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John William Walker.

The history of the old parish church of All Saints, Wakefield, now the cathedral church of the diocese of Wakefield online

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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



£be Catbefcral Cburch of Makcfielfc*




ii \ki i ii , i. n a« v . \



THE HISTORY

OF
OF

HU Saints, Wafeefielfc

NOW

&\)t d&nfyt'btul (tfyuvci)

OF

Zbc Diocese of Mafcefielb

BY

JOHN W. WALKER, F.S.A.,

M.R.C.S. Eng.; L.R.C.P. Loud.




WAKEFIELD

W. H. MILNES, RADCLIFFE PRINTING WORKS

1888



U3i



PREFACE.

It is now more than sixty years since Sisson's " Historic Sketch
of the Parish Church, Wakefield " appeared, and since that time
much has come to light with regard to the early history of the
fabric and of the men into whose hands the patronage passed.
The recent restoration, and the diligent and careful researches
of Mr. J. T. Micklethwaite, F.S.A., accompanied by the papers
which Mr. James Fowler, F.S.A., read before the Society of
Antiquaries, have done much to elucidate the growth and the
decoration of the building itself. When a student of medicine
in London, I spent a good part of my leisure time in the Library
of the British Museum, and in the Record Office, searching out
and copying any documents that related to Wakefield Church,
and in this way collected a mass of information, which, added to
that since gained by a study of the fabric itself, and to researches
at York and Oxford, has resolved itself into the present volume.

I must acknowledge with gratitude the free access which has
been permitted to the account books and the registers by the
Vicar, the Rev. Canon Straton, and the Churchwardens ; the
great and valued help given by Mr. J. T. Micklethwaite, F.S.A.,
whose section on "the growth of the fabric" forms such an
interesting feature of this work.

I must also express my obligations to Mr. James Fowler,
F.S.A. ; Mr- H. A. Hudson for permission co examine the
Archbishops' Registers at York ; the Rev. Canon Raine for help
with the York wills and registers ; My- W. H. Seeker, B.A., and



63J2330



Mr- Foster for copying extracts from the Dodsworth M.S.S. in
the Bodleian Library, Oxford ; Mr. H. M. Walker, B.A., for
researches in the University Library, Cambridge ; Mr. J. L.
Fernandes for permitting me to see some documents in his
possession relating to the Nowell Chantry; Mr. W. B. Burrell,
the late secretary to the Restoration Committee, for the loan
of the minute books of that committee ; Mr. W. H. Milnes,
junr- for the two beautiful drawings of the panelling and
misericorde figured on pages ioo, 101 ; Mr. John Binks for the
loan of two woodcuts ; and Mr. W. G. Buckley, clerk at the
Cathedral, for much help in my examination of the building
itself.

JOHN W. WALKER.



BOYNCLIFFE, WAKEFIELD,

September, 1888.



CONTE NTS



PAGE

Chronological Table of Events. ... ... ... xi. — xvi.

Section I.
The History of the Patronage, with copies and translations

of the Deeds of Transfer from successive Patrons ... i

Section II.
The Rectory and Rectors ... ... ... ... ... 27

Section III.
The Growth of the Fabric ... ... ... ... ... 36

Section IV.
The Chantries, their foundation and suppression... ... 49

Section V.
The Painted Glass, Mural Paintings, and Church Furniture

of the XVth and XVIth Centuries 84

Section VI.

Changes consequent upon the Reformation. Church

Furniture of the XVIIth and XVIIIth Centuries.

The Communion Plate ... ... ... ... ... 102

Section VII.
Alterations and Repairs to the exterior of the Fabric at

various dates. ... ... ... ... ... ... 138

Section VIII.
The Restoration of 1859 — 1886 ... ... ... ... 144

Section IX.
The Painted Windows ... ... ... ... ... 166



Contents. — Continued.

Section X.
History of the Cambden and Jane Lectureships — their

Incumbents ... ... ... ... ... ... 184

Section XI.
The Vicars, Curates, Choir Masters, Organists, and other

Officials ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 190

Section XII.
The Foundation of the Bishopric ... ... ... ... 202

Section XIII.
Mural and other Inscriptions. Testamentary Burials ... 210

Section XIV.
Extracts from Churchwardens' Account Books, Registers

and Terriers ... ... ... ... ... ... 267

Index 318



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND PLANS.



