John Williams White.

A series of first lessons in Greek: adapted to the second edition of Goodwin ... online

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• That is, ^fi, contracted third singular present indicative active of

"^ 213,2. • . "See above, 1.4.



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30 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

LESSON XT.

Verbs: Aorist, Ferfeot, and Flnperfeot IndioatiYe KidcQe.

Grammar: § 92, 4, III. and IV. a; § 110, III. 1 and
IV. a; § 96, I.,^ Aorist, Perfect, and Pluperfect Indica-
tive Middle of Xva>; § 112, 2 (Middle and Passive end-
ings) and 3; § 113, 1 (second paragraph) and 2, II., third
column, with N. 1 ; § 95, 1, I., the synopaia in the Middle
voice of the Indicative of Xvo).

Yocabulaiy.

oip)(Q}, dp^o}, ^pioL, ^px^^ ^ ^^ ^^ lead, to begin^

rjpyiiai, to rule.

Koiinjrrf^, -ov, 6, (kc^wi) a villager.

lioi)(7i, -rj^, ij, dac^ofioi, tofighi) a battle.

iravci}, iravaoi, ewavcra, ire- to stop, to end: mid, to stop

iravKa, irezrav/xot, ones self, to desist,

ireido), TTcicro), eircura, ire- to persuade: mid^toobeT/

W€LKa, ircTTCtcr/JMU,* (i.e. to persuade one's self).

ireipdo), ireipda-o}, iireCpaau,

ireirctpaica, TreTreCpafiai,^

(irttpo, a trial) to try, to oMempt^ ^

OT/OaTOTTcScUO), OT/OaTOTTC-

SciTcra), iorpaTomSevo'at

(irrpardmSov, a camp, fr. oTpafvSi

and wcSor, ground) to encamp, to bivOUac?

VTroxllCa, -a?, 1J, (iW, and the root
ov'f look, so that the idea is eying

^iealthily) sv^idon, apprehension.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 31

Exeretees.

T. 1. ToU OeoU iOva^aro. 2. ii&xyfi^ wiirava-oA.
3. ireTreipavTOL rov ttotojiov huifiaCvcLP. 4. i\£kua'0€
TCL iraiSuz. 5. oi Sk OTfxiTvoyrax hrerropewno araJB-
/jLov^ ir€PT€. 6. ToS iroXdiiov hravo'aro. 7. 6 Si
Kvpo^ ^jSovketrrax owca^ (that) fiacriXeucrci dm rov
oScX^v. 8. ol 8k McXifrov iroXtrcu i7S^a»9 ^av-
trairro. 9. Kcl 6 'Apiatbs ^orparoireScvcraro.

n. 1. Stcr^iXtoi icrrpaTomhevcaino irapa KXc-
^PXV* ^* '^^ vciretparai mBea^ rov^ m>Xtra$.

3. icoi Tw arpartfyov Koi rhv trarpdnrriv aTrcmft^aro.

4. iarpareuTo §€ KSpo9 efe T171' roii^ irokeyLum^ xdfxw.

m. 1. The bowmen have desisted from battle.
2. The hoplites accordingly encamped by the army
of Cyrus. 3. They have proceeded to the som-ces of
the river. 4. And the general attempted to surround
the villages.

IV. 1. Hereupon the village-chief began ^ to lead
away the villagers. 2. The satrap has deliberated
that he may ^ end the apprehensions of the citizens.

MOTSt.

» Page 100. • i 110. IV. ft.

^ For the euphonic change in the future and aorist («ii9-cr8> and
Ivci0-oxi), see J 16, 2. For the changes in the perfect, see { 16, 1, h. 2,
and i 16, 3. * i 109, 1.

• Commonly used in the middle voice as a deponent (| 88, 2).

• Fbom hatUe, { 174.

' Aorist middle. See the general vocabulary.

• See above, I. 7.



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32 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

LESSON XVI.

Fonns ; Mute or Liquid Stems of the Third Declension.

Grammar : § 45, 1 and 2 ; § 46, with 1, 2, 3, and 4 ;
§ 47, 1 and 2; § 48, 1 and 2, a, 6, c, and d; § 49 ; § 50, 1.,
the declension of the first four nouns ; § 16, with 2 and 6
(with notes 1 and 2); § 25, 3.


