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1X0 ^ 1/5- iT



THE LAW OF TORTS



BY THE SAME AUTHOR

JURISPRUDENCE

OR

THE THEORY OF THE LAW

THIRD EDITION



LONDON

STEVENS AND HAYNES

1910



THE LAW OF TORTS



A TREATISE ON THE



ENCLISH LAW OF LIABILITY
FOR CIVIL INJURIES



BY



JOHN W. S ALMOND

.M.A., l,r,.IJ. ; FELLOW OF UNIVERSITY COM.F.CiE, LONDON
SOLICITOR-GENEKAL OF NEW ZEALAND

THIRD EDITION



LONDON

STEVENS AND HAYNES

BELL YARD, TEMPLE BAR
1912









./IjjJ^



UAT.T.ANTYNIO .% COMPANY LTD
Tavistock Stuf.kt Covknt (Iauden

l/ONDON



PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION

Since the >piiblication of the second edition of this book in
1910 the most important development of the law of torts is
that which is due to the passing of the Maritime Conventions
Act, 1911, and in this edition the section dealing with liability
for collisions at sea has been rewritten accordingly. I have
also rewritten the section relating to the liability of bodies
corporate, and have recanted the opinion formerly expressed
by me, in good company, that there is no such liability for
torts committed in the course of any business or undertaking
which is ultra vires of the corporation. On this point I have
accepted the American decisions to the contrary as authorita-
tive. Most of the longer notes in earlier editions have now
been incorporated in the text. In other respects this edition
differs little from the second. In a former preface I expressed
the hope that this book would be of use both to lawyers and
to students of law. As to students, I trust that the con-
current publication by me of an abridgment for their especial
needs will not be regarded as an admission that the larger
work is in any way unsuitable for use by them. As to lawyers,
the book is admittedly a compendium of legal principles
rather than a comprehensive digest of judicial decisions, but,
in view of the formidable growth of authority in modern law,
a book may be none the less useful on that account. I have
to thank Mr. A. W. Chaster, LL.B,, Barrister-at-Law, for
his care in attending to the passage of this edition through
the press and for the preparation of the Table of Cases and
Index.

J. W. S.

Wellington, New Zealand,
March 1912



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

I HAVE endeavoured in this book to set forth the principles
of the law of torts with as much precision, coherence, and
system as the subject admits of, and with as much detailed
consideration as is necessary to make the work one of practical
utility. No book is justified by the good intent of its author ;
but I hope that the present work will be found of use to
lawyers and to students of law as a general exposition, in
moderate compass, of an extensive and in some respects
difficult and imperfectly developed department of our legal
system.