South Elevation of the Church, about 1690 ... Frontispiece
Arms of the See of Wakefield ... ... ... Title Page

Plans of the growth of the fabric ... to face pages 36, 37,

3 8 > 39. 4°i 4i
Plan of the Church, its altars and furniture in 1530 ... 48

Arms depicted in the fifteenth century glass ... pages 84 — 94
Wall painting of an Angel censing ... ... to face page 97

Misericorde in quire, showing crescent and fetterlock page 100
Panelling in quire, showing crescent ... ... ... 10 1

Savile Stall-end in quire ... ... ... ... ... 101

Wall painting of the figure of Death ... to face page 109

Plan of the Screen ... ... ... ... ... 114

Interior view of the Church, looking west, in 1824 ... 120

Design on the Cathedral Plate ... ... ... page 131

Hall marks on the Cathedral Plate ... ... 131 — 135

South-east view (exterior) of the Church, in 1800, to face page 141
South-east view (exterior) of the Cathedral, in 1888;

from a photograph by Messrs. G. & J. Hall ... T ^g
View of the interior of the Cathedral, looking east, in

1888; from a photograph by Messrs. G. & J. Hall ... 154
View of the interior of the Cathedral, looking from the

north door across to the Pilkington Chapel, in 1888 ;

from a photograph by Messrs. G. & J. Hall ... ... 160

The Waits' Badge page 307



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF EVENTS.*



Eleventh Century.

1086. Church mentioned in Domesday Book, then in possession

of the Crown.
1088-91. Church given by William Rufus to the second Earl

Warren.
1091-97. Church granted by Earl Warren to the Priory of

S. Pancras of Lewes.

Twelfth Century.

1 180 (circa). A north aisle added to the church, which had
hitherto been an aisleless cross church, with a central
tower.

Thirteenth Century.

1200. Geoffrey Plantagenet, Archbishop of York, confirmed a
pension of 60s. out of this benefice, to the monks of
Lewes.

1220. (circa.) A south aisle added to the church.

1237. June. Dom. Richard de Lethebroch instituted as Rector.

1242. Kal. May. Dom. P. de Fyghelden instituted as Rector.

Fourteenth Century.

1318. Dom. William Oliver, rector.

1322. June 25. A chantry founded in the church by John de

Wakefeld.
1325. Aug. n. The church granted by the Prior of Lewes to

Hugh de Spencer, the younger.
1325. Kal. Aug. Dom. William de Cusancia, presented as

Rector.

* This is intended not merely as a Chronological Table, complete in itself,
but a gathering up into consecutive order of the items which our arrangement
into sections has necessarily dispersed through the book.



XI.



Fourteenth Century. — Continued.

1329. Aug. 10. Archbishop William de Melton consecrated the
new church.

1348. July 8. Gilbert le Despencer was fined of the advowson of

the church.
Aug. 6. The patronage of the church was given by

Edward III. to S. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster.
Nov. 30. The church appropriated to the Dean and

College of S. Stephen's Chapel by the Archbishop of

York.

1349. June 20. Ordination of the Vicarage of Wakefield by

William de la Zouch, Archbishop of York.
1349. June 21. Thomas de Drayton, the first Vicar, presented

by the College of S. Stephen's.

Oct. 8. Henry de Grenehod, instituted as Vicar.

1362. May 11. John de Whytelay, instituted as Vicar.
1369. Aug. 6. John Stadefete, instituted as Vicar.
1372. May 26. William Woderove, instituted as Vicar.

Fifteenth Century.

141 6. John Bolteby was Vicar.

1420-40. A new tower was built at the west end, the nave and

aisles being lengthened twelve feet to join on with it.

The clerestory added soon afterwards.
1425. Jan. 3. Robert Bever, instituted as Vicar.
1440. John Lounde, Vicar.
1443. Feb. 28. John Preston, instituted as Vicar.
1458. The chancel rebuilt, with aisles to the line of the original

transepts, and of full length with the choir.
1462. Sep. 23. Thomas Rogers instituted as Vicar.
1470. Comparative date of the present edifice.
1475, Dec. 20. A chantry founded at the altar of the Blessed

Virgin Mary, by Sir John Pilkington, of Stanley,

Knight.
1478. Sep. 25. A chantry founded at the altar of S. Peter, by

Roger Nowell, of Wakefield.
1495. Nov. I2, Tne Soothill chantry founded by Henry Soothill.