Yoeabiilfliy.

apx<i^^ 'Omo^, o, (*px«) a ruler, a commander,
yepojp, -oMro9, o, (cf. y$p«*»

old age) an old man.

d^pa^, -aico9f 6, a breastplate, a cuira^.

KTJpv^, -VIC09, 6, (ici||Mfrwh to

proclaim) a herald.

fidoTi^, -iyo9, 17, a whip, a lash.

^£^ay^f 'Oyyo^, 17, a line of battle, a phalanx,

^cvyo)!/,^ -OKro9, 6, (^cvywy

to flee) a fugitive, an eodle.

to guard) a ffuard.

Exercises.

I. 1. rare Sk lajpvKaq errepAJse irefA airovBZp.
2. ol fidpfiapoi crofcvcrctt' vtto iiaucrTiydiv} 3. Ik^-
Xcvcrc TTopevea-dai^ okrjv riji' <f>akayya. 4. top Sk
KijpvKa iKckevae avyrfv tcqpvrr^w. 5. ^ci fiio'do'
^opow XaXv^a?. 6. cXvov cic T179 fiakaj/ov 7rcirot>j-
icacn T^9 ctTTO toS ^Cvuco^.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 33

n. 1. elxov Se dcopoKa^ \u^v^, am Bi t&p
vrepvycjp (nrdfyra irvKva. 2. kojL criKen irarr€
oToSta BuLx^TTfP ra>^ ^Xayye. 3. 6 8^ Bci/o^w
TW aLp)(ovra T175 Kcifirf^ awSei/nvcp iirovrjauro.^
4. Kol irajL€L rov aZekff^ov Kara (on) to crripvoif kojL
Tinrpcia'K€L 8ia rov ddpoKo^, 5. Ktu oi orpariM*
Tax dvTiTraperdiaan'o ^ Kara ifxikayYa.

m. 1. He was wearing his^ cavalry breastplate.
2. And he ordered the fugitives to take part in the
expedition.' 3. And the Oilician woman had guards.
4. And he has Xenias (as) • commander of the
hoplites.

rV. 1. And first I warred against^® the Thra-
cians. 2. They kept leaving the old men behind
at home. 3. (The trumpeter)" sounds with his
trumpet,^ and at once the soldiers run to close quar-
ters " with the enemy.

MOTBt.

* A participle used as a noan. For the vocative singular, see { 48, 2 5,
second paragraph.

* Shot under the Uuh, that is, of their leaders, who were urging them
on. This was a part of Persian discipline.

' Present infinitive middle, the ending heing -«r0ttb

* i 78, BT. 2. » { 166.

* Aorist of the compound verb dyriirapaTB{irr9|UU*
' 2 141, H. 2.

B arpwnimrBai. " i 134, H. 1 d.

* i 137, N. 4. " § 188, 1.

^ irpos with the accusative. ^ d|io<rc with the dative, 2 186.



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34 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

LESSON XVII.

Voims : Huto or Liquid Stems of the Third Deolension (confirmed).

Grammab : § 50; (he remainder of L, and IL ; review
the Grammar of the last Lesson.

Yocabulary.

yeXca^, -wo^, o, (yMi»f to laugh) laughter.
rfy€fia>v, -01^9, o, (Ap^^j^ to lead;

cf. &Y«) a leader, a guide,

ifid^, 'dpT(ys, 6, a leathern strap.

fiijv, flTjPO^, 6, a MONTH.

voik,^ iroSo?, o, a FOOT.
aTpdrevfia, -aT09, to, (orpcwpwt, an

army) an army, a host

<f>vyd^, -aSo9, 6, (♦tvY*) ' a fugitive, an ^exile,

xdpt^t 'Vro^t Tj, (x«*^ ^ r^oice) graiitude.

Exerefees.

I. 1. rg 8i virrepaia^ dpeo ifyeiiAvoq inopevovro.
2. Moftou 8k o-vi'cXcfc TO OTpdrevfia x^f^^ 'rciv aX-
Xcw.® 3. oi 8c aXXoi aTparL&rai hroKT4p€V(rav a<rt-

TOt* Koi WCV TTV/OO?.* 4. ClTtt Sc VO^TJXaWG/ i<f> ^

apfiato^ Kol rj KCktO'ca icf}* apiiafid^^. 5. 6 ^k*^
orpdreviia aweXieia/ diro tS)v xP^P*o.t(ixi/? 6. tUr€'
hvovTo €19 TOV9 TToha^ ol Ifidt^es*

