John Williams White.

A series of first lessons in Greek: adapted to the second edition of Goodwin ... online

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-^apaSpa l(rxypSi^ fiaffeta. 5. ^v ^ 6 rrora/io^ ttXij-
P179 tx^iW irpojioiv^ OV9 ot Svpot ^€0V9 a/ofii^ov^
6. Tot9 arparriyo'i^ ro yuep^ iE/ffvfirjiia ')(apLev eSo^
€u/at/ TO 8' c/>yoi^ dSwaroi/,

H. 1. hrr^deu oi ttoTU/iloi imret^ <f>€VY0VO'i Kara
rod irpai^ov^? 2. ot rffierepoi <I>l\oi rf}^ ^P)ci^ * t^5
7rarp(aas r/Kparet^ ea-ovrox. 3. KS/909 ya/o eTre/iire
PCkov^ olvov ij/ttScc^. 4. eSo^e r^ KXeap;^^ dXi;^
Xeycu/. 5. arparrfyov 8c Kv/ooi/ inoCriore iravroiv.

m. 1. They were out of sight. 2. (There) was
a broad ditch about the place. 3. And the enemy
were not yet in sight. 4. They have the (well-
known)® costly tunics. 5. The spot was black.



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50 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

IV. 1. They kept running^® down a very steep
hill. 2. Thence he marches away to Oelaenae, a
prosperous city. 3. There Cyrus " had a park full
of wild animals, which he hunted ^^ on horseback.^*

NOTE8.

» 1 16, 5. M 166.

« I 135, 2. • See note 10, Lesson XIX.

» } 70. • To be.
' JDoion the steep^ the neater of vpavift nsed substantively.

« i 180, 1, and { 171, 3. " Dative.

• See note 11, Lesson XVII. " A customary action.

» Imperfect » dLi|>' tnw (J 17. 1).



LESSON XXV.

Verbs : Optative Active.

Grammar : § 96, 1.,^ the Optative Active of Xvai (read
§ 95, 2, N.) ; § 115, and 1 (except the Middle and Passive
terminations), with n. 2; § 127, I., the Present Optative
of ci/xt; § 215, with A. and C; § 216, 1; § 218, first
paragraph; § 219, 1, 2 (first half of the second paragraph),
and 3; §224.

Examples.

§ 216, 1: Kvpov yrria-aj/^ irkola, «9 aTroTrXcotc^, they
asked Q/ncsfor boats, that they might sail

OFF.

§ 218: [laKa ivei/OTJdriaraa/^ fir/ ra cTTtnjScta ovk
€)(OLQ/, they were. very anxious lest they
MIGHT not HAVE provisions.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK, 51

§ 224: €1 TL(ra'aj(f)€pv€i KaKW ^SovXcvot?, kokovovs ip
eMj9, IF YOU SHOULD PLOT harm to Tissapher-
nes, YOU WOULD be evil-mindecL



Tocabulary.

airopo^, -09, -OI/, (a- priv. and

'KOfios, a resource) dtj^icuUf impOJ^Sohle.

axoLpioTfO^f adv., {ii^idfuimu t*n-
rewarded; 9r priv. and x Ml ^H***
to gratify; cf. xd^) without groMtude.

fidp^apo^, -o9, 'OP, barbaroxiB, rude: as subst.

a barbarian.

eicficuns, -coK, V, (<« and p«(iw) an ou^fe^, a pass.
oTTurOoffivXai, -oko^, o, (Sw^ one of the rear-guard:

u^, behind, and <h9uit) pi. the rear-ffuard.

iriaro^, -17, -ov, («(•-) trustworthy, faithful.

TTvkq, 'Tjs, rj, onedoorofad^yuhlegaie:

pi. a gate, a pass.

ifyavepos, -a, -w, (♦•k«w»» ^tena

^«^) conspicuous, plain.

Exercises.

