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lic good ; let us consider whether Individualism may not
prove to be the ruin of the nation if it continue to have
free play, uncorrected and unchecked by some higher,
some better motive. A nation inevitably becomes weak
when it delivers itself up to the mere acquisition of wealth,
the glory of Avhich, as Sallust truly tells us, is fleeting and



Chap. XCVI.] THE DOMINANT RACE. 671

perishable, while that of the intellect is illustrious and im-
mortal. Why, then, should we view with despair or con-
demnation the retreat of power from the Individual or
from the Party. Why lament the loss of that

The centralization i-i-/. -n i

of power on inteiii- wuich, it we Will onlv opcu our cyes, we may

gence to be desired. • ■' J s: J 7 J

see that we never possessed ? Why not pre-
pare to accept that which has been, and will ever be the
lot of all nations — centralization? guiding ourselves in
such a manner that it may be a centralization resting on
Intelligence, and not on brute force.

While in America there is nothing to prevent the influx
jTecessityofpro- of foreign popuktious — Europcau, Aslatlc,
Sl)m"lt'omrdom- African — bringing with them their various
man race. rcligious and social ideas — while thus it ap-

pears from the past history of the Republic that these pop-
ulations will be inevitably absorbed, sound policy indi-
cates that nothing should be left undone to maintain the
physical vigor and the intellectual activity of the native
American race. A community which for many genera-
tions has lived in one locality becomes, as it were, special-
ized; it is moulded by climate; it may even fall into a stag-
nant state. Physical immobility engenders intellectual im-
mobility, and improvement seems almost to be hopeless.
What a contrast between the' Asiatic, who is fixed to one
spot like a plant, who has lost all ideas of progress, of lib-
erty, of manhood, and the restless American, who is ever
shifting his place — -who itches to have a hand in the legis-
lation and administration of affairs, small or great, in the
village, the township, the nation — who would revise the
laws of nature if he could, and amend the Constitution of -
the universe.

In another work I have pointed out that it should be a
Political importance Settled principle of American polity to en-
of wcomotion. couragc, as far as possible, personal and fami-
ly locomotion. In this way much may be done to neutral-
ize the pernicious influences of climate, and prevent special-



g72 IMPORTANCE OF A COMMON TONGUE. [Sect. XXII.

ization. The self-conceit that fills an unmoving people is
destroyed if that jDeople be brought into the presence of
the stranger. The Civil War would not have occurred if
the Southern people had knovvn better the character, the
intelligence, the resources, the power of those whoih they
voluntarily made their antagonists.

The experience of America confirms the experience of
Europe, that control over the means of transmission of in-
telligence and over the means of internal locomotion, the
telegraph and the railroad, should be possessed by the gov-
ernment. Individuals and companies are not to be trusted
with the power that arises from these inventions.

Individual and family locomotion in the United States
Political importance is both prompted and facilitated by the im-

ota common tongue. ^^^^,^^j^^ f^Ct that, with CXCeptloUS tOO Inslg-

nificant to merit notice, the entire population speaks one
tongue. This is a powerful bond of unity, giving wonder-
ful activity, and indueiug multitudes Avho would otherwise
be stationary to undertake journeys and change their place
of abode, thereby antagonizing to no small degree the bale-
ful effects of climate. But the advantages of a common
language are not limited to these physical results: there
are intellectual ones of not less, perhaps, indeed, of higher
value. One language implies one literature, a tendency to
uniformity in the processes of thought, and to identity in
fundamental ideas. What England has produced by cen-
turies of intellectual labor has come to us a free gift — a
gift of priceless value. Ours are her ideas of liberty and
law ; to her literature as to a fountain of light we repair ;
the torch of science that is shining here was kindled at her
midnight lamp ; the fires of religion that purify our land
were lighted at her altar.