Digitized by VjOOQIC



FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 35

n. 1. ol 8c "EXXwi^? <rw yikani hrX ra? (rKrp^a^
JjKOq^? 2. hnavOa ^vyas Sctfitas cXe^o^. 3. icare-
Xa/ifiai^v (found) *ApfUPuns jrav&as^^ aw rati"
papPoLpuciu^ oToXaS?. 4. r^ aarpdirg^ ov rod
lua-Oov &efca /lA/ov VTHiperjaroiia/ dXXa kcu, rvjs^

m. 1. And Clearchus, the Lacedaemonian exile,
had come. 2. And the prize was a beautiful golden
tiara. 3. But Cyrus ^* gave pay for six months "
to the general. 4. But the men descended " upon "
a ladder.

IV. 1. The army has" fair hopes of safety.
2. He will make war with the aid of" the fugitives
of the Milesians.

morm%.

' W949 (for vo8t) in the nominatiye irregularly lengthens the short
vowel of the stem. » { 189.

' 1 142, 2, F. 3 a, and { 139, 1. Declined regularly except in the
nenter AXo. ^ { 138, Bern.

* A heteroeUte, See { 60, 1, and in the general vocabulary, vvp.
'{17,1. With irapi{Xavm, sc. a Kvpos.

» i 143, »r. 2.

' By means of the money. Bee the general vocabulary, XR^M"*

* Game, second aorist ({ 90, 2, zr. 1) indicative third plural of the
deponent verb Ipx^l^u. '** ? 25, 3, k. 1.

" The (well known). The article is often used in Greek to mark a par-
ticular object as wcU knoum.
>* J 184, 2. » J 141, H. 1 h.

^iU K«pot, i 141, H. 1 a. For gave, see Lesson XIV., I. 5.
**U67,6.

* A customary action, imperfect tense.

" hi with the genitive. » } 184, 4. >» TTieA t^ aid qf,,^^.



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36 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

LESSON XVIII.

Verbs: Xndioatiye Fassive. — Eistorioal Ftesent.

Geammar : § 92, 4, 1,, IV. a and c, and VI. ; § 110, L,
IV. a and c, and VI. ; § 96, 1.,^ Indicative Passive ; M 95,
2, I., third paragraph; § 112, 1, 2,»3, and 4; § 113, 1 and
2 ; § 95, 1, I., the synopsis in the Passive voice of the
Indicative of Xvco ; § 88, 2, with n. ; § 92, 6 and 6 ; § 196 ;
§ 197, 1 and 2, first paragraph ; § 200, n. 1.

Examples.

§ 196 : ^AfyrawaTT)^ ermfiyiro xmo Kvpov, Arta-

pates HAD BEEN HONORED by CyTUs. (Ac-
tive : *Af)Tamrrip iren/i'qKei Kvpos^)

§ 197, 2 : rrdvra * to?9 aTpartfyol^ TrcwooTrot, every-
thing has been done by the generals.

§ 200, N. 1 : Kvpov fieraTrefnreTai, lie sent for Gyrus.

Voeabnlary.

fiovXoiiai, fiovXrja-oiKU, fiePovXy/fKU,

ifiovKijOrfv,^ to vnsk.

Syjkoo}, hriXioa-fo, etc. reg,, (STjXoty clear) to make clear.

KVkKoQ}, KVkXcoO'O}, etc. reg., {K4kko% a circle) to SfWrromul.
Xeyo), Xcfo>, cXcfa, XcXey/xai^ i\€)(07jp,^ to say,
Xcyo),"' \€^<a, cXc^a, ctXo^a,^ eiXcy/xai

or XcXey/Liai, iKi^dyjv, to gather.

fiLO'doo), fiLO'Ooyo'a}, etc. reg., (jjunrW) to hire.

ir(u^€V(o, TratSevo'o), etc. reg.^ (iraSs, a child) to educate.

iJHXeCii, ^iXijO'CJ, etc. reg.,^ {<^0^) to love.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 37



Exerdses.

