John Williams White.

A series of first lessons in Greek: adapted to the second edition of Goodwin ... online

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T^HE revision and enlargement of Profess W. W.
-*- Gk)odwin'8 Greek (xrammar, republished h-st year,
has made necessary a new edition of my First Lessons
in Greek. I have taken this opportunity to submit the
book to a rigorous revision. As th3 result of this, though
the original plan of the Lessons remains unaltered, there
has been not a little change in its details.

I was aware, when this book was first published in 1876,
that its plan necessarily made it more difficult than books
of its kind ordinarily are. I waited, therefore, with
interest to see whether these difficulties, which I had
thought it better for the pupil to meet at once in his first
year's study and not to defer to an evil day, had been pre-
sented so gradually as to make it possible for the Lessons
to be used widely in our public schools. That fact was
soon established, and I think I may now say that the
peculiar features of the book have met with general and
hearty approval. Important among these are the intro-
duction of the verb, from the first and the subsequent de-
velopment of its inflexion alternately with that of the
other parts of speech, the introduction from the beginning
of exercises consisting of complete sentences for practice
in translation, and the development of the verb at first by
moods and not by tenses. *

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I am glad to know that this last feature has recom-
mended itself to teachers, and that it is now agreed that
the point of view of the Grammar, which necessarily states
the facts of the language scientifically, looking first to the
forms of words and not to their use, is not the one to tal^e
in giving the pupil his first insight into the language con-
sidered as a means for the expression of thought. An
illustration of the truth of this may be drawn from the
subjunctive and optative. As was urged in the first edi-
tion, the uses of these moods in Greek, though delicate,
are nevertheless clearly defined. When the beginner first
learns their forms, he should at once have the more com-
mon of these uses explained to him. The proposition is
the element of language, and from this individual words
and forms derive their whole relational significance. But
in fact, when the subjunctive and optative are not studied
singly but are presented tense by tense along with the
other moods, frequently a blind and often incorrect trans-
lation of the one by may, etc., and of the other by mighty
etc., is allowed, as if they were independent in their use
like the indicative, a translation in which the pupil has
no adequate feeling of their force. It may be easier to
learn the mere forms of the verb by tenses than by moods,
a single tense stem being presented at a time, but in the
case of a pure verb the changes of stem in the different
tenses resulting from augment and tense sign can hardly
be called a matter of great difiiculty.

In this book, therefore, Xvo), as the representative of
pure verbs, has first been presented by moods. Its
development, however, is very gradual, running through
sixteen lessons. It has, moreover, been carefully borne
in mind in these lessons that Xvco is the type, and any





peculiax euphonic cliangeB in the forms of the pure and
mute verbs that have been introduced have been explained
as they have occurred, generally in the foot-notes. It is
at Lesson XXXV. that a systematic development of the
verb by tense stems begins, though the subject of tense
stems in pure and mute verbs is presented in part in
Lesson XX. This part of the book has been enlarged by
five lessons, and it is hoped that the verb, that one great
difficulty which he who would learn Greek may not avoid,
is now so fully and yet so gradually presented as to make
the mastery of its forms if not easy, at least possible
without discouragement.

The exercises in immediate connection with the lessons
have been taken mainly from the first four books of
Xenophon's Anabasis. They are designed from the first
as a driU not only on forms but also in syntax, the sim-
pler principles of which are early introduced and illus-
trated. They consist entirely of complete sentences, each
of which illustrates some principle of the lesson in which
it occurs. These sentences have been transferred with as
little change as possible from the original! It is obvious
that it will be a great advantage to those who subse-
quently read the Anabasis to have previously studied in
this careful way so great a part of it. Forms, however,
cannot be learned, especially by English-speal?:ing boys,
whose own language is almost destitute of inflexions,
without constant and recurring practice. To supply ma-
terials for this practice there have been added to the
lessons, at the end of the book, twenty-five additional
exercises on forms to be taken by way of review, as the
lessons proceed. In these no attempt has been made to
illustrate syntax systematically, and the sentences (for



phrases have not been admitted even here) have been
made as brief as possible, though each introduces one or
two, often many, illustrations of the forms under consid-
eration. These additional exercises are drawn from vari-
ous sources, but mainly from excellent books for beginners
by Bbckel, by Schenkl, and by Kiihner.