In this chapter I have been contemplating the difficulties
DiiBcnmesavisin, ^^^^ ^^'^ ^^^^^'^ ^^"^ Rcpublic arising from its
cian'^StheD™ Hccessaiy expansion and policy of absorption.
tribution of Power, rj.^^^,^ ^^^ ^^^^^ formidable difficulties, which



Chap. XCVI.] DISTRIBUTION OF POWEK. 673

must inevitably be encountered, arising from the Distribu-
tion of Power. The Civil War itself has been a most mo-
mentous example of this. As we have seen, the real cause
of that war was the apprehension that the political influ-
ence so long enjoyed by the South was about to be lost by
her. The slave interest was merely the instrument with
which she tried to secure by sej)aration what she must in-
evitably lose by union. As the centres of population and
of wealth move steadily westward, there will be continually
witnessed changes in the Distribution of Power — changes
that will necessarily imply conflicts of a serious kind.
Thus it is not to be supposed that the smaller states, such
as Delaware and Rhode Island, will be permitted long to
possess an equal voice in the United States Senate with
the great and powerful states of the West. New England
and the Atlantic region must make ready to surrender a
part of their power. It may be said that these are rights
founded upon the original compact, and consecrated by the
Constitution ; but the Civil War has its logic too. In im-
posing once and forever the principle of Nationality, it has
inexorably determined that the little rights of a particular
state shall never stand in the way of the rights and the
progress of the great united whole.

In the American system the Distribution of Power is reg-
ulated by the distribution of population, and therefore it is
liable to great and rapid changes. Some communities are
growing, some have passed into a stationary condition,
some are declining. Hence there arise many facts of inter-
est, not only in a local, but a national point of view. Among
such may be mentioned the migratory movements of the
white inhabitants of the Southern into other states, the re-
sult of the change in social condition brought about by the
war. The hope of restoring ruined fortunes, the escape
from civil disabilities, perhaps, too, the souvenirs of a re-
gretted past, will dislocate large portions of those popula-
tions — how large remains to be seen. But not only will

III.— U u



374 DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION. [Sect. XXII.

the white race exhibit these movements, the negi'oes, free
from the restraints that for centuries past have been im-
posed upon them, w^ill follow their animal instincts. Their
physical constitution, in harmony with a hot climate, will
prompt them to migrate from the cooler states to the
warm climate of the Gulf The experience of Europe has
shown that the production - rate and death-rate of man
are largely controlled by political conditions ; frequently
has the population of that continent exhibited a rapid
increase ; frequently has it exhibited a great diminution.
In Am'erica the negro is an exotic : throughout a large
portion of the continent he is not in harmony with the
climate ; and though, since the foundation of the Eepub-
lic, his nurribers have exhibited an increase, that increase
has been due to the mercenary causes which stimulated
his production; he was profitable to his owner, and was
an article of sale. Thrown on his own resources, having
to take care of himself, it remains to be seen whether he
will live as long as he did when his master took care of
him; whether he will submit to bear the burden of sup-
porting such large families as he produced when the cost
of raising them was not his, but his master's. It is very
clear that great changes await this portion of the popula-
tion; its individual death-rate will probably increase; its
reproductiveness will diminish ; it will tend to migrate to
the hotter regions of the continent.

Similar inquiries present themselves as respects Euro-
pean immigrants. The extinction of slavery has thrown
open the whole country to them; it remains to be seen
how they will voluntarily distribute themselves. Of this
irnmigration the greater portion comes not from the warm-
er, but from, the cooler parts of Europe ; its natural instinct
is to seek a similar abode on this continent; but from this
it will be diverted by the inducements that are offered in
other localities, and especially by more profitable recom-
penses for labor. .!•■'■.■■:■



chap.xcvl] the future of the kepublic. 675

The outward and visible sign of this change in the dis-

Eemovai of the cap- tri^ution of powcr ; the transition of the Ee-
itaioftheEepubiio. ^^^^-^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^ Continental nation,

will be found in the removal of the seat of government to
a more central, a more convenient, a more secure position.
To the necessity of this change I endeavored to draw at-
tention years ago. No one can study the events of the
Civil War without perceiving how important it is that this
should be brought to pass. I know that the very stones
of the Capitol, defended at the cost of so many precious
lives and untold millions of money, are hallowed in Amer-
ican eyes; but, though that Capitol will never be abandon-
ed, it may yet be transferred to a site more appropriate to
the grandeur and power of the country.