I. 1. i/iefuaOdfuda r^ apxpvri. 2. Aeyero 17
X^P^ oipX^o-dai^^ viro r&p Hepar&v. 3. inl toTs
OvpoL^ rat? Aapeiov wai&€v0ijcrovraL. 4. €19 KaoTcu-
Xov ireSiov a0poC(/ovT(u. 5. ^iXos roi9 oTparuariU^
XeXeul^cTcu. 6. hrravBa S^ Kvpov dirore/ii^rat 1^
Ke^X^ KOi ^clp 17 Se^icu 7. oi yap oTparwnaL vm
T&p wokiT&v ovK i<l>Lk'q$rfa'at^.

n. 1. aXXo^^ hk arpdrevfia crwcX^ycro^* & Xcp-
pcurqa^fi. 2. eircuScvero ow TOi9 aXXot9 Traiaw.
3. a>9 (AoT^;) Kvpos AxXcvn/crc a/ r^ eiMrpocrdep^^
Xoy^ ScStTXct^rcu. 4. eTrel 8^ ercXcvr^o-c Aapetb^t
9r/>09 Tw ^Apra^ep^v iir€fi<f>$rfaray ayyekoi viro
Kvpov.

in. 1. He was sent. 2. The bridges will have
been destroyed. 3. The boys will be honored by
the satrap. 4. He wishes an army to be collected.*®
5. They learn both to rule and to be ruled.

IV. 1. Miletus was besieged both by land and
by sea. 2. The army was encircled on both sides.
3. He has been made satrap** of Lydia by Darius.

N0TE8.

> Page 102.

' For the present, imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect indicative paa-
sive, see pages 98 and 100.

* The aorist indicative passive uses Hiq secondary endings of the
active.



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38 FIEST LESSONS IN GREEK.

* Neuter plural nominative of the adjective iraiy literally aU (^Ain^<)L

» I 109, 8. • I 16, 1.

'' This verb is found only in composition in Attic Greek.

» { 101. 1, N. • 1 17, 2.

^® The present infinitive passive, like the middle, uses the ending



" See the general vocabulary under aXXot. " | 141, v. 3.
» Look for vvKKirm, i 16. 6. " 2 136.



LESSON XIX.

Hoims : Stems of the Third Decleasion ending in % —The
Declension of ovto^.

Geammar: § 51, 1 and 2; § 52, 1 (and read the N.^),
and 2, with notes 1, 2, and 3; § 33, 2, notes 1, 2, and 3;
§ 68, with 1, 2, and 3; § 83, the dedension of the Demon-
strative Pronoun o5to9; § 142, 4.

Example.

§ 142, 4: oSro9 6 avijp, or 6 aunfp oSro$ (never 6 oSto$
aanjp), this Tnan.

Yoeabnlary.

€Spo9> -€09, TO, (•*!»»«» «'«^» ^'•^^ width, breodtk.

Kpwo^^ -C09, TO, (it«ip«» <^ ^«»<^) a helmet

KpaTo^, -€09, T^, might, power^

firJKo^, -609, TO, length,

opo^, -C09* TO, « rrumntain,

T€L)(0^, -609, TO, tt t^off for defence.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 39

TcXo9, -C09, TO, (tAXh, to oc- (zccomplishment, end: pi.

eompUsh) by metonymy TtVOLgistTdteS,

V^O^j -€OS, TO, (C+H on AijrA,

oZo/i) hdgkt.

Exercises.

I, 1. Suuicei rovTov^ tov9 oTparrfyov^ Kvpos
rpnjpea-i.^ 2. icoi ij/ravOa Br/ iSUoKoi/ Kara Kpdro^ '
ot ^EXXiyue?. 3. rfj^ rjiUpa^ tovto to tcXo^ ijv.

4, *Opdi^ra9 8c yci^ct* irpO(r!JK€^ r^ ^Apra^ep^.

5. TovTov Sc Tov norafiov ro cS/)os corti' cucocri ical
ira^c woScSv.® 6. ci/^a 8*^ €<f>€iryov inl tcl oprj.

H. 1. Kol 6 XcJKpdrrjS (TUfiBovXeveL tw Hcj'o-
^>&irn? 2. iwovTcu riyefjiovi toJ 'Hpa/cXcI/ 3. -^v
Sc tovto to Tctj^o? cvpos® ct/coat TToBwil/, Jnjfo^ Be
€Kar6v • firJKo^ 8* cXcycTO ca^ai ® ct^oct napaaayyiov,
4. CTTcl 8c ^aap im tcu^ Ovpais tcu<s TLO-a-axfyepvoi;^,
ot fJLQ/^^ OTparqyol irapeKkijOrja'av^^ cmtcj* oi 8c

Xoji^ayol cm Tats Ovpai^ ep^ei/ov.

