John Williams White.

A series of first lessons in Greek: adapted to the second edition of Goodwin ... online

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corresponding case in English by its equivalent.

* Use the present participle, { 204, n. 1.

" ? 134, 2. « Must be, 8cC . . . ttvoi.



LESSON XXXIII.

Verbs: Fartioiples Middle and Fassiye.

Grammar: § 96, I.,* the Participles Middle and Pas-
sive of XvG) ; ^ § 117, 2, second paragraph ; § 68, decline
\v0€LS (like Tidek);^ § 95, 1, the synopsis in all the
voices of the Participles of Xva> ; § 277, with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
and 6,^



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 69

Examples.

§ 277, 1 : ravTa Xeytop OopvjSov 7JKov<r€, while saying

this he heard a noise.
§ 277, 2 : TOVTCiiP tSjv Kephiav aireixovTo aiaypoL vo/jlC-

Covres 6u/ai, they abstained from these gaijis
' BECAUSE THEY CONSIDERED them to be shame-

fuL.^
iiropevovTo ^ovres, they advanced singing.
\yfitpiLepoi ^Tja-ovcTi, they wiU live by plun-
dering.
§ 277, 3:68' aur^p Xayojs (f^TO drjpdo'CDv, her hvsband

was gone to hunt hares.
§ 277, 4 : rovTo noiTJcravTes c5 Trpa^ovaiv, if they do

this J they wiU prosper,^
§ 277', 5 : avTov Trpoaeicvvrja'ai/ irrl OavaTOv dy6[i€i/ou,

they saluted him, though he was being led

to execution.
§ 277, 6 : dvaficdvei €)((av OTrXtra?, he goes up with

hoplites.

Yocabulary.

diTiCrracrtcim;?, -OV, 6, (drrt, agaimt,

and tcrroiMu, to stand) an Opponent.

anoiia^os, -os, -ov, (dW and |idxi|) disabled, out of the

ranks.
d(T7rCs, -iSos, Tj, a shield.

OLTLfJidl^a}, aTLfJidcro), etc. reg,, (&ri}M)s,

disJwnored, from a- priv. and rtftTJ) to dlshoTlOT,

yekdo), yekdaroixai, iyeXaara, iyc-

\da-0rjy, • to laugh.



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70 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK,

Sextos, -a, '6v,^ right, on the right

Ka/8xJU€V(0, KwBm/evO'C:}, etc. reg.,

(k(v8wo«) to run a risk.

XcyltpiLaif Xoytov/xat/ etc. reg.,

(XoYosy Uy») to consider.

Exercises.

I. 1. TTtc^d/LLG^o? VTTO T<op OLKOL^ amioTacTUtyrwv
yrrfcre Kvpov iLiadov. 2. he^dfievo^ 8c ravra ey4-
Xacrei'. 3. amirefMire tov<s yiyi/oyuivov^; Sacr/Ltov? ^a-
crikd, 4. wepLefiepov TLCcrcufxpirrji/ iyyvs icTTpa-
TOTreSevfia/oL. 5. inopevovro iv Se^i^ exovre^ tov
rjkioi/, koyi^ofia/OL rj^eu/ a/xa 17X1^ Svvoj/tl eU icoifia?.

II. 1. elxov Se ras dcTTriSa? cfciccfcaXv/jt/ici/a?,®

2. i7r€(T(f)d^dTo Kvpo) cnraa-dfiei/o^ top aKivdicqi/.'

3. 6 8c ^® Kw^Si/i/cvcras /cat drt/jtacr^cl? fiovXeverat
OTTG)? )8ao"iXcv(rct, 4. ttoXXoI yd/o -^crai/ dTrofiaxpif
oi Ter/oco/Lto'ot Kal ol ckcu/ovs^ ^povre^ kqjL 01 rZv
(f>€p6irro}p rd oTrXa he^d/jLO/ou

III. 1. They descend into the plain to encamp.
2. He was greatly troubled because h^ had been
dishonored. 3. They were fighting with those who
had been drawn up ^^ in front. 4. But his mother,
when she had begged (him) off, sends him back
again.

IV. 1. He was of those who were making war^*
about Miletus. 2. He was not willing to withdraw



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 71

the right wing, since he feared " that he might be
encircled.^'* 3. He hits Cyrus with a javelin while
fighting with ^® the king.