The mind of our nation is expanding to a conception of
Thefntareofthe the imperial future that is before it; it real-
Eepuwic. izes the necessity of political unity and the

establishment of a centre of power. It recognizes that it
is the destined successor of Kome, but with influences far
grander than Rome ever possessed. With many points
of resemblance between them, the American differs from
the Eoman in this, that he is full of anticipations of the
future. The Roman had no idea of the progressive im-
provement of mankind ; he lived in reminiscences of the
past and enjoyment of the present; the American forgets
the past, is dissatisfied with the present, and lives for the
future.

And now we may contemplate the Republic whose ex-
istence has been vindicated by this Civil War — the Repub-
lic of the future, whose seat is a continent, with the Atlan-
tic and enlightened Europe on one side, the Pacific and
the wealth of Asia on the other — the Pacific, with its hun-
dreds of isles, beautiful as the Garden of Eden, and await-
ing the welcome approach of civilized man. , It is a repub-
lic vnth a net-work of railroads and telegraphs from sea to
sea ; its capital in the heart of its power ; its population



676 'J^'HE FUTURE OF THE EEPUBLIC. [Sect. XXII.

harmonized by wise institutions, speaking one language,
obeying one Constitution, disciplined by a uniform educa-
tion, equal before the law ; its national intellect organized,
freedom of thought secured, a career of advancement fairly
open to all, place given to talent. It is a military power,
strong in the vast armies it can raise, swift in intercom-
munication, abounding in resources ; a commercial power,
having geographical advantages never yet allotted even to
states most illustrious in the annals of the world. Tyre,
Athens, England, have each lain in an eccentric position,
with their d6p6ts, colonies, dependencies at a distance. If
they, in spite of such disadvantages, could, from the corners
of the world, put forth their influences and rise to so great
a pitch of prosperity, what may not be expected of a Power
whose seat is in the midst of the nations, whose dominions
are round her feet, whose rulers are Lords of the East and
the West?

In that day of greatness and glory Americans will de-
sire to put aside the remembrance of this war. The very
descendants of those who lifted their hands against the
Eepublic will be ashamed of what their ancestors did, and
seek to hide in forgetfulness the memory of their acts.
They who fought for the perpetuation of human slavery
will find in the future no friends. Their posterity will
look back on the accomplishment of Emancipation and
the establishment of Nationality with pride ; regarding
the issue of the war, not as the victory of the North, but as
the fiat of God.

All history tells us that Lost Causes do not live long.
The Social War lasted three years, half a million of men
were destroyed, yet Kome very quickly forgot it. In our
ancestral coiuntry the remembrance of its civil wars has
long ago passed away ; yet in the American Conflict there
was no battle as bloody as the battle of Towton. For a
little while they who have been disappointed clamor ; it is
the privilege of the vanquished to exaggerate every thing;



Chap.xcvi.] conclusion. 677

then objurgation subsides into murmurs, and murmurs
sink into souvenirs, and souvenirs end in oblivion.

In the^e volumes I have related, as correctly as I could,
the story of the Civil War. To find the truth and deliver
it to others, I have spared neither time, nor laboi', nor ex-
pense. Knowing, personally, many of the chief actors in
these events, I have tried to guard myself equally from par-
tiality and prejudice. Though I v^aite in the North, no
Northern view has biased me ; some of the happiest years
of my youth were spent in the South. I have had friends
on both sides who have risen to distinction in this war,
and friends on both sides who have fallen. The roads
over which some of the greatest marches here described
have been made, the fields in which some of the most de-
cisive of these battles have been fought, were long ago fa-
miliar to me. Unswayed by friendships, undeterred by
the apprehension of offending, I have, in the composition
of this book, endeavored to keep steadfastly in view the
strict injunction —

" Be just, and fear not ;
Let all the ends thou aim'st at be thy Country's,
Thy God's, and Truth's."



INDEX.



Abolition in Massachusetts, i., 3)8 ; origin
of, in England, 323 ; first society of, 332 ;
by persuasion, 341 ; progress of, in the
North, 467.