J. W. S.

Wellington, New Zealand,
August 5, 1907



CONTENTS



CHAPTER I

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LIABILITY

SECTION PAGE

1. The Nature of a Tort 1

2. The General Conditions of LiabiHtj'- 7

3. Absolute Liability 14

4. Wrongful Intent and Malice 17

5. Negligence 21
G. Tlie Standard of Care 26

7. The Proof of Negligence 28

8. Res ipsa loquitur 32

9. Contributory Negligence 34

10. The Rule in Davies v. Mann 38

1 1 . Contributory Negligence of Plaintiff's Servants and Agents 43

12. The Burden of Proof of Contributory Negligence 44

13. Contributory Negligence and Collisions at Sea 46

14. Volenti non Jit injuria 49

CHAPTER II

PARTIES

15. The Crown 54

16. Public OfTicials 55

17. Foreign Sovereigns and Ambassadors 56

18. Bodies Corporate 57

19. Trade Unions 61

20. Minors 62

21. Lunatics 65

22. Married Women 66

23. Executors and Administrators 69

24. Joint Wrongdoers 74

25. Contribution between Wrongdoers 78
25a. Persons jointly Injured 80

26. Principal and Agent 81

27. Partners 84

28. Masters and Servants 84

29. The Course of Employment 89

30. Excess of a Servant's Authority 91



X CONTENTS

SECTION PAGK

31. Acts done by a Servant on his own Behalf 92

32. The Rule of Common Employment 97

33. The Employers' Liabihty Act, 1880 102

34. The Workmen's Compensation Act, 1906 105



CHAPTER III

JUDICIAL REMEDIES

35. Classes of Remedies for Torts 106

36. Damages 107

37. Remoteness of Damage 109

38. Successive Actions on the same Facts 119

39. Injunctions 128

40. The Limitation of Actions 135

41. Special Periods of Limitation 138

42. Felonious Torts 140

43. Assignment of Rights of Action for Torts 142

44. The Waiver of Torts 144

45. Foreign Torts 147



CHAPTER IV

EXTRAJUDICIAL REMEDIES

46. Self-Defcnce 150

47. Prevention of Trespass 161

48. Re-entry on Land 153

49. Defence and Recaption of Cliattels 155

50. Abatement of Nuisances 156

51. Distress Damas-e Feasant 159



CHAPTER V

TRESPASS TO LAND

52. Old Forms of Action. Trespass and Case 163

53. The Nature of Trespass to Land 166

54. The Title of the Plaintiff 172
65. I'respass ab initio 175
5(5. The Measure of Damages in Trespass 178



CHAPTER VI

DISPOSSESSION OP LAND

57. The Aclioii of Ejectment 182

58. The Aoti(jn for Mesne Profits 184



CONTENTS xi
CHAPTER Yll

NUISANCE

SECTION PAGE

59. The Nature of Nuisance 189

60. Damage caused by Nuisance 194-

61. IneflFectual Defences 198

62. The Rule in Rylands v. Fletcher 200

63. First Exception : Things Naturally on Land 205

64. Second Exception : Consent of the Plaintiff 208

65. Third Exception : The Act of a Stranger 209

66. Fourth Exception : The Act of God 211

67. Nuisances in a Highway 215

68. The Legalisation of Nuisances by Prescription 217

69. The Legalisation of Nuisances by Statute 218

70. Liability for Fire " 222

71. The Incidence of Liability for Nuisances 226

72. Liability of a Landlord " 229



CHAPTER VIII

INJURIES TO SERVITUDES

73. Kinds of Servitudes 234

74. Easements 235

75. Profits 241

76. Equitable Servitudes : Licenses 242

77. The Rule in Wood v. Leadbitter 246

78. Equitable Servitudes : Restrictive Contracts 248



CHAPTER IX

INJURIES TO SERVITUDES {conLiuatd)