NOTKt.

» Pages 99, 101. and 103.

' The perfect participle middle and passive is paroxytone, { 26,
ir. 3, 1. The first aorist passive participle is ozytone, 2 26, v. 3, 2.

' All participles in -«f, on the other hand, are declined like flro^of*
§02,3.

^ The participle in Greek, while it expresses all of these relations, does
not do so definitely and distinctly. Hence the different uses run into
each other, and cases occur in which the participle expresses at the same
time two or even more of them. ' See IkhcoXvvtii.

» { 165, H. 2, at the end. >• 2 143, v. 2.

• See the general vocabulary. " 2 ^3.

' i 110, II. 2, H. 1 c. "Use ihepafect.

« I 22, K. 1, at the end. » 2 169, 1.

*^ Use the proper form of ^oPo|uu» applying J 9, 2, second sentence.
. " Use the aorist.

" That is, while Qi/rus was fighting, etc



lESSON XXXIT.

A^jectiTes: Lrregalar Oomparison.— Terbalv.

Grammar: § 73, 1; § 117, 3, with notes 1 and 2;
§ 281, with 1 and 2.

Examples*

§ 281, 1 : a><f)€\7iT€a col '^ noXi^ iarCv, the cAJby must be

BENEFITED hlj yOU,

§ 281, 2 : r^iixv rrdvra ^ wovrjTeoi/ ioTiP, we must do
everything.



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72 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

Tocabulary.

aSeLirvo^, -09, -OV, (a- priv. and Sciirvov,

supper) supperless,

alreco, atnfcrw, etc. reg., to ask, to de-

mand,

a(f>vkaKTO^, -05, -0|/, (»■ priv. and <^Xdrrtty

to guard) unguavded.

i^-aTraToia), aTraTTjcrci), etc. reg., («,
intens., and airaroUy to deceive, from dbiroTti,

deceit) to deceive grossly.

ipryop, -OV, to, (cfryw, F€fry«,« to do wobk) a WORK, deed.

evirpaKTo^, -os, -oi', (cv and irpoTTw) 2yracticable, easy

to do.
ouofjia, -aTos, to, a NAME.

<f>v\dTTO), (f}v\d^o), etc. rcg., to guard.

Exercises.

I. 1. TTOTafjiOfs 8' aXXo5 rfiui/ icm Sia^arco?.
2. TTCt? 8e 7roTa/xo9 Sta^Sards. 3. dXXa uofiClfij
d/x€u/ova9 Kott Kp€LTTov<: TToAXSv ^apfidpcov^ -dixas
elvcLL. 4. Xafjifidi/ova'u/ dvSpa^ oti^ TrXeiarovs Koi
^SeXnoTovs. 5. rov? oTpaTicoTaq irap€Kd\ea'av im
TOL KoXXtcrra c/oya. 6. S KdKicrTC dvOptaTrtov, ovx^
rifjia^ i^irdnria'a(; ; 7. KoXacrTiov icTTl tov TratSa.

II. 1. irXeCovo^^ av d^ioi elrjfiQ/ <f>i\oL €)(ovTe;
TOL oTrXa. 2. TTopevriov 8* t^/llw' rov? irpcoTov^ * ora-
Ofjiov^ &)9* [xaKpoTdTov^, 3. -^craj^ 8' ot iWot fieioue )
Tcop Ilepo'LKcov, 4. (U5 (fo) ^aaiKia iropevriov ttj '
Ta)(icmf)v ohov. 5. TrctorcW® eVrl roJ aTparrjy^.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 73

in. 1. These are worse than we. 2. The most
of the Greeks were supperless. 3. There are many
Persians better than this (man). 4. I must not ask
for this. 5. This is more practicable.

IV. 1. But it is easiest to take ^^ the unguarded**
(property) of one's** friends. 2. This girl is very
fair.*^ 3. There were very many** wild asses in
the i)lain. 4. But nevertheless I must tell the man's
name. • 5. We must guard the soldiers.

NOTES.

' J67. Ml. 1^.2. ' JlTo, 1.

* ^ or cJs is often prefixed to the superlative to strengthen it, as &n
vXctoTOi, as many as possible, etc.

* i 282, 2. M 224, J 226, 1, and J 277, 4.