Absorption of populations, dangers of, iii. ,
661 ; solution of the problem of, by Rome,
662; by Turkey, 664; in China, 667; in
America, 665.

Acclimatization in the North and South, i.,
95 ; Sanitary Commission's investigation
of, 96, 98 ; In France and other coun-
tries, 98.

Acts of American life, national, are three,
i.,20.

Adams, C. F., Minister to England, ii., 31 ;
his instructions, 31, 32. Correspondence
of, respecting the Laird rams, iii., 171.

Adams, John, on the navigation of the Mis-
sissippi, i., 202; on religious freedom,
246.

Adams, J. H., Commissioner to Washing-
ton, i., 546.

Adams, J. Q., on the annexation of Texas,
i.,389.

Alabama, cruiser, built in England, iii.,
200 ; destruction she occasions, 200 ; her
battle with the Kearsarge, 201 ; question,
203. .

Albemarle, ram, attacks national shipping,
iii., 190 ; blown up by a torpedo, 191.

Alexandria, Virginia, tragedy at, ii., 112.
Louisiana, occupied by national troops,
iii., 232.

Allatoona Pass turned, iii. , 279 ; made a
secondary base, 280 ; Confederates re-
pulsed at, 313.

Alleghany Mountains, topography of, iii.,
265.

America, North, rivers of, tend to establish
national unity, i. , 39 ; forty-six epochs in
its growth, 64 ; ages of its formation, 66 ;
distribution of man in, 75 ; past civiliza-
tion of, 75 ; intellectual development of,
242.

Ames, A., at the attack on Fort Fisher,
iii., 525.

Amnesty Proclamation, debate on, iii., 463,
465.



Anderson, R., in command at Charleston,
asks for re-enforcements, i., 542 ; moves
into Fort Sumter, 542. Surrenders Fort
Sumter, ii. , 64 ; criticisms on his defense,
65.

Anderson, R. H., at ChancellorsviUe, iii.,
116; in the Wilderness, 372 ; at Spott-
sylvania, 378 ; re-enforces Early, 409.

Andersonville, prison at, iii., 510.

Anglo-Confederate cruisers, iii., 199.

Anglo-Saxons, their social condition, i.,
218.

Antietam, topography of, ii. , 457 ; battle
of, 458 ; influence of, on the Emancipa-
tion Proclamation, 611.

Anti-slavery, origin and progress of, i. , 25 ;
condition of, at the Revolution, 312 ; its
progress in Massachusetts, 313 ; not of
Puritan origin, 321 ; societies establish-
ed, 329 ; operations, two forms of, 331 ;
petitions refused by Congress, 337.
Progress of the movement of, ii. , 590 ;
measures of Congress, 591.

Appalachian region, topography of, iii., 57.

Appomattox Court-house, iii., 591 ; Sta-
tion, Custer defeats Lee at, 590.

Aransas Pass captured, iii., 251.

Arkansas, Steele's operations in, iii., 239 ;
ram, puts to flight national gun-boats,
32 ; Farragut pursues her, 32. Destruc-
tion of, ii., 343 ; Post, capture of, 326.

Arlington, the City of the Silent, i., 566.
Heights, Confederates construct batteries
upon, ii. , 110.

Armies, their gradual improvement, ii.,
146 ; actual working strength of, 199.

Arms, provision of, ii., 188; peculiarities
of American, 214 ; increase and number
of, 215.

Army, Confederate, condition of, after Lee's
sortie, ii., 475.

Ai-my of the Potomac, views of McClellan
on its composition, ii., 193 ; condition of,
in October, 1861, 195 ; time consumed in
its organization, 197; immobility of, 256 ;
special war order to, 257 ; verifies the
evacuation of Manassas, 375 ; renewed
inactivity of, 397 ; in the peninsula, 378 ;



680



INDEX.



■withdrawn from the peninsula, 41G ;
brought to Acquia Creek, 431. Polit-
ical influences in, iii., 105 ; in the cam-
paign of 1863-4, 106 ; its functions in
the war, (^15.

Anny of the Tennessee, advantages pos-
sessed by, iii., 20.