I. 1. Kvpo^ ras vav^ fiereTr^fi^aro, oira)$ onXira^
d7ro^ij8<£o"cici/* cwrto koI cfto rw irvkSjv.^ 2. ot

irqa-if. 3. iroXXov * a^tot av elrip,€i/ if^koi, el expi^fia/
ra oTrXa. 4. ct diroaa^iTaxfJii v/xas^ €6S rgi/ *EXXa8a,
ovK &i/ dxapUrrc^ ^^^'^



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52 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

II. 1. €t /8acrtXcv9 Tots ^'EXXi/crt I3ov\oiro^ <f>Cko^
uvai, TTurrol av €L7j(r(u/. 2. cwrt 8c Trora/Ltol, ovs
ovh*^^ av Siafiau/oire, el [irj vfia^s hianopevotfiei^.
3. 'SQ/o<f>a}p ^ Toif^s om(r0o(f>v\aKw; -^c rrpo^ rrfi/
<f>av€pai^ eK^aarLv, ottco? Tavry^ oi iroXe/jttot irpoai'^
Xoi€P TOP vow.

in. 1. If the hoplites should destroy the bridge,
the enemy would flee. 2. He built a wall/^ that the
way might be impassable. 3. He feared that the
enemy might cut the anny to pieces.

IV. 1. But he said this, that the Greeks might
be of good hope.^^ 2. If the general should make
an assembly of the soldiers, it would be well.

NOTBS.

" Pages 94 and 96.- In reading J 95, 2, ir., cf. note 2, Lesson XXII.

• i 164.

' Aorist passive of the deponent ({ 88, 2) Iwo/o|a«u
« From daroPiPcit«*
» i 182. 2.

' voXXov ££iOi, worth much, valuable, iroXXov being the genitive sin-
gular neuter of the irregular adjective iroXvs. For the case, see { 178, h.

• You, accusative plural of the second personal pronoun W, thou.

^ 7x** ^^^ ^^ adverb are often joined in the sense of the verb to be
and an adjective ; as KoKm lfx<h ^^ ^ ^^^^i literally, it has (itself) well,

• Present optative middle third person singular.
>o J 24, 3.

*^ Agrees with its antecedent iKfhaxv m gender and number. For the
case, see J 187.
" corfTfCxitcv.
" i 66, H. 3.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 53



LESSON XXTI.

Verbs: Optatiye Middle and FftMiva.

Grammar : § 96, 1., the Optative Middle and Passive*
of Xwo ; § 115; 1 (Middle and Passive terminations) and 3;
§ 118, 1; § 96, 1, I.,^ the synopsis in all the voices of the
Optative of Xucu.

Tocabulary.

am)-Kk€i<o,K\€La'0},€K\eiara,K€K\€LfiaLOT to shut off^ to
KiKkeLo-fiai,^ eKXeia-drpf, (M and kktim) intercept

Kokd^o},^ KoXda-ci}, iKoXaca, iccicdXa- to check, to
(Tfiai, eKoXdo'OyjVf {Koim^ docked, stunted) punish.

iCQiXvo), Kfokvaoi, etc. reg„ {wSkm) to hinder, to

prevent,

oIkoZc,^ adverb, (blkoff, a house) homeward.

npodvfios, -09, -01/, (wprff forward, and 0v|&tftf eavTiest, zeol-

tout) Otis,

rc^ptiTTroi', -ov, TO, (Wttopw, /our, and fwwt) a four-horse

chariot
^fieoiioL,^ ^p-qaoiiax^ '!r€<f>6fiifiiiai, to fear, to

i^PrjOifVy (♦©Pot, /ear) dreod.

XpdoiKU, x/wyo-oftat, K€xp7lfiai, kxp^-

ardiiffi/, to use.

Exercises.

I. 1. 6 §€ OTpaTtffO^ i<f}ofillj67j /Xl) KVKkiadeiT)

kKarifHodei/. 2. oi 8c "^ koOvXkov ra^ rpnjpei^s,
is iv raX^ rpajpem (rw^ourro. 3. koI et Oekoi



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54 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

iir Klyvirrov crrparevenv, (rJ^dTdcrrpopdiCiJieO* cu/.
4. cSetcroi/ iiTj a7/6ii^€La'0€C'rjo'ap, 5. bhonoiriaevi y
ov Mvcrot? /Sao-tXcw, /ecu €t crw reOpCmrois fiov-
Xoivro TTopeveadai.

II. 1. cScto-cu' fiTj a7rof/ii]$^7icrav*^ 2. AiyvirrC-
OV9 Sc, ct T^ Bvi/dii€L ® T^ iw CTW cftol ^® ^jprjaoAcrOe,
KoXdaraLcrOe dv. 3. ct yap ovrto^ iiroifieOa, <^\oc toI
Kv/o^ Kox TrpoOvfiOL 00/ kTroifieBa. 4. ci araideCrfixey,
')(dpiv Tta-cra^pveL &i/ exoi/iQ/ Stic<ua>9.

