, and shouts of
Western tribes' applause.

I'll hold thee forth as beam of
Sacred house all carved around with moko lines
Of thine own ancient tribe and seers.

Oh, yes ! I know 'twas said of old,
The house where Tatau was.
And where the Mae-waho in crowds
All met their doom, and slept in death ;

Where all the Pona-turi's voice was hushed to speak no more.
So I for theo will joy
That full revenge was sought and found
As that for Hema's death so amply gained.

Ail ancient laiiient of a u'idoiv.

DEATH OF WAIIIE-ROA — continued.
Mythological Chant respecting AYhai-tiri, Kai-tangata^

AND llUPE. (NgA-IIAURU.)

Blow, gentle breeze ; sweep o'er the face of heaven,
And pinions break in Eupe's wings ;
Bedim the glow of red that paints his porch,
That ne'er again, with outstretched wings,
Ho saal across the sky.
6



82 ANCIENT MAOKĪ HISTORY.

Orcat Rna's bird now folds liis pinions close ;

Then spreads again, to soar in gentle air ;

Then dazzled sight but dimly sees the earth and heaven.

His certain knowledge wraps him round as with

A girdle, bound in self-sufficiency ; but night,

Dark night, in gloom would stultify his power.

Tai-tu-tini (ever-standing sea) hegat Taki (follow) and
Mare (cough), who begat Tai-ra-tu (tide of the shining
sun), Tai-aro-pai (gentle-looking sea), and Tai-rapa-pai
(gentle rippling tide), who begat Pu-whe-tongi-tongi (origin
of the nibbling dwarf), who begat Te-niuihi (sneak out of
sight), Parata (god of the ocean), Pare-kuku (nipped
plume), and Pare-wawau (plume of the stupid).

Now let the thicket here beneath.

Though small it be, a home for gods be made ;

Yet let some gods return.

That room may be for man.

Shells live in the sea, and heed not

Foam nor noise, nor court the summer air.

No dread nor trembling can their scaleless bodies feel,

Nor fear of thunder's peal, nor net

Nor noose that man on earth

Can set or use.

Tuhi (flashing forth) begat Rapa (crashing noise), who
begat Uira (lightning), Awha (storm with rain), and "Wara-
wara-te-rangi (babbling of heaven), who took lloro-te-rangi
(front of heaven) and begat Whai-tiri (thunder), who took
Hiakai-tangata (Kai-tangata) (hunger for man) and begat
Punga (anchor), Punga-nui (great anchor), Punga-roa (long
anchor)^ Tau-tau (suspended), Taii-tau-iri (suspended in
straps), Tau-tau-mate (suspended dead), Tupua (goblin),
and Tawiti (rat-trap).

RUPE AND ReHUA. (NgA-I-TAHU.)

Rupe (folded together, or pigeon) ascended to heaven in
search of Rehua, and, having arrived at a settlement, he
asked, " Are there people above here ? " and received for
reply, " Yes, there are people above here." He asked,
" Can I go there ? " and was answered, " No, you cannot :
these are the heavens which were sewn together bv Tane."



REHUA AND EUPE. 83

Rupe pushed all impediments aside, and went into that
heaven. This he did again and again till he had gained the
tenth heaven.

He gained the place where Rehna resided^ who came to
•welcome him (d). They wept over each other. Rehua
wept in ignorance as to the identity of Rupe ; but R,upe
repeated an incantation as he wept by which Reliua dis-
covered his guest. Having concluded their greeting, Rehua
ordered his people to light a fire. This having been done,
calabashes (d) were brought and put down in front of Rchua.
Rupe, seeing these were empty, could not imagine where



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