In introducing the syntax, all idioms peculiar to Greek
have been carefully explained on their first occurrence,
and this explanation has often been subsequently again
referred to in the notes; but idioms identical with the
English, as e. g. the infinitive not in indirect discourse,
have been freely employed from the first. The first year's
knowledge of Latin also has been assumed in introducing
constructions. The last twenty lessons are intended to
give a drill on the general principles of syntax, and only
the largest print of the sections in the grammar cited at
the head of the lessons is to be learned. If under any
particular construction there is a special fact of unusual
difficulty or importance, attention is called to it in the
notes. It is recommended that these lessons be taken at
the rate of one or two a week in connection with the
author whom the class shall have taken up on finishing
Lesson LX. It should be added that the English parts
of the exercises of these twenty lessons are not designed
as a systematic course in Greek Composition. To meet
this want, an American edition of Mr. Arthur Sidgwick's
First Cheek Writer is about to be. published, and so the
promise of four years ago at length fulfilled.

The vocabularies, both special and general, have been
made with care and from the point of view of the deriva-
tion and composition of words, on the study of which
too great stress can scarcely be laid. Lessons LIX. and



LX. should be introduced early in paxts, and the student
taught the habit of analyzing the words in his exercises
to get at their meaning. In the Greek-English vocabu-
laries, English words that are cognate with the pre-
ceding Greek words have been printed in small capitals,
borrowed words in black letter. The former show the
influence of the phonetic principle, familiarly known as
Chimm's Law. According to this law, ir and ^ will
generally appear in English respectively as / and b;
K, y, and ;^, as A, ^ or c, and 5^; and r, 8, and 0, as th, t^
and d, though there are many exceptions. A borrowed
word, on the other hand, is one transferred directly with-
out consonantal change from Greek into English. This
connection between the Greek and English words has not
been traced out exhaustively. What is given is intended
to be suggestive, and leaves much that may be done by
the teacher.

The special vocabularies should be well committed to
memory. The words in these are taken from sentences
in the exercises of the lesson in which they occur, and
no word is repeated* In these vocabularies, in the course
of the book, the student learns over four hundred Xeno-
phontic words in common use. The parts of the verbs
have been given, without abbreviation of the forms, from
Veitch. Late forms have been excluded, but forms on
the other hand occurring exclusively in Homer have been
given when necessary to complete the parts of a verb.
When Veitch does not catalogue the verb, only the present
and future are given in the general vocabulary, unless the
verb has occurred also in one of the special vocabularies.
In the general Greek-English vocabulary, further, the
prepositions are now fully treated, the simple stems of the

*': Digitized by VjOOQIC


verbs and the class to which the verb belongs are given,
the cases accompanying the verbs stated where necessary,
and the natural quantities marked. This last feature is
new to this book and unusual in books of this grade. But
the conviction has been growing upon me, that we ought,
from the very beginning, to mark by our pronunciation the
difference between a, i, and v, and a, I, and v, just as
we do between € and ij, and o and w. The pupil's higher
work in later years will be made easier if attention is
paid to natural quantities from the start. In the English-
Greek vocabulary there is no systematic treatment of syno-
nymes, which have been given only so far as necessary to
guide the pupil in his choice of words. It is scarcely
necessary to add that this vocabulary is special, and not
designed for use with any other English sentences than
those occurring in this book.

The use of blackboards, extensive enough for the en-
tire class, is strongly recommended. The Greek of the
English exercises might the first day be put on the board,
and the second day recited orally. By this use of the
blackboard, classes are soon initiated into the mysteries
of accentuation. The teacher should also, with the ma-
terial here given, make other short sentences to be trans-
lated, both Greek and English. This additional drill
should be mainly oral, and conducted rapidly. We should
train not only the eye, but also the ear of our pupils.