III. 1. Xenophon feared that lie might be
hemmed in on all sides. 2. But, if the king should
not hinder (us), we should proceed homeward. 3. If
the soldiers should show themselves zealous, the
advantage would be common.

IV. 1. He wished to be a firiend to Tiseaphernes,*
that he might be honored by the king. 2. How
should we proceed with safety, if it should be neces-
sary (Scot) to proceed? 3. The general marched on
rapidly, that he might not be separated from the rest
of the army.

NOTES.

1 Pages 98, 100, and 102. * § 108, IV. 1 6.

• i 118, 2. * { 61.
» § 109, 2.

• The active occurs in the sense of to frighten. See the general
vocabulary. On the reduplication of the perfect, see J 17, 2.

•' i 143. 1, N. 2.

® From aaro-W|fcv«i, stem Tf|i- (J 108, V. 1), the aorist passive being
dir-€T|M{Oi)v (by metathesis^ § 14, 1).

• § 188, 1, K. 2. w Me, dative singular of iyii, I.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 55



LESSON XXVII.

louns! Syncopated of the Third Deolension.— Two Aooofatiyes
with one Verb.

Grammar: § 67, with 1 (and n. 1) and 2; § 164;
§166.

Examples.

§ 164: 'ffnjcre rov Yivpov fiurOop, he asked Cyrus for

PAY.

§ 166: fiaa-iXea %evdrpf iiroirio'tw, th«y mode Seuthes

KING.

Vocabolary.

airo-(rre/3co>, ar^prjarm^ etc. reg., (cM«

inteiw., and onp^oi, to deprive) to Voh^ to defTdud.

ydfAo^, -ov, o, marriage.

icoXot),^ KokSi, iKaXeca, KiKKijKa^

K€Kkrifiai, iKkrjdyjv, to caU.

KpvJTTai,^ Kp\hjf(0, etc. reg., to COnceol,

KTrj/ia, -aros, to, (ktiioimh to acquire) a possession,

voful^o),^ vofiiS), epofiLcra, PG/ofiLKa,

vG/o/iKriiai, evofiicrBrfv, (vtf|AOf , cue- to regard as a cus-
tom, law; cf. W|u*) fom, to believe,

<f>povpapxo^, -ov, 6, (^povposf a garri- a commander of

son soldier, — cf. vpo-opcut, — and ^») a garriSOn,

Xprjfia, -aT09. ro, (xp<>^i*») ^ thing: pi. goods,

wealth.



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56 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

Exercises.

I. 1. fiera Kvpov ai/efiaa^ov irapa top Trarepa.
2. KaraKafifidi/et ii/hop rov^ K(o/i7]Tfis kol top Kcofidp-
^v Kcu rriv Ovyarepa tov Ka}fjidp)(ov. 3. hn'evOa/
8c etrop€v6if}crav as ra? Xla/ovcraTiSo? Kco/ias rfj^ Kv-
pov Kol fia&iKdoi^ firjTpo^. 4. tov9 8c arparuira^
airoaTepei^ tov /ilctOov. 5. Trarc/oa Bi€vo<f>o}VTa cica-
Xctrc.^

II. 1. rjye 8c kcu tyjv OvyaTipa r^v /SacrtKeoi^ im
ydiKD? 2. Tra/oayycXXct rot? <f>povpdpxois Xafifid-
vew avSpa^ IIcXoTrow^o'tov?. 3. 9(ct9 irokip, c])(ct9
T/otTf/oct?, €X€i^ ^rjiiaTa, e)(C69 cwSpa^. 4. Karerre/i,'
(f>dri VTTO TOV iraTpo^ (raTpdirq^?

III. 1. But his mother sends him® back again
to his province. 2. But I have two men. 3. We
have robbed the citizens of their ship. 4. The river
was full of fish, which the Syrians believed (to be)
gods.

IV. 1. They concealed their possessions from the
king. 2. They asked the general for boats, that they
might sail away. 3. His father had made^*^ him
satrap of both Lydia and Phrygia.

NOTES.