Fifteenth Century. — Continued.

1493. June 22. A chantry founded "in the quere of Sanct
Nicholas," by William Graystoke.

Sixteenth Century.

1502. July 31. Thomas Knolles presented as Vicar.

1546. June 13. Thomas Robertson S.T.P., appointed as Vicar.

Suppression of chantries by Henry VIII.

1549. Destruction of Images and removal of Pictures ordered by

Edward VI.
1 553. The chantry priests pensioned off.
1559. March 24. Richard Robertson instituted as Vicar.
1585. Churchwardens' accounts commence.
1589-90. A new pulpit was made.

1592. The great loft was made.

1593. April 20. Edward Mawde, A.M. instituted as Vicar.
1598. May .3. William Lister, M.A. instituted as Vicar.

Seventeenth Century.

1600. "The whole Church was washen wth lyme and paynted."
1606. "The Church paynted with oyl cullors & whited."

" The p'titions betwixt the quiers removed."

The first long gallery erected.
1613. April. Church registers commence.
1620. Feb. 28. Timothy Maude, M.A., S.T.P., instituted as
Vicar.

A large amount was spent this year for work at the church.

1620-1. Probable date of Earl Strafford's organ.
1625. Aug. 15. James Lister, M.A., instituted as Vicar.
1628. Church porch repaired.

1634-6. The upper part of the chancel screen made, and the
lower part of the screen cased with work of the period.
1635-6. The new pulpit made.
1650. Joshua Kirbie appointed as the first lecturer, under Lady

Cambden's will.
1653 Thomas Parker, a Commonwealth Vicar.
1655-60. Thomas Walker, S.T.P., Vicar.



Seventeenth Century. — Continued.

1 66 1. Present font erected.

1677-8. Feb. 16. Obadiah Lee, instituted as Vicar.
1 69 1. Dec. 4. Sir Lyon Pilkington obtained the Pilkington
chapel from the churchwardens.

Eighteenth Century.

1700. December 18. Thomas Scott, M A. instituted as Vicar.

1703. New chimes bought.

1704. New bells obtained.
1708. A new pulpit erected.

1 7 14. Feb. 1. A great wind blew down some yards of the

steeple.

1715. The spire partially rebuilt.

1719-25. Large bills were paid for church improvements, the
south side of the church was re-cased, and the windows
re -spaced.

1729. May 12. George Arnet, A.M., appointed Vicar.

1 75 1. July. 10. Benjamin Wilson, M.A., instituted as Vicar.

1764. Oct. 17. Michael Bacon, D.D. instituted as Vicar.

1 771-7. Large sums spent on the church, partly for cramping the
the spire and battlements.

1778. A new clock obtained for the tower.

1779. A peal of eight new bells by Pack and Chapman placed in

the belfry.
1787-90. The north-east corner rebuilt.
1789. Sep. 5. Memorial stone of the vestry under the east

window laid.
1793. The "old alter" pulled down.
1795. "A compleat sett of new chimes" contracted for, to be

made by Goodall, of Tadcaster.

Nineteenth Century.
1800. The whole of the interior walls coated an inch thick with

plaster.
1802. Sir John Soane reported on the unsatisfactory state of the

tower and spire.



Nineteenth Century. — Continued.

1803-4. The spire strengthened (?) with iron bands on the

recommendation of Sir John Soane.
1805. Sep. 20. Richard Munkhouse, D.D., instituted as Vicar.
Nov. 11. A new organ was built and set up in the church

by Mr- Gray, of London.
1 8 10. Feb. 3. Samuel Sharpe, A.M., instituted as Vicar.
181 3. Law proceedings taken to compel the Lay-Impropriators to

repair the chancel.

1 81 7. Jan. New peal of ten bells, by Thos. Mears of White-

chapel, hung in the belfry.

1 81 8. Removal of the houses at the west end of the churchyard.

1820. New wall built around the churchyard of Woolley edge

stone, the copings from Newton quarry.