• i 178, N. » i 73, 2.

• Verbal of vf(0o|Mu, lo obey. For tho following dative, see { 184, 2.
'® Present tense.

" Neuter plural. " Very fair, superlative of KoXot.

" The article, J 141, n. 2. " Use tho superlative.



LESSON XXXT.

Terbs: The Present Stem.

CTrammar : § 92,1 i^ 2 (with n.), 3 (with n.), and 4,
with I. ; § 110, 1, (and read the preceding Remark) ; § 111,
with L; § 93 entire (read simply); § 94; § 95, 1,^ I. I.,
II. I., III. I., and 2 (with n.) ; § 96,3 j^^ the Present of Xwo *
in all the moods and voices, and the Imperfect Indicative
ia the three voices; § 107 ; § 108, with 1.



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74 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

#

Yocabulary.

aOpoLlfii (d^poiS-*), dOpoLao),

etc. reg., (ai9poos, close together) to assemble, to mUSter.

Ppaxv^, -eta, 'V, short

cu^us, adverb, straightway, at once,

ivXop, -ov, TO, a stick of wood, wood,

fuel.
(rvu-€K-PLfidC(o {PtfiaS-% Pi-

fida-cD, ipifiaa'a, {vvv, U, and to help or join in

pvpd^tt, to cause to go,- cf. fiaiv^, to go) getting OUt

(rxL^o) {(r)(iS' *), (r)(Lcr(o, etc. reg., to split
Ttt^vs, -eia, -V, si^i/i{, quick,

v^pitfi} (vjSptS.*), v^pwro) and

vfipiZ,^ etc. re^r., (i^ppts, in&olence) to insvlt

Exercises.

I. 1. iftcts 8c ov fiovXea-06 ovfinopevea-dai,

2. iiropevopTO Iv Se^tjt ixovre^ tov tjXiov, Xoyi^ofjiei/oi,
'^^€u/ ^ a/xa ']7Xta> Swoirn eU iccofias. 3. di/hp€<s orpa-
TiioTai, /IT) Oavfidl^ere on ^aXeTToi? ^/oco ® rot?
Trapovai irpdyiiacriv. 4. mTovrai yap al curtSc?
fipaxif^ tccu dnayopEvova-iv, 5. 6 S* TyXavi^cj^ cm
Tous Mg'coj'O? oTpartcora?, wot' eK^tPov^ Tpi\eiv^^ irrl
rd oTrXa. 6. ct idekoiTe ravra 7rot7jo"at, hreo'dai

II. 1. tSj' 8c Mc^ct)vo9 arpaTuoriou ^Xa crx^^^*^
Tt9. 2. /Lt^ dvafiivoyfiev aXXovs Tj/xa? TrapaKokicrai,

3. (SoTc cv^v9 7raI8cs o^rcs iKwddt/ovarw dp^ew re



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.FIEST LESSONS IN GREEK. 75

Kcu ap)(&r6ajL. 4. ^kov \4yovT€<: otl ov)( tTnrct? ct<rti/.
5. icol €v0vs ^x^'^^ ^^ M^ /xcXXotro (be delayed) dXXa
irepau/oLTo ra XexOcvra.

HI,. 1. He is said to bo mustering an army.
2. Frojn there he marches five stages witli the river
on the right. 3. For a great army was mustering
at Sardis. 4. Bid this (man) march at once, if the
king makes an expedition against us.

IV. 1. But those of the horsemen that pursued ^^
stopped quickly. 2. Be persuaded, fellow soldiers,
not to transgress the laws. 3. And he ordered
Pigres to aid in getting the wagons out. 4. Being
beaten and insulted, they thought (themselves ^^) to
be dishonored.

NOTK8.

' Up to this point the verb has been developed by moods. Hereafter
the development will be by teme «tewM, and in doing this the conjuga-
tion of Xw will be repeated.

* Pages 86-91. Give the synopsis of each verb by moods across the
page, first in the active, then in the middle, and then in the passive.

' Conjugate the verb in the order of moods and voices suggested in
the preceding note. The references to J J 112-117, given in previous
lessons, are not here repeated. It may, however, be necessary to review
the various tables of personal endings. The teacher must decide this.