' § 101, 2.

' See 2 109, 1, N. 2, with b. The future koXm is Attic for koX^ov,
§ 110, II. 2, N. 1 a. The last three principal parts are formed on the
stem kXc-.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 57

> Simple stem ({ 92, 2) iqwp. or k^i^- See { 108, III.
« { 108, IV. 1 5. The future vQ|Uit is common Attic for vo|Ur«y { 110.
II. 2, N. 1 c.

* The contracted form of oaroo^p^n. • { 166, H. 4.

* The contracted form of cKoX^erf. * avrov.

' M ^cimpk in marriage, cm Aw ito/e. ^ See note 6, Leeson XIII.



LESSON XXVIII.

Verbs: Lnperatiye Aotive.— Personal Fronoiinf.

Grammar : § 96, I.,^ the Imperative Active of Xwo) ;
§ 95, 2, I., second column ;2 § 116, 1 (omitting the Middle
and Passive endings) and 2 (omitting the Middle and Pas-
sive terminations); § 127, I., the Present Imperative of
€tfu; § 252; § 254; § 79, 1, the declension of eyw and a-v
in the singular and plural; § 27, with the first part of 1.

Examples.

§ 252: Xeyc^ apeak thou; <f)€vy€, begone! apxerto, let
him nde; ^aipovroiv, let them ryoice.

§ 254: firi KkeTrre, do not steal (the "habit is forbidden);
[iff kX€^^, do not steal (in a particular in-
stance).

Vocabulary.

pkeiTia, pkhlH)fiai,^ I^Xci/ra, to see, to look.

8ej(o/xat,* 8c^/iat, cic. reg., to receive^ to accept.
huoK(a, Bl(o^(o or hiia^ofiai,

Ihuo^a, BeBifoxa, ehicix^V^' ^ pursue, chase.

rJKCD, yjiio,^ to come, to be corns.



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58 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

crirovhrj, -179, 17, («nrrfv6», toj^owr) a libation: plur. a

truce.
oTpaTOTrehov, -ov, to, (arparos and a (XLTTvp^ an encam/p-

wiSoVy ffround) TTient,

(TVft-^OvXciiiD, fiovhxvO'Oi, etc. re^., fo JoZctTl m^A, fo ac^
((TVF and PouXfvc*) i;t86.

rdrroi, rd^o), etc. re^., fo arrange^ mars/uiL

Exercises.

I. 1. Xe^dro), Xe^dTO). 2. aKOVcrare oih/ /lov^
irpo^ deZv. 3. )3Xei/roi/ tt/oo? tcl oprj. 4^ Xc^oi' 8c

[y^llLu/ Wa TQ}V avSpZi/ ovofiara. 5. /irjKm [le Kvpoi/
i/ofiiC^re. 6. /117 770177077? raSra, dXXa <f)€vy€. 7. fti7
€^cXcrc ravra 8ej(co"^ai.

II. 1. 7ratc, 7rar€, fiaKKe, jSdXXe. 2. a\Xa)9
l)(ir(a? 3. Xcfoj' 8c icat ot;,* 5 B€i/o<f>(op. 4. <u
o"7roi/8at iiQ/ovTCM^. 5. <rv ow 7r/909 ^cSv avfifiov-
Xeuaov yifuv.^

m. 1. Fellow-soldiers, do not be surprised.
2. Arrange the soldiers. 3. But since Cyrus is
dead/^ carry back word to your commander. 4. Be
both brave and of good hope, soldiers.

IV. 1. But send the generals hither. 2. And
now let us not delay, fellow-soldiers, but do you
come into the middle of the encampment. 3. Do
not pursue the enemy, but remain in the camp.



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i



FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK, 59



* Pages 95 and 97. » See note 2, Leseon XXII.

^ The future middle in some verbs has an active sense, especially in
8Qch as express an action or function of the body.

* i 88, 2, and n. » gee note 8, Lesson XXV.

* { 200, N. 3. » 2 134, N. 1.
« i 171, 2. » { 187.

^ I.e. has died. Use the perfect of TiXcimftM.



LESSON XXIX.

Verbs : Imperative Middle and Fassiye.

Grammar : § 96, I., the Imperative Middle^ and Pas-
sive ^ of \vo) ; § 116, 1, 2, and 3 (omitting the second
paragraph) ; § 95, 1, 1., the synopsis in all the voices of the
Imperative of Xvw.