1 82 1. Dec. 20. The font of 1661, again brought into use.
1823. July. Mr- Mountain, of Hull, examined the tower and

spire, and suggested that fifteen feet of the latter should

be taken down and rebuilt.
1823, Nov. The spire strengthened, and raised 2 yards in

height.
1842. May. Weather boards placed on the spire.
1847. April 5. Public pathways through the churchyard

stopped up.

1853. The church warmed and lighted by gas.

1854. Feb. The clock in the tower lighted by gas.

1855. March 9. The Rev. S. Sharp, A.M. died.

Nov. 7. The Rev. Charles Joseph Camidge, M.A.

instituted as Vicar.

1856. Deer- J. Emmerson appointed organist, and Edward

Scott, choirmaster.

Dec. 13. The Churchwardens memorialize the Mayor to

allow the pump in front of the west end of the church
to be removed.

1857. March 27. Mr- G. G. Scott made a report on the church,

preparatory to restoration.

1858. The tower recased.
1860-61. The spire rebuilt-



Nineteenth Century. — Continued.

i860. Aug. The patronage of the Vicarage of Wakefield

transferred from the Crown to the Bishop of Ripon.
1866-8. The chancel restored, and the east window inserted
1872-4. The church closed for the restoration of the nave and
its aisles. The series of painted windows in the south
aisle put in.

1874. Nov. 3 Church re-opened for Divine service.

1875. Au &- 2 - The Rev - N- D. J. Straton, M.A. instituted as

Vicar.
1878. The east window of the north chancel aisle restored. The

organ made to face westwards, and enlarged.
1 88 1. The south porch restored by Major Barker.
Oct. 10. Memorial stone of a new vestry laid.

1886. The south side of the church recased.

June. The Mackie memorial windows inserted in the

north aisle of the nave.

1887. Jan. J. N. Hardy, F.C.O. entered on his duties as

organist.
Feb. 14. M. H. Peacock, M.A. appointed honorary
choir-master.
Oct. The Stewart memorial windows inserted.

1888. May 17. The foundation of the see of Wakefield gazetted.
27. The first ordination held in the church.

June 25. Dr. Walsham How installed as first Bishop of
Wakefield, in the cathedral, by the Archbishop of
York.



SECTION I



THE HISTORY OF THE PATRONAGE.

THIS CATHEDRAL is dedicated to "All Saints," which
would in early times be "All Hallows;" in Torre's
Manuscript, written between 1650-90, it is described as "All
Hallows;" also in the Harleian MSS., No. 1408, as "All
Hallowes in the Pavement, Wakefielde."

The Reverend Canon Raine, in an article on the dedication
of the Yorkshire Churches,* says, that " All Hallows has been
changed, unfortunately I think, to All Saints." This dedication
is indicative of a Saxon foundation of the Church, and Arch-
deacon Churton says, "Many of the Saxon Churches were
dedicated to All Saints. Indeed it is probable that wherever
there is a Church so dedicated it is of Saxon foundation." f
In an engraving of the Church made about the year 1690,
it is described as "All Souls," which name it seems to have
borne throughout the eighteenth century.

The earliest actual evidence of a Church in Wakefield is
the mention of it in Domesday Book. The following is
extracted from the Reverend William Bawdwen's translation
of that record, which was printed at Doncaster in 1809, and
was made from the edition of the record printed in 1780.
"Land of the King. In Yorkshire." Page 15. "In Wake-
field with nine Berewicks, — Sandal, Sowerby, Warley, Fixby,
Midgley, Wadsworth, Crosstone, Langfield and Stansfield, — there
are sixty carucates and three oxgangs, and the third part of
an oxgang of land to be taxed ; thirty ploughs may till this
land. This Manor was in the demesne of King Edward.

* Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, Vol. II. p. 183.
f " Early English Church.''



2 THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH

There are now there in the King's hands four villanes, and
three Priests, a?id two Churches, and seven sokemen, and
sixteen bordars. They together have seven ploughs. Wood
pasture six miles long and four miles broad. The whole is
six miles long and six miles broad. Value in the time of
King Edward, sixty pounds ; at present, fifteen pounds."
(A carucate contained as much land as one plough would
cultivate, about 120 acres; a borate or oxgang was about 15
acres, or about as much as one ox could plough in a year.)