* Let the pupil conjugate in the same manner the present and imper-
fect of Xc(vt» and ^aLvt», and, if there is time, of the two other verbs
given in J 111.

* The simple stem of verbs in (• ends either in 8 or in -y (or yy),
{ 108, IV. 1 b. The future ends respectively either in ow or J« (or
^{w). Hereafter, in the special vocabularies, the simple stem of each
verb, when this does not appear in the present, i. e. unless the verb is
of the first class (| 108, 1), will be given in ( ) directly after the present
indicative. In every such case the pupil should be required to show
how the present stem is formed from the simple stem, and to tell to
which one of the eight classes i^e verb belongs.



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76 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

• J 110, II. 2, N. 1 c.

' Their thought was, V[{o|MVy ti;6 sAa^Z come, etc.

. ^ x<^^<*^ 4^P**» ^0 ^^ distressed, lit. ^o 2>6ar tip. The following dative
expresses the cause, J 188, 1. • J 161.

>o 266, 1. " Those that pursued, i 276. 2. " J 134, 3.



LESSON XXXVI.

Adyerbs and their Oomparison.— Hnmerals.
Grammar: § 74, 1 and 2; § 75; § 76; » § 77, 1 and 2.

Yocabulary.
fipexcD, c)S/)ef a, )ScJ8/)ey/xat, c^/)c-

X^^J'* to wet.

CTTt/xcXeb/xot and c7rt/xcXo/xat«

imiJickijcroiMaL, im/MefieXriiMcu,

iir€fJL€\i]0Tjv, (M and |uX«i, io 6^ fo care for, to look

an object of care) out foT,

la-XVpoiS, adverb (Urxy^^^trofig ; laxws,

strength) stvongli/, vigoTously,

liaoTOs, 'Ov, o, one of the breasts, a

breast : also, a hill,
irXevpd, -as, rj, a rib of the body, a

jUxnh of an army.
irov€(0, WOinja-O}, etc. reg., (w6vQ9f toil;

cf. Wvoj&oi, to toil) to toil,

cnrcvSo), o'lreva'a), eaweva-a, to hasten, to press on.

CTeppS)^, adverb (<rTipp©«, ^rm) resolutdy.

Exercises.

I. 1. Tjhiov Kot irpodvixorepoi/ crvveTTopevovro.
2. i^ekaweL (rraO/MOu a/a, wapaadyyas orrci.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 77

3. Kcu Ifryypio^ aXXijXaii/ ^ iirefiikovro. 4. Kvpo^
iTTopevero rjfi€\7jfia/(o^^ fiaXkop. 5. iroXv yap tcjp
iTnriov erpexpv Oolttov. 6. ikeyou §€ r^ fiacriXel otl
SiKOMos ov iioi \apitfiiTo}

II. 1 . (TTeppa)^ iroXKcou aya0S>v air€i)(6fL€0a.
2. ffhiar 00/ aKovcaL/iL roiW/xa.* 3. iroXv Se
fiSXKov €(rir€v8€i/. 4. ovk iTrovriaav t&v a\\(ai/
ttXcoi/ oTpaTuorZi/. 5. tZp Se irkevpiav^ iKarepmv
8vo TO TTpea-fivrdTCi} arpaTTiyi} CTrt/xeXiycrco-^oi/.

III. 1. Arid they "^ gladly obeyed. 2. They were
greatly deceived. 3. He asked Cyrus for pay for
three months.® 4. And no one of those who crossed ®
the river was wet higher ^^ than his breast."

IV. 1. He sent gifts with great Uberality. 2. But
he gave ^^ the army pay for four months. 3. He
marches thence five stages, thirty parasangs, to the
sources of the river, of which the breadth was a
plethrum.^^



* Parts of § 76 can be omitted, or read only, at the discretion of the
teacher.

* I 171. 2.

» J 74, 1, N., and § 75, n. 2. » j jgy^ 5

* J 224, and § 226, 2h. » ? 276, 2.

* J 11, 1 and 2. »o J 75, n. 1.

« § 171, 2. " Plural of |iaurT<^.

' \ 143, N. 2. ^^ See note 7, Lesson XIV.

^ J 169, 3. A predicate genitive of measure.



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78 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

LESSON XXXVII.

Verbs s Oontraots in axa.