Tocabulary.

Sta^c/)oi^ft)9, adv., (SuihKpm, to dif-fer) preemiTiently ,
ivdvfi^o/iai, evOv/irjo'o/iai,, ip-

T€0vfirj/iaL, h/eOv/iijdrp^, (h to reflect, i.e. to have in

and Ovfi^Sf mind) mind.

eTTlTT^SetO?, -a, -Ol/, (cmTi)8c8| adv., suitable : plur. tA mr^-
for a purpose) Seta, prOVlsionS,

liLfjijnjcrKO},^ funjo-o), e/ii^(ra, to remind : mid. to re-
IxeiivTjficu, ifimjcrdriv, member, to mention,

jxvptog,* -a, -ov, ten tJiousand.

TTOpilfi), -L<0,'^ etc. re<;., (iropos» a way

across, a meam) to find, to pTOCUre,

o-fC€77To/iat,® crKo\foiiai, ecTKe/jL- to look intently, to con-

jLtat, ecTKeilfdfirjv, sider,

XPVl^'^ XPW^' ^XPV^^' ^^ ^^a7^f , to desire.



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60 ^ FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

Exercises.

I. 1. TrpoOvfLO^ (fxavetrOo). 2. a0poL^<e(r0a}(rav ol
TToXtrat €19 rfji/ ayopdv, 3. arpaTOTrehevo'aa'Oe irapa
TO) KXcap^o). 4. EKKkifO'lav T(ov TroXtroii/ Troti/crat.

5. cro(f>ov Trap avZpi6<: irpoahexpv (rvixfiovXijv,

6. dXXa, et /SovXei, fia/e inl rol oTpaTcvftart, eyoi 8'
c^cXo) iropeveaOai* el 8c XPI/^^*'^* vopevov im to
opos, eyo) 0€ fjLO/o) arrrov.



II. 1. fiefivija-Oa} avfjp ayaOos cu/at. 2. CKe^a-
a9e ow, 5 ai/8p€<; orpartfiTat, rt (what) iv v(a ^xere.

3. €l^0Vll7]0r)T€ OTL 61 flVpiOL tTTTTCt? fJLVpiOL eliTLV W-

0po)TTou 4. /cat crv, 5 ^tXe, Treio'OyjTi.^

III. 1. Procure yourselves provisions. 2. Let
tliis man be honored^® preeminently. 3. Send for
the ships. 4. Let the soldiers always show them-
selves friendly and zealous.

IV. 1. Let us deliberate in regard to this.
2. Let the hoplites follow.^^ 3. Consider what the
barbarians have done. 4. Proceed, fellow-soldiers,
and remember to be brave (men).



» Pages 99 and 101. « Page 103.

' The simple stem (g 92, 2) of (Li-|fcvif-o-Ktt is jivo-, from which the
present stem is formed by reduplication and the addition of ctk (108,
VI. and IT. 1). The perfect |ftf(LVT|(jiai is present in meaning, I remember,
m^emini, J 200, H. 6. The aorist passive has the force of the middle.

* i 77, 2, N. 3, second paragraph.

* i 108, IV. 1 6, and ? 110. II. 2, n. 1 c.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 61

• Simple stem oncer-. See i 108, III. For oiccvroiiai in the present
and imperfect the common Attic uses o-kov^oi.

' i 108, IV. 1 b.

• WUl remain, the first person singular of the future of |Uv«»» the
future active of liquid verbs being formed with the characteristic c in
place of <r. Thus |jicv-€-«>i |jicv«.

• First aorifit passive of v%iB»p § 16, 1. *° Aorist. " Present.



LESSON XXX.

Adjectives: Lregxilar.— Oomparison.

Grammar : § 70 (read notes 1 and 2) ; § 71, with n. 1 ;
§ 72, 1 and 2, with n. 1.

Yocabulary.

a^eos/ -09, -ov, (a- priv. and dcos) godless, impious.

aOvfio^, -09, 'OP, (a-priv.andew|i©9,souZ, dispirited^ discouT-

spirit) aged,

aiaxpos, -a, -w, (9X0x09, disgrace, shame) shamefidy base.

do"^aX7l9, -€9, (a- priv. and o-^aXX«»i to JbTTU (le. not liable to
tnp up) be tripped up), safe,

cuctSiys, -C9, (cv, well, and tV^Jorm) welUfovmed, jvrie-

^ looking,

€vo7rXo9, -09, 'OVf (ciJ and ^Xov) Well-armed.