As Domesday Book was compiled about 1086, it may safely
be inferred that the Churches then mentioned were of Saxon
origin, as very few Churches were built during the Conqueror's
reign, the country being in such a troubled condition.

These two Churches were undoubtedly at Wakefield and
Sandal ; Dr. Whitaker thinks that the third priest ministered
at Horbury,* as within fifty years from Domesday a Chapel
is known to have existed there, and Chapels are never men-
tioned in that record ; and Mr. Micklethwaite tells me that
the tower of old Horbury Church was certainly older than
Domesday.

On page 241 of Bawdwen's translation occurs the following
passage, "according to the verdict of the men of Morley
Wapentake, concerning the Church of St. Mary, which is in
Morley Wood, the King has a moiety of the alms of the
three Festivals of St. Mary, which belongs to "Wakefield.
Ilbert and the priest who serves the Church have all the
rest." Dr. Whitaker thought from this, that the parish of
Wakefield had been taken out of the original parish of
Morley ; but Mr. Taylor | conclusively proves that Dr.
Whitaker was mistaken, as Wakefield never was in Morley
Wapentake, and he shows that the Patron, Ilbert de Lacy,
and the priest of the Church in Morley Wood, had been
allowed by the Owner of Wakefield to retain a moiety of
the alms referred to. Dewsbury put forward a claim to be
the mother Church of Wakefield, but there is very little to
substantiate it.

* " Loidis and Elmete," p. 274.

+ " Rectory Manor of Wakefield," p. 7.



OF WAKEFIELD. 3

In 1349, among the list of expenses of the Proctor of
Devvsbury Church is the following account, " Hire of a certain
pasture for lambs coming of tithe of Dewsbury and Wakefield,
jQo 4s. od. " ; as the Rev. Joseph Hunter says, "This entry is
the only one in these accompts which can afford the least
countenance to the claim set up by Dewsbury for the super-
iority of its Church to that of Wakefield.''*

In a manuscript (which I have in my possession) by the
late Rev. Dr. Naylor, who purposed writing a history of the
Lower Division of Agbrigg, I find the following, " my father
remembers that the old man who was the Clerk of Dewsbury,
when he was a boy, told him he had heard his grandfather
speak of coming to Wakefield for three or four groats in lieu
of a certain number of waxlights given annually for the High
Altar of the Church at Dewsbury ; but when the value of the
currency altered so materially that this sum was not worth
the trouble of fetching, the custom of doing so fell into
disuse. The old man's grandfather lived near two hundred years
ago."

I have carefully searched the Churchwarden's Accounts from
1585 downwards, and cannot find a single entry of a payment
made by the Church of Wakefield to that of Dewsbury. If
the payment had ever been made, it is unlikely that it should
have been discontinued, however small the tribute might be.

We also learn from Domesday Book that King Edward the
Confessor was the owner of the Manor of Wakefield. He
died on the 5th of January, 1065 — 6, and was succeeded in
the ownership by Harold II. who was killed at the battle of
Hastings, October 14th, 1066 ; his possessions came to William
the Conqueror, who held the Manor at the time of the
Domesday survey. It is not known when the Earls of Warren
became possessed of the Church, but the first Earl Warren,
who had married Gundred, the Conqueror's daughter, died
June 24th, 1088; and between the years 1091 and 1097 the
second Earl Warren gave the Church of Coningsburgh and
all its dependencies, and the Church of Wakefield with its

* Dewsbury, its Ecclesiastical History.

B 2



THE CATHEDRA I. CHURCH



dependencies, to his father's monastery of St. Pancras of Lewes
in Sussex. Hunter says,* "the date of this donation, about
which there has been some misconception, is to be collected
from the names of the witnesses, among whom are three
bishops, named Ralph, Gundulph, and Walkeline ; these bishops
were contemporary in their respective sees only during that
interval. The grant is very extensive, both in new donations
and in confirmations of the gifts of his father : "

" In Eborasira vero dedi eis " In Yorkshire, indeed, I

ecclesiam de Coningeburg cum have given to them the Church



aliis ecclesiis decimis et terris
et omnibus suis appendiciis : et
ecclesiam de Wakefeld cum
pert : suis."



of Coningsburgh, with the other
Churches, tithes, lands and all its
appendages, and the Church of
Wakefield, with its dependencies."