79. The Right of Support 250

80. Disturbance of tlie Right of Support 252

81. The Right to Light 258

82. The Right to Air 205

83. Rights to Water 266

84. Wrongful Abstraction of Water 266

85. Abstraction for Non-riparian Uses "269

86. Abstraction for Riparian Uses 272

87. Abstraction of Underground Water 276

88. The Pollution of Water 278

89. Obstruction of a Stream 279

90. Rights of Way 281

91. Disturbance of the Right of Access to a Highway 283

92. Nuisance to a Highway 284

93. Absolute Liability for Danger to Highway 287



Xll

SEOXION



CONTENTS



94. Liability for the Non-repair of Roads

95. Wrongful Damage

96. Injuries to Reversionary Interests



FAOK
291

294
295



CHAPTER X

CONVERSION AND OTHER INJURIES TO CHATTEI.S

97. History of the Action of Trover 299

98. Conversion defined 308

99. Conversion by Taking 311

100. Conversion by Detention 312

101. Conversion by Wrongful Delivery 315

102. Conversion by Wrongful Disposition 316

103. Conversion by Wrongful Destruction 317

104. Other Forms of Conversion 317

105. Acts not amounting to Conversion 318

106. Conversion by Estoppel 321

107. The Title of the Plaintifif 322
107a. Conversion as between Co-owners 328

108. Conversion and the Limitation of Actions 329

109. The Measure of Damages for Conversion 332

110. Specific Restitution of Chattels 336

111. Replevin 341

112. Effect of Judgment in an Action of Trover 342

113. Trespass to Chattels 344

114. Wrongful Damage to Chattels 345

115. Wrongful Loss of Chattels 346^



CHAPTER XI

INJURIES TO THE PERSON



116. Death

117. Assault

118. Bodily Harm

119. False Imprisonment



347
361
352
354^



CHAPTER XII

LIABILITY FOR DANGEROUS PROPERTY

120. Liability of Occupiers for NcgMgcnce

121. LiabiUty of Occupiers on a Warranty of Safety

122. Liability of Occupiers to Bare Licensees

123. Liability of Occupiers to Trespassers

124. Liability of the Owner of Premises

125. Liability for Dangerous Chattels

126. Dangerous Animals : Proof of Scienter
126a. Absolute Rcspousibihty for Animals



359
362
364
368
372
376
383
386



i



CONTENTS



CHAPTER XIII

mJUBIES TO DOMESTIC RELATIONS
SECTION

127. Parent and Child



128. Master and Servant

129. Master and Servant

130. Husband and Wife



Seduction
Other Injuries



PAGE

395
396
401
403



CHAPTER XIV

DEFAMATION

131. Defamation defined. Libel and Slander

132. The Defamatory Nature of a Statement

133. Defamation of a Corporation

134. Interpretation of Defamatory Statements

135. The Innuendo

136. Proof of Reference to the Plaintiff

137. Publication

138. Justification

139. Privilege

140. Absolute Privilege

141. Qualified Privilege

142. Statements in Performance of Duty

143. Statements in the Protection of an Interest

144. Fair Comment

145. Privileged Reports

146. Slander and Special Damage

147. Slander actionable per se

CHAPTER XV

DECEIT AND INJURIOUS FALSEHOOD

148. Deceit

149. Injurious Falsehood

150. Deceptive Trade Names, Marks, and Descriptions



406
407
410
411
413
414
416
420
422
424
427
431
4.32
434
441
443
445



447
456

459 So'^



151.
152.



CHAPTER XVI

INTIMIDATION

Intimidation of a Person to his own Injury
Intimidation of a Person to another's Lijury



469

470 '5'^



153.
154.



CHAPTER XVII

WRONGFUL PROCESS OF LAW

Liability of the Superior Courts of Justice
Liability of Inferior Courts of Justice



480
481



xiv CONTENTS

SECTION PAGE

155. Malicious Prosecution and other Malicious Process 485

156. Erroneous and Irregular Proceedings 495

157. Maintenance 497

CHAPTER XVIII

RESIDUARY FORMS OF INJURY

] 58. Inducemerit of Breach of Contract 500

15!). The Breach of Statutory Duties 502

100. The Breach of Common -Law Obligations 507

101. Injuries to Immaterial Property 507



INDEX OF CASES



Abraham v. Bullock, 94
Abrahams v. Deakin, 92
Abrath v. N.E. Railway Co., 57, 485,

489, 491, 492
Ackrovd v. Saiitli, 236, 237
Acton u. Blundell, 277
Adam v. British and Foreign Steam-
ship Co., 351
Adam.son v. Jarvis, 79, 80
Addis V. Gramaphone Co., 109
Addison v. Overend, 81
Alabaster v. Harness, 498, 499
Alcott V. Millar's Karri Forests,

Ltd., 458
Alexander v. Jenkins, 446

V. N.E. Railway Co., 421

V. Southey, 304, 314
Allan V. Liverpool, 173
Allbutt V. General Council of Medical

Education, 442
Allcock V. Hall, 30
Allen V. Flood, 18, 20, 470, 472, 473,
478, 500