Grammar : § 98, the conjugation of rL/Mdm, with notes
2 and 5; § 115, 4; § 69, the declension of tlijl&p; § 9,
with 1, 2, 3, and 4.

Vocabulary.

a laud cry) to sJvOUt OUt.

tflxa, Cv^<^> ^Cvc^f €^yjKa^ to live.

yiTToioiiax, rjirTJaoiMCu or TfrTq-

OtjaoiiaL, yJTTTiiJiaL, rjmjOrjv, to be inferior^ to be

{i^mav, worse) WOTSted,

dedo/iaL, Oeda-ofjiaL^^tc.reg., to gaze at^ to watch,

to observe.
KOL/iaxo, iKoiiiTja'a, iKOL/iijOrjp, to put to sleep ; mid.

(Kctiuu, to l%4 and pass, to lie doWTl,

to go to bed.
KraofxaL,^ KTijcroiJiaL, etc. reg., to acquire.

viKda), vLKTJo'a), etc, reg.,(vUn\, victory) to conqucr, to defeat,

to be victorious.

ToKfldCi}, 7ja'6), etc. reg., (toXi&o, cour-
age, hardihood) to dare.

Exercises.

I. 1. KaTedeaTo €Kar€p(oa-€. 2. j/LK(oix6f r€^ fiaai-
Xea Kcu, C09 opare, ovSeW ert ij/xo' iid^erax. 3. kol
€vdif^ TTOXTLV ifioa KCU jSapfiapLKOis K<u iXkrjVLKci^.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 79

4. €t TTtip^fJieda eio-jSdXkciv €t9 rrfv KlXikUw, if^vyoi
ai/ fiaa-Lkeik. 5. icctt apioTcivTi r^ Sa/o(f>cMrn*
irpoa-erpexop hvo i/coi^urfcai. 6. oi ^Ekkriues kohi&v-
Tax oto/ieyoL ra irdirra viKav^ kclL Kvpov I^tjp.

n. 1. Toif^ iroXcfttovs a/LKaT€ aw rots ^€ot9.
2. /xera 8c ravra l^Snna ^Opovrtw ovSct? o/)^ 3. ci
8' avroi/ 6p(fiyi heivov ovra oLKovofiop, rjadeiri w.

4. ct 8c Ti aXko fieXriop,^ To\fidT<o koI 6 tStcun/g
StScuriceii/* 5. koX ifjueKdnav ro^eueu/ oi KpiJT€^.

m. 1. He was calling out to lead the army.

2. He defeats the enemy. 3. But if we conquer,
we shall be honored, 4. Try to make use of this/

5. He gained from this a great name. 6. They are
being worsted by barbarians.

IV. 1. Let us all strive to conquer the king's
army. 2. The barbarians were observing the Greeks.

3. But if we should treat these with aflfection, they
would be well-disposed to us. 4. I account him
happy who is honored* by the king.



> See note 3, Lesson XXVIII. ^

* Perfect generally KiKTi||&ai, rarely in Attic Imniai, J 101, 2, h. 2.
' rj . . . Kolf both . . . and, not only ...but also.

* i 186.

* { 260, 2. Their thought was, rd irarra viK«S|icv xal Kvpos {n.

* Sc. im.

» i 188, 1, K. 2.

* { 276, 2.



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80 FIRSO: LESSONS IN GREEK.

LESSON XXXVIII.

Verbs: Oontracts in eto and oo).

Grammar : § 98, the conjugation of <^tX.€G) and St/Xooi,
with notes 1, 3, 4, and 5 ; § 115, 4; § 69, the declension of
<f)L\(oi/ and hriXZi/ ; § 9, with 1, 2, 3, and 4, with n. 2.

Vocabulary.

ava-KOLvoct}, KOLvdja-ai, etc. reg., to make common, to

(ayd> and koivo«>, to make common, COmmuniCOte, to COTh-

d^Loo), a^vcoao), etc. reg., (ojios) to deem worthy or^i, fo

ask, to demand as fit.
imdvfjiio}, eTTLdv/MTjcra), inedv-

/jLTfa-a, iinredviiTiKa, {M and to set ones lieart on, to

•v|M>f) - desire,

iTTL-Kvpoo), KvptoacD, etc. rc^., to givc authority to,

(Kvpos, authority) fo cmijirm, to ratify.
Tfyiofiai, yiyTJaofiai, etc. re^r.,

(aY», to lead) to lead, to think,

Oaj/aTOO), 0(WaT(oa(O, etc. reg.,

(edvaros, death; evifo-Kw, to <?ic) fo condemn to death.

iro\€fX€(0, TToXe/XlJcrO), etc. reg.,

(iroXiiios) to wage xoar.