As to the order of the words in translating the English
sentences into Greek, the pupil should be warned against
the wrong placing of post-positive and adjective words
and phrases, and further against following the English
arrangement slavishly. As a general guide he should
know that in Greek the subject followed by its modifiers



stands first, the verb preceded by its modifiers last, though
often, as in English, the verb precedes its modifiers either
wholly or in part; but there are many exceptions, and
too much attention should not be paid to the matter of
the order of the words at first. These EngUsh sentences
are for the most part translations, and for the satisfaction
of teachers who may care to know the original order and
choice of the words, the original sentences have been
published in pamphlet form, and may be had on applica-
tion to the publishers.

As is known, Professor Hadley's Greek Grammar is
now undergoing revision. When the new edition ap-
pears, a companion pamphlet of parallel references will
be prepared for the accommodation 6f those who, using
this grammar, would like to use also the materials col-
lected in the Lessons. These will not be numerically
arranged in columns, but given in sets under the head of
each lesson, repeating the references made to Goodwin's
Grammar^ a method of references, it is believed, as
complete and satisfactory as could be desired.

It cannot be expected that the book as it stands, with-
out omission or division of th^ lessons, will meet the
wants of all schools. To make the shortening of the
lessons, when necessary, easier, the exercises up to the
syntax have been divided into four sections, the second
and fourth of which need not be taken. The additional
exercises on forms also may either be omitted or drawn
from on occasion. In general, however, the book had
best be taken entire, in the manner prescribed, at such
rate of progress as is possible in each particular case. It
is believed that ordinarily, excluding the twenty lessons
on syntax, it can be completed and the class set to read-



ing an author in two terms of three months each. There

will be much diflference of opinion, also, as to how much

introductory matter should be learned before the class

proceeds to the subject of inflexion, and on this account

this part of the book has not been divided into lessons.

The directions at the beginning of each lesson have been

made as definite as possible. But it will be well for the

teacher to go over each lesson with his class before they

undertake it, telling them definitely what to learn and

forestalling its greater difficulties.

The pleasure remains to me of expressing my grateful

thanks to the many friends who have assisted me not only

in the preparation of the original edition of this book but

also in its revision. Neither undertaking was in itself

enlivening; but the help and encouragement I have had

have done much to lighten what otherwise might have

proved a tedious task. The care necessary to free a

book of this sort of errors is infinite; and I have no

doubt that though I have spared no time or pains with

it mistakes remain. These can easily be corrected in

the plates, and I shall be under obligations to any one

who will point them out,

Harvard University,
July, 1880.



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The portions of the Grammar deeignated by the following
numerals are to be well learnt before taking up Lesson I.*
The parts which are here included of § 15, § 16, and § 17
are given that teachers who think it advisable may give their
pupils at the outset a comprehensive view of the Euphony of
Consonants, the principles of which, however, will be cited
singly in the Lessons as they are needed. But these may be
omitted, if thought best, until Lesson XVI. is reached. Before
any attempt to learn the following paragraphs, the teacher
should go over them carefully with the class, pointing out in
each case how the examples illustrate the principle.

Grammar^: § 1, with n. 1, together with the system of
pronunciation given on page xi; § 2, with N. ; § 3, with N. ;
§4, 1 (with N. 1) and 2; §5,land2; § 6, with 1 and 2,
and N. ; § 7, with N. ; § 15, 1 and 2; § 16, with 1 (and
N. 2), 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 ; § 17, 1, 2, and 3; § 18, 1 and 2 ;
§ 19, 1, 2, and 3; § 20, with 1, 2, and 3; § 21, 1, 2, and
3; §22, land 2; §23,1; §31.