TTOvovpyo^, -09, 'Ov, (irw, all, and fpyov, unprincipled (le.

work) ready for every act),

per^diovs.
i^fiepo^, -a, -w, (♦<{pos,/car) fearful, alarming.



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62 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

Exercises*

I. 1. anjp Se tcu^ K(o/iai^ ctlto^ ttoXv?. 2. oTpft-
Ttai/ ttoWtiv ayei. 3. aOv/JLorepoi jjirai/. 4. ra Se
Kpea^ tS)v wTihdiv rfhiara rjv, 5. cll&xlop itrrw.
6. vvv 8c nopevaofjLeda 68ov [jLOKporepai/. 7. jSa-
crtXci ctcrt TrtOTorarot. 8. koll irapa /xcyaXov ^acrt-
X6609 '^'^e 6 T^9 )8a(rtXcci)9 yvi^cuicos ^ aS€X<^s • 8o5Xo4
8c TToXXol €L7rai/TO.

II. 1. fiovkeva-o/xeda, /lli^ atcrxtOTot m^Spe: ano-
<f>au/(ofi€0a. 2. 178101'* icat "/rpoBvixorepop hropcv-
ovTO. 3. ^o/ScpcSraroi/ ^ 8* iprf/xia* [Mearfi yap ttoX-

N*^' /«»/7/| »« «e ^8 \^9

A7J9 airopuLS coTu^. 4. ovkovp rtav vmr^cov irokv
rj/jLel^ in dcr^aXccrrc/oov 6;(7j/LtaTos itrfio/,

III. 1. But Cyrus kept finding many pretexts.
2. He sends back the Cilician (queen) into Cilicia
by the quickest way .^^ 3. They were much® more
zealous. 4. Along the river there was a great city.

IV. 1. They will be more courageous. 2. He
has both the best-armed and finest looking of the
soldiers. 3. The good^^ appeared most prosperous.^^
4. He was a most impious and perfidious man.



' J ^. M 28, 3.

* J 56, 1. « { 175, 1.
' Genitive eingnlar of ^rvif. • i 74, 2.

* 2 75. w 1 160, 2, second exampla

* 1 138, N. 2 c. » { 139, 1.

* See note 1, Lesson XII. « { 71, ». 4.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 63

LESSON XXXI.

Verbs : Xnfinitive Active, Middle, and Fassiye.

Grammar : § 96, I./ the Infinitive Active, Middle, and
Passive of Xuco ; ^ § 95, 2, I., third column; § 117, 1;
§ 95, 1, 1., the synopsis in all the voices of the Infinitive of
XvG) ; § 127, I., the Present Infinitive of ct/Ltt ; § 134, 2;
§ 258; § 259 (read the n.); § 260, with 1 and 2, omit-
ting the last sentence; 3 § 127, IV., the Present and Im-
perfect Indicative of <^iy/jtt; § 27, with 3.

Examples.

§ 134, 2 : ifiovXcTo rat TralSe d/Lt^orCjpai vapeu/aL, he

wished both his sons to he present.
§259: ct avdyKT) carl fia^^ccr^at. Set* napaa-Keva-
aacrdcuL, if it is necessary to fight j it behooves
{us) TO PREPARE OURSELVES (infinitive as sub-
ject of a finite verb).
Tovro ecrrt to ^pevSecrOai, this is to lie (infini-
tive as predicate).
ffjdfjoi Setp TovTo woLTjO'ai, he says it is neces-
sary TO DO this (subject of another Infinitive).
§ 260, 1: ^ouXcTat dyjpevaai, he wishes to hunt; but
§ 260, 2: ^<rt fty/xvcrat, he says that he hunted (the
original speaker said, idifpevo-a, I hunted).

Yocabulary.

avayKoXfii, ai/ayKacrco, etc. reg., to constrain^ to com-

{M:fKt[i constraint) pel.

ai/dyKT], '7)<;, ^^^ constraint, necessity.