*

III. 1. He tells this oracle to Socrates. 2. The
breadth of this river is two plethra. 3. Thence they
sent the scout upon the mountains.. 4. He announces
that they are fleeing at fall speed.^^

IV. 1. But the enemy were kindling fires upon ^^
the mountains. 2. This man was condemned to
death by the magistrates at Sparta." 3. And they
had brazen helmets and purple tunics.



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40 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.



NOTC8.

' In declining nouns and adjectives, especially in the third declen-
sion, great attention should be given to the formation of the various cases
from the stem, particularly of the nominative, accusative, and vocative
singular, and the dative plural. Consult the references to the Grammar
given in Lesson XVI. • 2 188, 1.

^ Kaixl KpoCrof , according to mighty with aU their might.
* i 188, 1, H. 1. • i 169, 3. • I 160, 1.

» i 26, N. 1. 'J 184, 2. • lb he.

^^ When two parts of a sentence are contrasted, they are very com-
monly correlated by ffdw ... 8^ (both postpositive), in the sense of indeed
. . . butf on the one hand . . . on the other; though, in many cases, |uV can
hardly be rendered in English.
" Aorist passive of «opaKoX/«. " M with the genitive.

" At full ^peed, oyd Kporot*
" At Sparta, h r^ 2ira(pn|. See, further, { 142, 1, H.



LESSON XX.

Verbs; Augment and Formation of Tense Stems.

Geammar: § 99, 1, and 2 entire ; § 100, 1 and 2 ; § 101,
1, 2, 3, and 4; § 102; § 103; § 104; § 105, 1; § 109, 1;
§ 110, L, II. 1, III. 1, IV. a 6 and c, and VI.

Yocabiilfliy.

aKowa, aKoviroikOLi^ yJKovcra,

rJKova-driv, to hear.

id(a, ida-Q}, ciaxra, eiaKa, etofiai,, to permit, to allow , to
€Ld0Tjv, let ahne, to let go.

cv^o/Acu,^ ej^oyLaiy cvfa/Aiyi/, to pray,

^T^TCO), ^rfTTJa-o), etc. reg., to Seek.

07ipeV(i),^ Orfpevaro}, etc. reg., (eifp, a

wild beast) to kunt wild beasts.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 41

jfparrtA^ wpd^<a, enpa^a, m-

7rpa)(a, mirpayiiam, hrpaxdyp/^ to do^to prdctice.
pitrrm,^ pufm, ippv^a, ippuf>a,

eppifi/uu, ippuf>07iPt to throw, to hurl.

Tapirrta^ rapd^oi, irdpaia, rerd- to disturb, to

pay/jML, iTapd)(0rjp, trouble.

Exercises.

I. 1. irpaxOijorerai. 2. clj^c 8k to Se^tdi/.
3. Trfv itnoTokriv eyeypd^i* 4. ^ra Sc i^rjyov top
*0p6vTav. 5. kgI oi fup'^ rfixovTo^ oi 8c ^KTeipov.
6. Oi arparriyoi aw 'Si€i/o<l>anrrL TJKokovOyiauv. 7. Ta
Se aXXa ^ eU to irvp Ippi^^av.

II. 1. TTopevetrdai^ tLaor^ Toif^ OTpaTiuyras. 2. oXt-
yoi d/x<^ Kvpop KaT€X£C<l>drja'ai/. 3. Si^Xc^crct Sc S)v
he6fjL€0a. 4. inl top a8€\(f)OP iarpaT^vero. 5. Ki}po9
8c ovTToi '^ico'* oXX* ert TTpoaijkavuep.

ni. 1. But he was marching against^® Menon's
soldiers. 2. But a mountain surrounded " the plain.
3. For Cyrus honored his guest. 4. He has hunted
wild beasts on horseback,^^ 5. We had broken our
oaths.

rV^ 1. They have sought the commanders. 2. Ho
Has been loved by the barbarians. 3. But the gen-
eral was greatly troubled.



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42 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.



* See note 3, Leseon XXVIII. For the form of the aorist paaaive^
see i 109, 2. • J 103, H. * § 17, 2.

^ Simple stem ({ 92, 2) vpay^ See also i 108, I^ 1 a,
^ Simple stem ^i^ See J 108, III., and i 15, 2.

* Simple fitem rofax**

* { 1^. 1- 'See note 3, Lesson XVI. " Imperfect.