After learning § 1, with the system of pronunciation, give
the name and English equivalent of each letter in the follow-
ing Exetcise. After § 2 and § 3 point out the vowels and
diphthongs and give their sounds. After § 5 classify the con-
sonants, and after § 6 classify them a second time, minutely.



After the remainder of the references to the Grammar, point
out and name the breathings and accents, and name the words
according to their accentuation (§ 21, 2), and then pronounce
the Exercise entire. (The hyphens show the division of the
words into syllables according to § 18, N.)


Kv'po^ hk ^I'Xrfv €'\€av rr/v ice-^-Xi^v et9* 7171/

"EX-Xiy-i't-icoO Be-i/o-^w 'A-fty-i^at-os, v-Trc-Xa-cra?
109® crW'fw-TJJ'aai' rj-pe-To ct* n ira-/»ay-ycX-Xot •
6® 8*® c-TTi-ony-o-a? ct-Tre kcll Xc-yctv c-icc-Xcv-o-e
Tra-o-tv o-ri ical to, i-e-pa ica-Xa kcll ra cr^-yt-a
ica-Xa. raS-ra Sc Xi-yoip do-pv-fiov rj-Kov-a-e St-a
Tcov ra-fc-oiv* t-oi/-T09, ic<u '^-pe-TO T19 o uo-pv-po^
ct-17. o 8c KXe-ap-j(os cT-ttci/ o-rt to aw-Ori'iia
ira-pep-'xC'Toi,'' hev-r^-pov rj-Brj. icat os i-dav-fia-
ar€ tU ira-pay-yik-kei kcu rj-pe-ro o ri ct-iy to
(rw-ft;-/ia. 6 8* a-m-KpL-va-ro ZETS Sft-THP


* The number of Lessons into which this introductory matter shall
be divided is left to the judgment of the teacher.

* Let the teacher at the outset go over the •' Introduction " (pages
1-3 of the Grammar) with the class, using maps.

' Those portions of the Grammar that are to be committed to mem-
ory are designated here and in the following Lessons by paragraph and
subdivision. Occasionally, however, more specific directions are given.

* I 29, and { 4, 1, k. 1. M 29.

» I 21, 1, K. 2. M 22, K. 1.

® The proclitic A (J 29) receives an accent from the enclitic tI (J 27,
with 2).

' That is, 8^ {\ 12, 1). Pronounce as if a part of the following word.
»» I 22, N. 2. "J 23, 1. N.





Grammar : § 32, 1 and 2 (and read the N.); § 33, 1, 2,
and 3 (with notes 1 and 2) ; § 88, 1 (with N.) and 2 ; § 89,
andN.; § 90, 1 and 2; §91; §93, land 3; § 78,^ de-
clension of the Definite Article 6, '^, ro; § 141 ; § 86,
declension of the Eelative Pronoun as, rj, o.


^ The first column gives the masculine forms ; the second, the femi-
nine ; the third, the neuter. See, further, { 29. In declining, give firsii
the forms of the singular across the page^ 4 i|^t ^^ ^ *^ ^^* ^^^
then those of the dual and plural.


Verbs : Present Indicatiye Actiye.

Grammar : § 92, 4, 1, (reading first § 92, 1 and 3, with

N.) ; § 110, 1 ; § 94 ; § 96, 1., the Present Indicative Active

of Xvtt), together with the meaning of this tense (§ 95,

2, I., first column) and its terminations (§ 113, 2, I., first



aXrjOewo, -cts, to speak the truths

fiaa-iKewo, -ets, to be king, to reign.

ypa(f>(o, -€t9, to write, to GRAVE.*

ideXcx), -CIS, to wish, to desire,

ikavvfo, -CIS, to march,

Xvco, -€ts, to LOOSE, to destroy.

irifiirfo, -€ts, to send,

rpix(a, -CIS, to run.

Digitized by VjOOQIC



Translate into English.

I. 1. Xvova-L.^ 2. fiaariXEvoD. 3. fiaa-Lkevei^.
4. o fidvTLS {soothsayer) dkrjdeiki. 5. ypa^.
6. ypajf>erov.^ 7. Xijo/juep. 8. iOdkei ypdj>ew?