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64



FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.



ava-TreWo), TTCICTO), etc. reg., {6yd,
in tens., and trc(06»)

KaTa-KOTTTO), Koxffo), eKoxjfa, /ce-

KO<f>a, KeKOflflOL, (Kara and Koirrw)

fidxofJt^ai,^ lLa)(pviiaiy fiefiaxQ-

fiat, ifia)(€(Tdiir)v,
OLOfiaL, OLTJcTOfJiaL, wijdrjv,

arpaTevofiaL,^ o-TpaTeva-ofjiaL,
eorparcv/Ltat , ioTparevcrd -

ILfJV, (ffrparos)

i|reu8o/xat/ xff^vo'OfiaL, e^evafiai,
ixjfeua-diirji/,



to persuade,
to cut dovm, to cut
to pieces.

to fight.

to thinh, to suppose.

to make an eocpedi-
tion.

to lie.



Exercises.

I. 1. Toi)^ (TTparuoTw; Tropeva-ao'dai 6 fiaa-ikeif^
iKcXeva-ev • ol Be tov Trorafiov Bia/Saii/eu/ ovk iOeXov-
a IV. 2. ra yap iTnTTJSeia ovk €(ttlv ® c^etv. 3. /cat
ra Srj d<f>av!j ® efeori xjjevSecrdcu. 4. errecrd ai fiovKo-
/jtat. 5. MtScu/ TOV %drvpov Orfpevcrcd <f>aa'Lv.^^
6. k<l>aa'av vno tS)v ^^XKrjvoiv Kvpov i^tXetcr^at/^

II. 1. Koi KeXevei tou9 CTpaTqyow Xeyeuv ravra
Tol<s crrpaTKoTaL^ /cat dvaTreidetv eiread ai. 2. To^ev-
Orjvai ^^ ^EWrjva e^oLaav. 3. ecu/ raCra TTonjcrrjTe



otcrat /cara/ce/coi



ixjjeadi



at.



III. 1. (It) is safer ^* to flee. 2. He wishes to
make an expedition into the country of ^^ the Pisi-
dians. 3. And he says that the enemy will come ^^



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 65

at day-break." 4. But it is necessary to proceed at
once.

IV. 1. You are not willing to fight nor^^ to
follow. 2. But it is sometimes possible ® to capture
these. 3. So that the Greeks were compelled to
proceed slowly.

NOTES.

' Pages 95, 97, 99, 101, and 103.

' The first aorist active infinitive, all infinitives in -vai| and the per-
fect middle and passive infinitive accent the penult. See J 26, n. 3, 1.

' Read carefully J 260, 1, k. 1, consulting the references. Cf. with
this the statement in § 260, 2 (second sentence), in regard to the time-
force of each tense of the infinitive in indirect discourse. The verb
implying thought in the following exercises, after which the infinitive in
indirect discourse will occur, will always be one whose force will be
easily seen, and generally will be a verb of saying. See J 260, 2, n. 1.
For what is meant by indirect discourse, see J 241, 1 and 2.

* For 8c'ci) the contracted present third singular, used impersonally,
of 8coi| to need. So in the fourth example 8€tv for S^ctv. See J 9.

* J 109, 8. The future |ioxov|«tt is Attic for |iaxc(ro|iai, g 110, II. 2,
u. la.

* A deponent. Forms of the active occur with the same meaning,
but used only of the commander. The middle is used of both leaders
and followers.

' Forms of the active occur, commonly with the transitive meaning,
to deceive.

8 i 28, N. 1, at the end. ^ § 160, 1.

^° What they say in their own words is, MCSas 40t{pcv<rc, Mdas caught,
etc. For the accent, see J 27, 3, and § 28, 2.

" They said, Kvpos 4>^cit(u (contracted from ^tXccrat).

" They said, iroitv9r\ "EXXiiv.

" His thought is, KaraKCKoil^o^i, I shall be (instantly) cut to pieces.
See I 200, N. 9.

" i 138.

" Into the country of, els.

^ He says, TJIowrtv oi iroXi|uoi.

" a}Ui -qj ij(up^



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66 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

LESSON XXXII.

Verbs : Participles Active.

Grammar: § 96, I.,^ the Participles, in the Active
voice, of Xvco ; ^ § 95, 2, fourth column ; § 117, 2, first
paragraph, with n. ; § 68,^ decline Xvwv, Xvcras (like
terras *), and XeXviccos ; § 127, I., the Present Participle
of ct/Ltt ; § 204;* § 275; § 276, 1 and 2.