Q}<f)e\€(0, 0)^\rj(rO}, etc. reg.,
(o^kXos^ advantage; cf. ^'XXm, to
increase) to aid.

Exercises.

I. 1. crvXXe^a? o-T/oareu/jta CTroXtopKCt MiXt^toi'.
2. clfmrai Tro\eix€a/. 3. c^ocuj/ 8c aXXiyXot? /x^



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 81

0€U/. 4. ccTTrouSatoXoyctro, a>9 SyiXoir/ ow ri/x^,
5. riyeCo'dQi. 6. oi he KaKol^ SoSXot roii' ayaOcHv
a^iowrcu elvai. 7. hnavOa <^k€lto itoki^ /leydkrj.
8. cXavi^t apa Kpdro^ \Zpovirn r^ linr(p.^ 9. ooTt5*
Jiji' iindvfieL, weipdo'dQ} vlkoo/.

II. 1. Sei/off^cip at/oKOLPovTOL XoiKpareL^ ircpl rfjs
nopeCa^. 2. icarcXct^^i/crai/ ol o/jLorpdire^oi, koXov-
fiQ/oL.^ 3. 178CC09 inovow KoX ffappaXeo)^ itcTSivTo.

4. (rvvToptftyrdrrjv ^ero ohov elpai 8ta roS iinopKetp''
T€ icot e^aTraTOj/. 5. circ^u/xct rifiaLO'dai, u/a TrXctoi

K€pB(UI/OL. 6. KS/)09 8* 0/)5l/ T0V9 "EXXl^I/tt? UIKCJP^

Ta9, irpoaKVPOv/iepo^^ ci9 jSaaiXev^p ovk i^x^l
Stcu#c€ii/« oXXa iirefjiekeLTo tC (what) Trotijcret ^a<rtXev9.

III. 1. Never hire the idle. 2. They are always
willing to ratify treaties. 3. It is necessary® to do
this. '4. They kept casting stones into the river.

5. The river is called Marsyas. 6. If they are con-
demning him to death, they are doing wrong.

IV. 1. For they were occupying strongholds.
2. He desired exceedingly to be rich. 3. He pre-
fers by warring ^^ to make his means less. 4. He
kept warring with the Thracians" and aiding the
Greeks.

NOTES.

' The preposition merely strengthens the meaning of the simple verb.

• But the bad are thought fit, etc., J 139, 1. For 8ot Xoi, see § 136, n. 3 a.
» { 188, 1. * I 86. » J 186.

• ol KaXov|icyoi, those who were called (J 276, 2), hu so-called, etc.
' i 2Q2, 1. » 8€t, § 98, N. 1.

• I 27t 5. >« i 277, 2. " J 186, with n. 1.



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82 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.



LESSON XXXIX.

Frononns: Fersonaly InteaBiTe, Beflezive, Beoiprocal, and Fos-

sesBiye.

Grammar : § 79, 1 (omitting the forms in parenthesis)
and 2 (with n.) ; § 27, 1 (omitting the forms in parenthe-
sis); § 144, 1 (with N.) and 2 a; § 146, 1 and 2; § 80,
and the first half of the N.; §146; §81; §82; §147*

Examples.

§ 79, 2 : 6 auro9 aurtjp, the same man; top avrou iroXe-

liop, the same war.
§ 146, 1 : ainros o orpaTrjyo^, the general himself ;

ravra cirotetrc avroi (sc. u/xct9)> you did

this YOURSELVES.

§ 145, 2 : avTOP (raTpdwrjp iiroiyicei/, he made him sa-
trap; ap^i avrZp, lie commands them.

§ 144, 2 : Xeyerat *Aw6Xk(ov viKfja-ai, ^ Mapaiiai/ ipi-
^ovrd ot, Apollo is said to have defeated
Marmfos when contending with him.