II. 1. 6 mnip {man) ypaxfteu 2. Trefiiroiia^.
3. dXiy^cvcts. 4. XvcTC, 5. ypaxfyova-L. 6. iffekek

Translate into Gbreek.

III. 1. He writes. 2, They (two) speak the
truth. 3. I desire to run. 4. They send. 5. You
(smgular) march. 6. He looses.

IV. I. You {plural) run. 2. We speak the
truth. 3. I write. 4. We wish to write.

* If the teacher thinks best, the subdiyision of the terminations into
connecting vowels and personal endings can be introduced even here.
It is first given in this book in Lesson X., which is a review of the active

*^ On the special vocabulary of each Lesson, see the Preface.

^ The definitions are given in the infinitive to express the simple
meaning of the verb without reference to person or number.

^ In the vocabularies the small capitals denote that the English word
io of kindred origin with the Greek word. See the Preface for the differ-
eaoe between cognate and borrowed words in English.

^ They loose. In the English translation always use the pronoun
wlu ^h is of the same person and number as the verb, provided that no
nouii -subject occurs.

* You (two), or they (two), write (dual).

^ To write, present infinitive active of Ypd^, the ending being -civ.




Hotms : First Declension.

Grammae : § 34 ; § 35 ; § 36, excq)t the terminatioiw
of the masculine dngvlar (and read the N.) ; § 25, 1 and
2 ; § 37, 1 {the declension of the first four nouns) and ^
with notes 2, 3, and 4.


Ct9, prep, used with the ace. only,

C#C, prep, used with the gen. only,

> \ / ^ eft


KCOfJLTl, -1^9, r/,

a-KTjihj, -199, 17,
Xcopa, -a9, 17,

into, to.

out of, from.

a letter, an epistle.*

tlie sea.

a spring.

a village.

a tent

a country.


I. 1. cfe 7171^? ^cS/oai/ ikawovin, 2. ypdxj)eL
imoToXTJp. 3. rpexpvcnp^ els rrfv dakaTTop. 4. ra?
C7rto"ToXa9 mfnrofiG/. 5. rfiv a-KTjv^i/ Xuet [he de-
stroys). 6. c/c^ r5z/ KcofiZv iXavpeu 7. rpexofieu
€19 Ta9 (TicYjvds;.

II. 1. cXawct €t9 Ta9 Kcjfias. 2. r^i/ orpa-
Tiay davfidi^eu 3. e/ (m) r^ /^cuftj? Kpiqirqv evpCaKCL

(he finds).^



III. 1. We admire the springs. 2. He has® a
letter.* 3. He marches into the village. 4. They
destroy the tente. 5. They are writing letters.

IV. 1. We run into the sea. 2. He marches
from the sea to the tents.

» 8 29. » J 29, and J 13. 2.

^ The article here shows the gender of the substantive, { 33, 2, k. 1.

* In the vocabularies the black letter denotes that the English word
is borrowed from the Greek word. See note 4, Lesson II.

^ In earlier Attic Greek and the other dialects, IdUlaovck The form
in double tau (rr) occurs in the later Attic.

* i 138. "f I 13, 1.

* Words not found in the special vocabulary of the Lesson are to be
looked for in the general vocabularies at the end of the book.

' On the Order of Words in Attic Greek Prose, consult the Preface.


Votuib: First Deolension (corUmued), — Sabjeot, Predioate,

Grammar : § 36 ; § 37, 1 and 2, with notes 1, 2, 3,
and 4; § 133, 1 and 2; § 134, 1 ; § 135, 1 ; § 158.


§ 133, 1 : Uip^ ^Soo-tXcvei, Xerxes (subject) is kino


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Online LibraryJohn Williams WhiteA series of first lessons in Greek: adapted to the second edition of Goodwin ... → online text (page 1 of 21)