V. London & S.W. Railway Co.,
92

V. Rivington, 184

V. ^V'right, 358
Allsop V. Allsop, 444
Alston V. Scales, 296
Alton V. Midland Railway Co., 401
Ambergate Railway Co. v. Midland

Railway Co., 160
Ambler v. Gordon, 262
Anderson v. Gorrie, 480, 481

V. Oppenheimcr, 209

V. Pacific Insurance Co., 449

V. RadcliiTe, 174
Andrews v. Abertillerv, 172

V. Mockford, 453!! 454

V. Nott Bower, 432
Anglo-Algerian Steamship Co. v.

The Houlder Line, 10
Angus V. CliiJord, 450, 451
Ankersen i\ Connelly, 263
Anscomb v. Shore, 162
Anthony v. Haneys, 156
Apollo, The, 360, 367
Applebee v. Percy, 386



Appleby v. Franklin, 141
Arkwright v. Newbold, 448, 451
Armory v. Delamiric, 178, 184, 325,

332, 335
Armstrong v. Milburn, 137
Arris v. Stukeley, 145
Arrowsmith v. Le Mesurier, 354
Ash V. Dawney, 168
Ashby V. White, 167
Asher v. Whitlock, 183, 184
Atkinson v. Newcastle WaterworlvS

Co., 503, 504, 506
Attenborough v. London & St.
Katharine's Docks Co., 322, 328,
335
Attorney-General v. Borough of
Birmingham, 133
V. Cockermouth Local Board,

279
V. Cole, 200

V. Conduit Colliery Co., 253
V. Corporation of Manchester,

129
V. Corporation of Nottingham,

129, 190
V. Metropolitan Railway Co.,

219
?'. Thames Conservators, 283
r. Tod-Heatlev, 228
V. Tomline, 205
Austin V. Dowling, 355, 495

i\ Manchester, &c.. Railway
Co., 28
Ayre v. C-raven, 446

Backhouse v. Bonomi, 135, 136,

252
Bagshaw v. Go ward, 176
Bahia and San Francisco Railway

Co., In re, 452
Bailiffs of Romney Marsh v. Trinity

House, 113, 117
Baily v. iMorland, 267, 273, 274
Bainbridge v. Postmaster-General,

89
Baird v. Williamson, 207, 208
Baker v. Bolton, 347, 348, 403
V. Carrick, 432



XVI



INDEX OP CASES



Baker v. Snell, 390, 391, 392, 393
Baldwin v. Casella, 386

V. Cole, 305, 311
Ball V. Ray, 190, 217
Ball, ex parte, 141, 142
Ballard v. Toralinson, 191, 277, 278
Bamfield v. Goole, Ltd.. 380
Bamford v. Turnley, 196, 199, 200
Bank of New South Wales v.

Owston, 92
Barber v. Houston, 137
V. Penley, 284, 285
Barham v. Dennis, 395
Barker v. Herbert, 228, 289

i;. Furlong, 309, 311, 315,310,
321, 326
Barnes v. Lucille. 386
V. Ward, 285, 369
Barnett v. Earl of Guildford, 174
Barratt v. Kearns, 425
Barrett v. Associated Newspapers,

Limited, 458
Barry v. Croskey, 453
Bartlett v. Wells, 64
Bartonshill Coal Co. v. McQuire, 101

V. Reid, 98, 101
Barwick v. English Joint Stock

Bank, 58, 90, 93
Basebe v. Matthews, 494
Basely v. Clarkson, 16, 167
Bass V. Gregory, 265
Batchelor v. Fortescue, 368
Baten's case, 172
Bateson v. Gosling, 78
Batt V. Metropolitan Water Board,

293
Battishill v. Reed, 122, 123
Battley v. Favdkner, 135
Baxter v. Taylor, 296, 298
Bayley v. Manchester Railway Co.,

92
Beard v. London General Omnibus

Co., 91
Beam, The, 360
Beattie v. Lord Ebury, 449
Beauchamp, In re, 68
Beaulieu v. Finglam, 209, 223. 226
Beaumont v. Kayo, 68
Beckett v. Midland Railway Co., 287
Beckwith v. Philby, 17. 358
Bcddall V. Maitland, 154. 155
Bedc Steamship Co. v. River Wear