LESSON XXI.

ITonns i Stems of the Third Deolension ending in a Towel or
Diphthong, or in AX, or in AX and AT.

Gbammab : § 53, with 1 (and notes 1 and 2), 2, and 3
(with N. 1); § 64; § 55; § 56, 1 and 2.

Tocabidary.

wdpaa-L^, -6019, 17, («wt wp,

and padw, to go) an oscent, a march irdand.

BvpajML^, -cws, tJ, (Swrojuu, ability^ power ^ military /(9rce,

to he able) troOpS.

i^aari^, -€QI9, 17, (lirrdl«,

to itwpccO an inspection, a review,

iinrevs, -c(M9, o, (t«woi) a horaeinan: pi. cavalry.

KaTa)8ac7t9, -co)?, 17, (icaTifc a descent, a return to the

down, and PaCm) COdSt.

7rk7j0o^, -€os, TO, (irX€ii«,/ufl) fuhfiess, a great number, a/n

amount.
7r/3o^acrt9, -€o>9, ']7, a pretext.

rd^LS, -c(ws, 17, (Tdfcm», to ar- arrangement, good order^

range) discipline.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 43

Exeretses.

T. 1. TO §€ arpdreviia cKonre tov9 jSoik koI
QI/OV9. 2. ra Oripia oi tinrct? o^iore e&uaKOi^. 3. ct-
Xpv hk Kcu 86pv CU9 (about) irarr€KcuB€Ka irrjxtfav.
4. icai ivravda TLvpo^s i^raa-w rmv 'EXXipcoi^ €irot-
Tjore/. 5. ZrjKov ^p otl (that) eyyvs nov )8a<riXcvs'
Tji/» 6. KOLL vapfja-cu/^ at « n€Xo7roi^€rov prje^.

H. 1. wapfjp hk K€u 6 OTpanyyo? Art rott' veSn/.
2. ra Se^ta tov Kiparo^ ^€t. 3. -^croj^ at 'la>i^t.
Kot 7roX€t9 Ticrcr€uf>ipvov^^ ro apxaiov.^ 4. -xpca/ov
irXrjOo^ TT)^ ava fida'€a^ kcI KarafiaaeQ)^ iptavro^s^
Koi T/>€t9 (three) firjve^. 5. icat fiauriXev^ Brj iircl
TJKova-e^ TL(r(ra(jxpiH)vs top Kvpov ar6Xov, avriira-
pecKevaXjero.

m. 1. And lie was collecting Kis Grecian force.

2. For Cyrus kept remitting the tributes to the king
from"^ the cities. 3. He proceeds to® the king.
4. For they cast aside their purple robes. 5. But
Menon holds the left wing.

TV. 1. He had ships, with which* he was be-
sieging^^ Miletus. 2. Cyrus had another pretext.

3. And the Cilician woman admired the discipline of
the army.

NOTES.

^ poooXfvSy when used to designate the king of Persia, commonly omits .
the article. *• Formerly, § 160, 2. ^ Ik,

« ? 26, N. 1. » Sc. ^v. 8 ^, i 191, III. 2.

» i 169, 1. » i 171, 2, IT. 1. » ? 188, 1.

^^ ivoXiopKCi, i.e. cvoXu^pKcc (before contraction).



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44 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

LESSON XXII.

Verbs : SnbjnnotiYe Active.

Gra^mmar: § 96, 1, the Subjunctive Active of Xvco^
(read § 95, 2, N.^) ; § 114, the terminations of the Active
voice ; § 127, 1., the Future Indicative and Present Sub-
junctive of €t/xA; § 253; § 219, 1, 2 (first paragraph), and
3; §223.

Examples.

§ 253 : fi^ rovTO irourjo'OiiijQ^, let us not do this.
§223: n' rot^ aTparrfyoTs carat, cw Kparrjarfacrw ;

what will the generals have, if they conquer ?

Yocabnlaiy,

Bia'TpL^o}, Tpttjfa}, erpi^a, re- to rub through, to wear
rpuf>a, TeTpififiai, iTpuf^Or/v, away, to waste, to

(8ia and rptpti) dday,

OappaXjio^, -a, -ov.ipip^vty courage) courageous,

KOTTTfo,^ K&\Ka, cico^a, K€KOif>a, to strike, to cut, to

KCKo/jLixoL, slaughter,

ILOinv;, -cai9, o or ij, (|&a(vo|uu, u>

rave) a secT, soothsaycT.
TTapairK'qcno^,^ -a or -09, -ov,

(vapd and irXi)<r(ot9 ^^^ <^^08e to) Similar, like.