Examples.

§ 276, 1 : TToXts ayopav Kakrjp ej^ovcra, a dty HAViNa
(or WHICH has) a beautiful market-place
(nokis ri ayopav Kokrjv ej^ct).
6 irapa)v /cacpo?, the present occasion.

§ 276, 2: Toif<s ^euyovra^ v7reKdfjL/3ai/€T/, he took those

THAT WERE FLEEINQ (or THE FUGITIVES) Un-
der his protection.

Vocabulary.

dyopd, -as, Tj, (Aytfpw, to collect; an assembly of ihe ipeo^la,

cf. aY«) a place of assembly,

a market-place.

17X109, -ot;, 6, the sun.
irdpeLfiL, Tra/xcro/jtat, napTJv,^

(iropd and cijiO to be by, to be present.

ttXcko), ttXc^o), etc. rcff., to PLAIT, to braid.

crv/Lt/xaxos, -oi;,6,(<nivand|iaxoi«i0 an ally, an auxiliary.

(r<f>€v86vri, -1^9, 17, a sling.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 67

rekilai,'^ tcXcS, ercXccra, t€T€-
Xcica, T€T€\£a'iJL(u, ireXe- to finish^ to fvlfl an

(T^iyi/, (tAoi) obligation, fo JKLy.

XaWos, -7j, -w, luxrd, grievous, crud.

Exercises.

I. 1. iirikeyew rciSc ^ cKeXeve top {fxponna ra
hcjpa. 2. ^a-ca/yap ol KoAvavvres^ mpap. 3. ravra
8c ijyycXXoi/ ir/)os Kv/joi' ol avro/iolKija'aane^ irpo rfjs
fioxO^. 4. ol crrparrffoi iKoJdurav^^ x^P^^ '^^
TovTo if>da'KovTa^. 5. icat rj^ ^v (it was) dfi<f>i
iyopav irkriOova'av.

n. 1. ivravOa ^dov ra ^ocriXeia rov 2v/)tas"
ap^avTO^}^ 2. tSt^ Sc a/Lta ijkuf oi/arcXXoi^t io;/)v-
fcas CTTC/Lt^c. 3. o/Aois 8c Set CK tS>v napotrrtoi/ ^^ w-
S/jas ^* dya^ov9 reXedeu/. 4. -^i/ 8c rts ^* /x^ midrfTai,
y^^KTtap.eda top vp^Sw hnvyxwovra^^ <rvv r^ ap-
XOJTi KoXa^cii^.

III. 1. The soldiers obey those who command"
(them). 2. Cyrus marches on to the river Chains,
being of (one) plethrum in breadth.^® 3. Fellow-
soldiers,^® the' present (circumstances) are hard.
4. He has the force of him who has (in marriage)
the daughter of the king.

IV. 1. And they paid money to him who was
willing to plait slings. 2. Those who before were ^
alUes have broken their oaths. 3. Those who com-
mand,^ therefore, must be ^ much more vigilant.



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68 FIEST LESSONS IN GREEK.



NOTE8.

» Pages 95 and 97.

• The perfect active participle is oxytone, J 26, n. 3, 2.

3 J 26, N. 2. * Except in accent. See J 68, N.

• For illustrations, see in particular the first three sentences in the
Exercises.

• ? 26, N. 1.

' 1 109, 1, H. 2 (with a), and 2, and ? 110, II. 2. K. 1 a.
^ Neuter plural accusative of SB€p i 83. Translate what followSt lit.
these (things), and see 148, K, 1.

• Men ready to prevent (it), lit. those who would^ etc.
^ From Kae-4«. See I 105, 1, n. 3.

" 8 171, 3.

" Note the tense, him who had governed, etc.

^ Neuter plural of the participle of vapcifu with the article, used sub-
stantively. See the general vocabulary.

'* In the accusative to agree with iifids understood, the subject of
TcXceciv. See J 136.

" Any one, an enclitic.

" Tov jmryxoyovro. is the subject of Ko\iJ3;civ. Translate : let us decree
that he of you who falls in with (him), etc.

" ? 184, 2. » i 160, 1.

^ In Greek the vocative is much oftener accompanied by «S than the


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