Commissioners, 360
Behrcns v. Richards, 132
Bell V. Great Northern Railway Co.,
353
V. Midland Railway Co., 109,
297
Benjamin v. Storr, 192, 215, 284
Bennett v. AUcott, 398
Bernina, The, 40, 41, 43, 44, 4G, 48,
118



Berringer v. Great Eastern Railway

Co., 401
Berry v. Adamson, 354
Berthon v. Cartwright, 403, 404
Besozzi V. Harris, 384, 388
Betjemann v. Betjemann, 138
Betts V. Gibbins, 79
Bibby v. Carter, 240, 241, 255
Bickett V. Morris, 280
Biddle v. Bond, 322, 327, 334
Bird V. Brown, 83
V. Holbrook, 369
V. Jones, 355
Birmingham Corporation v. Allen,

250
Bishop V. Balkis Consolidated Co..
456
V. Montagu (Viscountess), 306
Black V. Christchurch Finance

Co.. 15, 56, 202, 209, 210, 223.

226
Blackborough v. Graves, 81
Blackmore v. Vestry of Mile End,

292
Blades v. Higgs, 154, 155
Blake v. Barnard, 352
V. Lanyon, 402

V. Midland Railway Co., 8. 349
V. Woolf, 205, 209
Blakemore v. Bristol & Exeli r

Railway Co., 379
Blanchenay v. Burt, 497
Blaymire v. Haley, 401
Bliss V. Hall, 198, 217
Blofeld V. Payne, 462
Bloodworth v. Gray, 445
Blyth V. Birmingham Waterwork.-;

Co., 22, 289
Boden v. Roscoe, 160, 161. 162
Bodley v. Reynolds, 336
Bonnard v. Ferryman, 129
Booth V. Arnold, 446
Boots V. Grundy, 479
Borough of Bathurst v. Macpherson.

292
Bott V. Ackroyd, 484
Bottomley v. Brougham, 425
Bound V. Lawrence, 104
Bourne v. Fosbrooke, 326
Bo wen v. Anderson. 231, 232

V. Hall, 118, 402, 473, 500. 502
Bower V. Peate, 254, 256
Bowlston V. Hardy, 206
Bowyer v. Cook, 121, 123, 170
Box V. Jubb, 209. 210, 212
Boxsius V. Goblet Freres, 417, 419,

430
Boydel] v. Jones, 413
Bradford Corporation v. Ferrand,

277
Bradford (Mayor of) v. Pickles, 8,

10, 19, 277



INDEX OF CASES



xvu



Bradlaugh v. Newdegate, 497, 498

Bradley v. Copley, 323

Bradshaw v. L. & Y. Railway Co.,

70, 72
Brady v. Warren, 206
Brass v. Maitland, 376
Brent v. Haddon, 227, 230, 258
Brewer v. Sparrow, 146
Bridges v. Hawkesworth, 325, 335
V. North London Railway Co.,
37
Brierly v. Kendall, 333
Briggs V. Oliver, 33
Brinsmead v. Harrison, 77, 342, 343
Bristol & AVest of England Bank

V. Midland Railway Co., 321
British Cash and Parcel Conveyors,
Ltd., V. Lamson Store Service Co.,
498, 499
British Mutual Banking Co. v.
Charnwood Forest Railway Co.,
93
British South Africa Company v.