The third Earl Warren confirmed the grant in these words



"Sciant presentes et futuri
quod ego Willielmus comes
de Warrena dono concedo et
hac presenti carta mea con-
firmo Deo et S. Pancratio de
Lewes et monachis ibidem
Deo servientibus pro salute
anime mee et Willielmi patris
mei et omnium successorum
nostrorum ecclesiam de Coning-
burgh cum ecclesiis capellis
terris et decimis et omnibus
ad eas pertinentibus scilicet
ecclesiam de Braythewell cum
pertinentiis ecclesiam de Don-
ingthon cum pert, ecclesiam de
Herthill cum pert, ecclesiam de
Fishlak cum pert, ecclesiam de
Hetfeld cum capella de Thorne
et omnibus pert, ecclesiam de



" Know all present and to
come, that I, William, Earl of
"Warren, give, concede, and by
this my present charter confirm
to God, St. Pancras of Lewes,
and the monks serving God
there, for the health of my soul
and of my father William and
all our successors, the Church
of Coningsburgh, with the
Churches, Chapels, lands, tithes
and all things pertaining to them,
the Church of Braithwell with
its dependencies, the Church of
Dunnington with its dependen-
cies, the Church of Harthill with
its dependencies, the Church of
Fishlake with its dependencies,
the Church of Hatfield with the
Chapel of Thorne and all its



Parva Sandale cum capella de dependencies, the Church of
* "South Yorkshire," I. 105.



OF WAKEFIELD.



Hernoldesthorp cum omnibus
pert, ecclesiam etiam de Wake-
feld cum capella de Horbyry et
omnibus pert, suis ecclesiam de
Halyfax cum omnibus pert, suis
ecclesiam de Dewsbyry cum
capella de Hertesheved et
omnibus pert, suis ecclesiam de
Birton cum omnibus pert, suis
ecclesiam de Maiori Sandale
cum omnibus pert, suis et si
forte terre in quibus site sunt
predicte ecclesie in alterius
alicuius dominium quam in
raeura sive per homagium et
servicium sive per maritagium
sive aliquocunque modo deve-
nerint volo nihilominus et
percipio ut predicte ecclesie
et omnes alie quas habent
de feodo meo predicti monachi
ad sustentationem eorum libere
et quiete semper remaneant
ita ut nullus omnino hominum
in eisdem ecclesiis aliquod
ius advocationis sive presenta-
tionis sibi possit vindicare
preter ipsos monachos meos
quibus totum ius quod unquam
habui vel habere potui in
eisdem ecclesiis dedi et con-
cessi nullo mihi vel heredibus
meis in eisdem ecclesiis iure
retento hiis testibus Radulpho
de Waren Hugone dePetroponte
Radulpho de Playz Rob. de
Frivele Reginaldo de Waren



Sandal Parva with the Chapel of
Harnoldsthorpe (?) with all its
dependencies, also the Church of
Wakefield with the Chapel of
Horbury and all its dependencies,
the Church of Halifax with all
its dependencies, the Church of
Dewsbury with the Chapel of
Hartshead and all its depen-
dencies, the Church of Burton
with all its dependencies, the
Church of Sandal Magna with
all its dependencies. And if by
chance the lands in which the
aforesaid Churches are situated
shall have come into any other
persons domain but mine, either
by homage and service, or
through marriage, or in any other
way, nevertheless I will and
assume that the aforesaid
Churches and all others which
the aforesaid monks hold by my
bequest, shall be preserved to
them for their maintenance,
freely and peaceably for ever, so
that no one can claim the right
of advowsons or presentations in
the same Churches, except my
monks themselves, to whom I
have given and conceded what-
ever right I had or could have in
the same Churches, in its entirety,
not keeping back any right to
myself or to my heirs in the
same Churches. Witness to this
Ralph de Warren, Hugh de



6 THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH

Adam de Poning Gwyd dc Petroponte, Ralph de Playz,
Mencecourt Willielmo de Robert de Frivele, Reginald
Drossio et multis aliis." de Warren, Adam de Poning,

Gwyd de Mencecourt, William



Online LibraryJohn William WalkerThe history of the old parish church of All Saints, Wakefield, now the cathedral church of the diocese of Wakefield → online text (page 1 of 28)