§ 146 : €a-(f>a^€i/ eavrop, he slew himself ; vopU^ei
Tov<; TToXtras vTnjperea/ cavroJ,^ he thinks
that the citizens are servants to himself.

§ 147 : 6 riix€T€pos vaiijp = 6 irarrip 17/xaii/,* our
father.

Yocabnlary.

oSticco), dStici}cro), etc. reg., (oSiKos, from O' to do vrrong, to

priv. and 8Cin|) WTOng.

airapa(TKevauTTos, -09 -op, (a- priv. and

«apcwiccua|;«*t ^ private ; cf. oiccva^», oicivos) Unprepared.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK. 83

apenijf -^9, 17, goodness, virtue^

valor.
BaTTCU/axo, Saircu^cro), etc. reg., (8a«dn|,

expense) to expend.

€V€OiruiJLO^, -09, 'OP, (rfand^vona)* left.

TrXrjyi], -^9, 17, (wXtfrm* to strike) a hlow.

oTdXo9, -ov, 6, {vrMmt to send^ an expedition.

X^V* X^^P^^' '^* ^^' *^^ ^^^ ^^*^ x«p«^»

dat pi. xdf^ the hxmd.

Exercises. *

I. 1. eT^c 8^ TO evckwiiop Mo/on^ k<u ol <rw avr^.
2. d\X' ct9 u/xa9 rov9 Sap€iicov9 eSaTrcu/cui^. 3. crv
ifjiol^ €7r6^ovXcv€t9 icoi T^ <rw ifiol or/oart^ 4. 6
avro9 crTo\o9 cort #cat i)/xti/. o. rg oi avrg rifiepti*
dxf>t7nr€U€L iirl rrfv iavrov crKrjvrjv. 6. 7r\7yya9 ii/c-
reivov dWijXoL^J^ 7. ra^dw viro avrov tov i/MOv^
a8€\<f)Ov €7ro\€iirf(r€i^ efioC. 8. vfias Se awapaa-Kevd'
<7Tov9 Xa/ifidi/eu

II. 1. i^o/u^oi yap vfia^ Ifiot c&at <f>Ckovs. 2. av-
709 €'irel5ov\€X}€ Sta/SdWeu/ /xc wpo9 i}/xa9. 3. cupa
'17/10/ fiov\ev€a0aL inrep rificip avrmv. 4. orv re yap
^EXXiyi^ ct icot yffi€i<i. 5. 6 8c Xeyct avrw. 6. 0/0^
8c row ^EXX7yi/a9 i/tic£M-a9 to ica^ avrov^J 7. i;/xct9
cm TTyi^ riiLeripap ^tapav epx^o'Oe.

in. 1. But send us back. 2. He remains in
the same (place). 3. They lead him to the general.
4. He has been wronged by us. 5. I myself will
proceed to my own province. 6. They kept warring



yGoogk



84 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

with one another. 7. Your valor is worthy of ad-
miration.

IV. 1. He brings together his own soldiers*
2. I summoned you. 3. The crags reach down to
the river itself. 4. Let us not neglect ourselves/
5. We must benefit our friends. 6. He himself
slays him with his own hand.®



* With the passive of many of the verbs that take the infinitive in
indirect discourse (Lesson XXXI.) we either find the infinitive itself with
Its subject accusative as subject of the principal verb (the normal con-
struction), or, as here, the subject accusative of the infinitive becomes
the subject nominative of the principal verb. In this example, to illus-
trate, we might have also X«7CTai *Ain>XXwva viKiJoviy it is said that
Apollo defeated, where the noun is the subject of the infinitive and the
infinitive is the subject of X^Yfrat, representing the possible active con-
struction, kiyovtnv 'AiroXXwya viKiJoviy etc. Xiyia^ however, in the
active voice rarely takes the. infinitive in indirect discourse, J 260, 2, k. 1.

' ol also would be correct, J 144, 2. * J 142, 4, ir. 3.

* On the derivation of this %ord, see farther the general vocabulary.

* J 187.

' Not the genitive of the first personal pronoun, but the possessive.
See note 3, above.

» Sc. lupos or K^fNit. > 8 171, 2. » i 188, 1.



LESSON XL.

Verbs : The Fatnre and First Aorist Stems in Fuza and Ibiia

Verba.