Army of the United States, creation of, ii. ,
186 ; changes in its morale, 146, 187 ;
law respecting regulars and volunteers
in, 189. Designation of constituent ar-
mies of, iii., 19.

Army of the West, synopsis of its move-
ments, iii,, 21 ; summary of its acts, 22 ;
change in the purposes of its command-
ers, 23 ; its functions in the war, 645.

Atlanta, importance of, iii., 266 ; campaign,
divisions of, 270 ; siege of, raised, 301 ;
captured, 304 ; its destruction resolved
on, 306 ; destruction of, 321.

Atlanta, iron-clad, her battle with the Wee-
hawken, iii., 192.

Atlantic border, structure of, i., 42.

Attrition, incessant, effect of, ii., 144.

Augur, C. C, at Port Hudson, iii., 249.

Averill at Rocky Gap, iii., 243.

Averysboro, battle of, iii., 556.

Ayres, E. B., at Five Forks, iii., 570, 571.

Bailey, Admiral, at Sfew Orleans, ii. , 334 ;
his description of the battle, 341.

Bailey, Joseph, rescues Porter's fleet, iii.,
23.-1.

Baker, E. D., death of, at Ball's Bluff, ii.,
252.

Ball's Bluff, action at, ii., 251.

Baltimore, Massachusetts troops attacked
in, ii., 73 ; seized by Butler, 77.

Banks, N. P., supersedes Patterson, ii.,
244 ; retreats before Stonewall Jackson,
393; supersedes Butler, 346. In the
Red River Expedition, iii., 229; at Sa-
bine Cross Roads, 233 ; at Pleasant Hill,
234 ; retreats to Grand Ecore, 234 ; re-
treats to Alexandria, 235 ; evacuates Al-
exandria, 237 ; orders an expedition to
Galveston, 246 ; in the Bayou Teche,
248; siege of Port Hudson, 249; capture
of that place, 250 ; engaged in the Sa-
bine River Expedition, 260 ; dispatches
a force to Opelousas, 251 ; relieved by
Canby, 241.

Barlow, F. C, at Cold Harbor, iii., 386.

Barnard, J.G., constructs defenses of Wash-
ington, iii., 419.

Basin of the West, its structure, i., 43.

Bates, E., attorney general in Lincoln's
cabinet, ii., 21.

Baton Rouge captured, ii., 341.

Bayou Teche Expedition, iii., 248.

Beauregard, P. G. T., in command of the



forces at Charleston, ii., CO; at Bull
Run, 114; at Corinth, 286 ; advances to
Pittsburg Landing, 292 ; reports his suc-
cesses at Shiloh, 298 ; defeated at Shiloh,
300 ; retreats to Corinth, 302 ; relieved
by Bragg, 307. Correspondence of, with
Gillmore, respecting bombardment of
Charleston, iii., 178 ; declares the block-
ade of Charleston raised, 193 ; advances
to Lee's support, 383.

Beecher, H.W., services at the raising of
the flag at Fort Sumter, iii., 619.

Bell, J., nominated for President, i., 503. i

Belligerents, secessionists acknowledged as,
ii., 32.

Bellows, H. W., President of the United
States Sanitary Commission, iii., 515.

Belmont attacked by Grant, ii. , 226.

Benjamin, J. P., succeeded in Confederate
War Department by Seddon, iii., 290.

Benton, T., on the tariff question, i., 364 ;
on secret histoiy of Clay's Compromise,
377 ; on Texas annexation, 392.

Bentomille, battle of, iii., 557.

Bermuda Hundred occupied by Butler, iii.,
382.

Berry, H. G., at Chancellorsville, iii., 115.

Big ]3ethel, Virginia, affair at, ii. , 249.

Big Black, battle of, iii., 42.

Big Blue, battle of, iii., 255.

Bimey, D. B., at Chancellorsville, iii., 115 ;
at Gettysburg, 144 ; on the Weldon Rail-
road, 401.

Blair, F. P., Jr., commands 17th Armv
Corps, iii., 322.