7rpa^i9, -c(09, tJ, (wpctrrw) a transax^tion, an un-

dertaking.
adlfii^ (rdo'cii, ecrcjcra, (rccroiica,

(riaoicpLOA or crccro/xat, iaoi'

Orfi/y to save,

TTJp^pov,^ adverb, to-day.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GBEEK. 45

Exereises.

I. 1. iw he dsfaaTpoJHtHriv cl mXe/iioi, 0aa/ju€P
Kcu hiafiaxua>fLO^ rov ttotcl/iw. 2. iccu eai^ 17 vpa-
£t9 y vapairK^qoia, offOfieda. 3. iw vpo^ ravra''
Xey27« PovXeuq-o/ieOa. 4. eai^ yap Zutrpv^fifv rifv
TTjfiepw^ 'qfUpaa/, oi woXefuoi OappaXioi ecovrou.
5. KOI/* airg,^^ €K€l wph^ ravra fiovXeuaofuOa^ 6. 1)1/
8i ayaOol ^re, v\$ovrax.

n. 1. dXXa irplo^ r&v OeZnf, p/tj aifop^cdpev.

2. 7jv ovrta vpocdytop^y, iKpirrevo'Ova'tv ^^p&v^^ oi
TToXe/xtot. 3. ovSk yap &p yiij>vpaL 5crt, ctoffrja^peOa.

m. 1. And let us not now delay. 2. Cyrus will
pursue the enemy, if they fl^ to the mountains.

3. Let us slaughter the cattle. 4. The soldiers will
follow, if their general shall end their suspicions.

TV. 1. But let us burn" the king's*^ country.
2. But if he does this, the seer shall have ten talents.



" Pages 94 and 96.

' Note that in the dependent moods the present and aorist (the
tenses commonly occnrring) do not differ as to time (except in the opta-
tive and infinitive in indirect discourse) ; and read carefully { 202, 1.

' The neuter singular nominative of the interrogative pronoun r(t,
what. See J 23, 1, H.

* Simple stem (J 92, 2) ic©»-. See also { 108, III. The perfect active
is used only in composition.

* Simple stem o^^, { 108, IV. 1 h. The forms Wo^tfuu and lo-cMiiv,
however, are formed from a shorter stem o^»- (seen in Epic o^).

* For its derivation, see the general vocabulary.

' In retpect to thist literally these (things). The Greek constantly



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46 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

viewed objects with reference to their parts, and so used the plural when
we should use the singular.

« i 141, N. 3. » Kal S9, 2 11, 1 and 2. » J 127, I., v. 1.

*^ Ua, genitive plural of the £b:st personal pronoun iyt^ For the case,
see i 175, 2.

'* KOMfuVy common Attic for KaCfl»|Acv, the t being dropped between
the two vowels. ^ See note 1, Lesson XXI.



LESSON XXIII.

Verbs: Subjunotiye Middle and FassiTe.

Grammar ; § 96, 1., Subjunctive Middle^ and Passive*
of Xvo) ; § 114, the terminations of the Middle and Pas-
sive, with N. 1; § 118, 1^; § 95, 1, I.,* the synopsis in all
the voices of the Subjunctive of Xvcw ; § 215, with A. and
C. ; § 216, 1; § 218, first paragraph; § 90, 2.

Examples.

§ 216, 1 : ^>Ckov^ voiTJcrerxu, a>9 avvepyov^ eyifj^ he wUL

Toake himsdf friends y that he may have

co-workers,
§ 218 : SeSoiica ^ firj ^acrtXcv? KaroKoxIrg ro 'EXXt^c-

icw,® I fear lest the king may cut the Greek

force to pieces.

Vocabulary.

aTro-cnrdo), cr7rda'(o, ecnraara, eairaKa^

eonraa-yju, iaTraxTdrp/, {vf6 and oiraM, to draw off, ix>
to draw) Separate.

axr^KcJS, adverb, (ain^iis, safe) Safeh/, in Safety^



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 47

/Sacrikucos, -ij, -w, (fifunXek) kingly, royal.

elpTjjrrj^ -TJ5, Tj, peace.

iTTLTTCfl/O^, -09, 'OV, (fvi, for, and

w6vo9f toU; cf. «iVQ|uuy to toU) toilsome^ lahorious.