Companhia de Mocambique, 147
British Vacuum Cleaner Co. v. New

Vacuum Cleaner Co., 460, 464
Brittain v. Kinnaird, 483, 484
Broad v. Ham, 488, 489
Broadbent v. Ledward, 81
V. Ramsbotham, 268
Brock V. Copeland, 370
Brockbank v. Whitehaven Railway

Co., 403
Broder v. Saillard, 190, 191, 200,

207, 227, 257
Bromage v. Prosser, 18
Brook V. Rawl, 19
Brooks V. Hodgkinson, 497
Brown v. Boorman, 6

V. Chapman, 356, 495

V. Eastern and Midland Railway

Co., 285
V. Giles, 194

V. Great W. Railway Co., 46
V. Hawkes, 491, 492, 493
V. Robins, 254, 255
V. Smith, 445
Browne v. Powell, 162
Brownlie v. CamiJbell, 448
Bruen v. Roe, 307
Brunsden v. Humphrey, 120, 121
Brunswick (Duke of) v. Harmer, 50
Bryant v. Herbert, 4

V. Lefever, 266
Buccleuch (Duke of) v. Wakefield,

251
Bucldand v. Johnson, 146, 147
Buckley v. Gross, 325, 326, 327, 339
Bulcock V. St. Anne's Master

Builders' Federation, 479
Bullen V. Swan Electric Engraving
Co., 33



Bulli Coal Mining Co. v. Osborne,
137, 138

Bullock V. London General Omnibus

Co., 76
Bulmer v. Buhner, 349
Bunting v. Hicks, 267
Burgess v. Burgess, 465, 466
Burley v. Bethune, 482
Burling v. Read, 154
Burn V. Morris, 146
Burnard v. Haggis, 63
Burnett v. Lynch, 6
Buron v. Denman, 56, 83
Burr V. Smith, 425

V. Theatre Royal Drury Lane,
101
Burroughes v. Bayne, 314
Burrows v. March Gas Co., 117, 118

V. Rhodes, 79, 80
Burt V. Moor, 160
Bussy V. Amalgamated Society of

Railway Servants, 62
Butcher v. Butcher, 174
Butler V. Fife Coal Co., 24, 102

V. Manchester Railway Co., 245
Butt V. Imperial Gas Co., 237
Butterfield v. Forrester, 34, 36, 40
Butterknowle Colliery Co. v. Bishop

Auckland Co-operative Co., 251
Butterley Co. v. New Hucknall

Colliery Co., 251
Byrne v. Boadle, 33

V. Judd, 257
Byron (Lord) v. Johnston, 460
By well Castle, The, 37



Cable v. Bryant, 265
Calder v. Halkett, 485
Caledonian Railway Co. v. Mul-

holland, 382
Calliope, The, 360
Cameron v. Nystrom, 99

V. Young, 232, 374
Campbell Davys v. Lloyd, 159
Campbell v. Paddington, 59, 237,
286
V. Spottiswoode, 437
Canadian Pacific Railway Co. v.

Parke, 221
Capel V. Powell, 68
Capital and Counties Bank v. Henty,

407, 408, 411, 412
Card V. Case, 387
Carr v. Clarke, 398, 401

V. Fracis Times & Co., 148
Carratt v. .Morlcy, 356, 483
Carstairs v. Taylor, 209, 211
Casey v. Arnott, 457
Cash, Limited, v. Joseph Cash, 466
Castrique v. Behrens. 494
Cator V. Lewisham, 59



INDEX OF CASES



Cattle V. Stockton Waterworks Co.,
11, 192

Caudle v. Seymour, 483

Cavalier v. Pope, 232, 374, 378

Cave V. Mountain, 482, 484

Cellular Clothing Co. v.- Maxton,
462, 464

Central, &c., Co. v. Smith, 59

Chamberlain v. Williamson, 70

Chambers v. Donaldson, 173

Chaplin v. Westminster Corpora-
tion, 283, 284

Chapman i'. Fylde Waterworks Co.,
293

Chapman Morsons & Co. v. Auck-
land Union, 123

Charles v. Taylor, 101

Chasemore v. Richards, 19, 254, 276,
277, 278

Chastey v. Ackland, 266

Chatterton v. Secretary of State for



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