Blockade established, ii. , 27 ; proclamations
of, 28 ; mistake in establishing, 29 ; con-
dition of, 137 ; completeness of, 204, 586 ;
operations connected ivith it, 480; the
stone, 497 ; attack on the Mississippi,
500. Results of, iii., 188; rescinded,
630.

Blood contamination, impolicy of, i., 119.

Blue Springs, engagement at, iii., 256.

Bodin, his work, " De Republica," quoted,
i.,93.

Boggs, Captain, at New Orleans, ii., 335.

Booneville, battle of, ii., 231.

Booth, J.W., assassinates Mr. Lincoln, iii.,
627.

Border States, their armed neutrality, ii.,
177; their agriculture, population, posi-
tion, 218 ; importance of, to the Confed-
eracy, 220 ; mode of securing them to
the South, 220 ; effect of their neutrality,
221.

Botts, J. M., his imprisonment, ii., 170.

Bowen, J. S., at Port Gibson, iii., 38.

Bowling Green, evacuation of, ii., 272.

Bradford, Major, at Fort Pillow, iii., 215.

Bragg, B., at Corinth, ii., 287 ; at Shiloh,



INDEX.



681



291 ; marches to Chattanooga, 311 ; or-
dered to inarch Into Kentucky, 351 ; mo-
tive of his sortie, 352 ; his proclamation
to the Kentuckians, 355 ; begins to re-
treat, 35G. Confronts Kosecrans near
Mmfreesborough, iii., 61 ; strength of
his army, 61 ; retreats to Chattanooga,
62 ; re-enforced for the purpose of at-
tacking Rosecrans, 63 ; concentrates his
army at Lafayette, 65 ; defeats Rosecrans
at Chickamauga, 71 ; fails to follow up
Rosecrans, 73; besieges Chattanooga, 74;
loses the battle of Chattanooga, 96 ; re-
moved from command, 102 ; correspond-
ence with Johnston respecting re-enforce-
ments, 270.

Brannan, J. M., at Chickamauga, iii., 70.

Breckinridge, J. C, nominated for Presi-
dent, 1., 503. At Murfreesborough, ii.,
361. At Chickamauga, iii., 69 ; defeats
Sigel at New Market, 392 ; Confederate
Secretary of War, 484 ; at Sherman's in-
terview with Johnston, 605.

Bridges, military, ancient and modem, iii.,
280.

Bristow Station, action at, iii., 159.

British recognition of the Coi.iederacy as a
belligerent, ii. , 32 ; action of, in the Trent
aflFair, 541.

Brown, Old John, his biography, i. , 525 ;
his attack on Harper's Ferry, 526 ; exe-
cution of, 527.

Bruinsbnrg, Grant lands at, iii., 37.

Buchanan, F., commands the Menimac,
ii., 421.

Buchanan, President, his accession, i. , 41 6 ;
favors slavery in Kansas, 416; his mes-
sage in 1860, 518 ; last days of his pres-
. idency, 540 ; his reply to the South Car-
olina Commissioners, 547 ; his explana-
tions respecting his dealings with the
Commissioners, 553 ; he is surrounded
by treason, 554 ; his cabinet is disorgan-
ized, 557 ; attempts to reheve Fort Sum-
ter, 559. His conduct on Floyd's resigna-
tion and the attack onFort Sumter, ii.,46.

Buckner, S. B. , at Fort Donelson, ii., 265.
At Chickamauga, iii. , 69 ; evacuates
Knoxville, 98.

BneU, D. C. , his interview with Grant, ii. ,
281 ; marches to join Grant at Shiloh,
287; his arrival at Shiloh, 298; in
Bragg's sortie, 353 ; reaches Louisville,
354; superseded by Rosecrans, 359.

Buford, J., at Gettysburg, iii., 138.

Bull Run, battle of, the historical close of
the conspiracy, ii., 42; topography of,
117; battle of, 119; interpretation of
the battle of, 129 ; second battle of, 439.

Burbridge, S. G., at Saltville, iii., 531.

Bumside, A. E., at Bull Run, ii., 121 ; at



Roanoke Island, 492 ; re-enforces Pope,
427; at South Mountain, 453 : atAntie-



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