\6^(y;, -ov, 6, a company of soldiers.

oIkeko^ oIktJo'O}, etc. rc^., (olkoiy a home) to inhabit.
oifSltfi>^ a>7rXx(ra, awrXxcr/xot, cottAx-

<r^7/j', (*rX«r) to arm.

Exercises.

I. 1. €00^ §€ 71 irpa^i^ (fxuvriT€u imTTovo^, ov)(^^
GJK>vTau. 2. TTopevcifJieda, u/a a7rocriraa0&/ia/ rov
fiacrikcKov OTparev/iaro^.^^ 3. ri (what) earou, rot?
orpaTuorcus, iav ^SacrtXct^^ ravra^^ ^a/xcrcoi/Tat ; *
4. ey<w yap SeSouca /xi) ov ^* rov 'irokdpjov ireTravfiG/o^
y.^ 5. ^1/ 8c T171/ elpnjvTjv 7roirja'oiiJLe0a, acifxiKcj^ Trjv
TTokw olicijcroiiei^. 6. SeSoiica /iri 6 X6)(os V€fi<f>dy.

U. 1. dXXa trop€V(ofJL€0a ep0a/^^ a7r€\0€w^^ forat
•^i' fiovXfjifi€0a. 2. ccb' 8c ravra SiaTrpd^co/iai, Trakuf
'q^o). 3, ov 8cSoiica fi'^ o TicrcaxfyeppTis aarpatrrj^
7ronj0y. 4. idv re rts^® Tn^lriraL, 6 7r\7)cr[ov^^ fioTj-
0rja'€i.

m. 1. But if they obey, he will proceed. 2. They
will cross ^ the sources of the river Tigris,^ if they
wish. 3. The army will slaughter the cattle, that
it may procure food for itself. 4. I fear that the
bridges will be destroyed.



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48 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

IV. 1, If the king delay, I fear that the
hoplites will arm themselves. 2, He is collecting an
army, in order that he may proceed against his
brother.



* Pages 98 and 100. « Page 102.

' The perfect middle and passive participle of \vt$ is formed by add-
ing -f&^vof to the reduplicated stem, thus : XiXv-|Uvo«. It is declined like
a^6% (i 62). See farther, i 26, h. 3, 1.

* For XiXvK(&B £9 see 2 118, 2. For the declension of Xd^vicwBy see | 68.

* i 200, u. 6. "J 174.

« Sc. rrpdrw^joL. « J 184, 2.

y I 101, 2, and § 109, 2. '* J 160, 1.

» J 103. M J 215. H. 1.

* 2 108, IV. 15. >* J 202, 2.

" ? 13, 2. >« (To the place) from which,

^^ To depart, second aorist active infinitive of cbr-^px^l'^*^
^*^ Any one, the nominative singular masculine of the indefinite pro-
noun (J 84), which is enclitic. The preceding W is also enclitic. See 2 28,
K. 2.
" i 141, N. 3.

^ The future of Su&PaCvM is 8iaPi{9x>|MU, the stem of poCvw being pa-.
« J 142, 2, N. 6.



LESSON XXIV.

Adjectives i Third Declension, and First and Third Declensions
Oombined.

Grammar: § 66; § 67, 1 and 2; § 53, 2, n. 2; § 16, j

6, N. 2.

Tocabulary. j

d<f>avijs, '€S, (a- priv. and ^v«», stem |

^av-, to show) unseerif out of sight

fiaOvs, -eta, -V, deep.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 49

eyKparqSi -C9, (lv'aiidKpd6rDt) in power over, in pos-
session of.

evpv^, -fMi, -V, vndef broad.

KaTcuJKunj^, -€9y (tsmrd, intens., and dearly seeu^ in plain

^aiwm) sight.

irknrjpTp, -C9, {wUm^ Jult) FULL.

irptnnj^, -C9, prone, steep.

^JfCV^T^M -€9, («M8<H to deceive) false.

Exerdses.

I. 1. dXXa ravra^ iffevBfj ^v. 2. al Xoy^at icai
at Ta^ct9 KaroffxweU ^(rau/. 3. e^eXaut^t cfe Ko-
Xocrcra?, iroXti/ cvScu/xoi^a. 4. ircpc S^ ro ^<apiov ^v


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