Grammar: § 92,^ 1, 2 (with n.), 3 (with n.), and 4, with
II. and IIL; $ 110, II. 1, and III. 1; § 111, II. and III.,
first three verbs ; § 95, 1,^ I., II. and III., and II., II. and
IIL, and 2^ (with n.); § 96,^ I., the Future and Firrt
Aorist Active and Middle of Xvco^ in all the moods;
§ 107; § 108, with III. and IV., with 1, a and b.



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FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK, 85

Yocabnlary.

,. oTrra) {a<f>'), ai/wo, ^i/^a, ^/x/xat, to fasten; mid. to fasten
Tj^driv, ones self to, to touch.

dpLOTOLO}, OLpifrTTjCCa, etc. reg.,

(dfHOTW, breakfast; cf. i[|h, earty) fo breakfost

yvfu/dtfii {yv/JO/aS'), yvfu/da-O},

etc. reg., (YVfim, na^ec?, %A% cterf) to exercise.

OaipaKL^a} {dopoKih-), 0(opa- to arm with a breast-

KLO-CO, etc. reg., (Oi^po(, breastplate) plate, to arm.
KTJpVTTO} (iCqpVK'), Kijpv^(a, etc.

reg., (inipit) to proclaim.

\oi,Sop€(t}, koLhopTJaO), etc. reg,,

(XoCSopos, abusive) to abuse, to revile.
o-KfydTTd} and (r^a^o) (cr^ay-),

a-<f>d^(o, €a'(f>a^a, ecr^ayiiai, to slay, to slaughter.

€f}pd^<0 {<f>paj8'), <l>pda'(o, etc. reg., to tell.

Exerciscfl.

I. 1. SiXLTpi^oiiev TTjv Ttjfiejpou^ rjfiepcu/. 2. t^v
rd^u/ Tov oTpaTevfiaTO^ iOavfiaaev. 3. iw€iJ8ai/
ravra irpd^,'^ ^ouXevcro/xc^a. 4. wefitftaTe avrovs
Sevpo. 5. Kvpop Sk fiereirepAlfaro diro rrj^ ^PXTl^'

6. vm(rxyeLTO 8c (f)pdcr€LP^ Tot^ cavroS Ln7r€V(nv.

7. XeLpCcoffx)^ irefjixpeL #c<w/xijra9, aKO^ofiivov^^ irS)^
expvcTL ol arpariSnai. 8. ov^ a^erai r^s Kdpffjnrf^ ^^
TO v8(op.

II. 1. eya> cm/ v/jlu/ ojjofiai, koI o rt Jr Sqy"
TTCio'OfiaL. 2. i(f>ofiowTO /iTf oi iroXefiioL oTrXtcrati^o.
3. Kqpv^ti Tovi ^EXXtycrt ovo'Kevd^ea'GaL. 4. Su q5i/.



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86 FIRST LESSONS IN GREEK.

wpo9 ^cSv, avfiPovXevaov rjfiu^. 5. yviwdaai fiov-
Xcrat kavTOv re kcu ToifS Ittitovs. 6. iwav rd^urra^
apLOTTJa-foiia/, €fo7rXt(ra/Lt€i/06 wopeva-oiieOa em tov9

III. 1. I will do this. 2. The rest of the soldiers
struck and abused him. 3. Do not collect ^^ the
soldiers together before the tent. 4. Put on your
breastplates at once. 5. The men promise to obey "
their commanders, 6. He sent the men forward to
rescue the woman.

IV. 1. The rest of the soldiers will follow Cy-
rus." 2. Let us send for the hoplites as quickly as
possible.^® 3. He said ^"^ that he had got together ^*
much property. 4. We will proceed at once, after
slaughtering^® a bull and wolf. 5. If they should
close the gates, we should besiege their city.



' See note 1, Lesson XXXV.

' Pages 86-89 inclusive. Give the synopsis of each verh and tense
separj^tely by moods across the page, first in the active and then in the
middle.

» Pages 92, 93. * See note 3, Lesson XXXV.

* Let the pupil conjugate in the same manner the future active and
middle of XcCirw, and tiie future and first aorist active and middle of
vpounr«». ' i 141, N. 3.

' ^vfiSoy, i. e. ^vciSi| ar, whenever, is exactly equal logically to lew
voTi, if ever, and takes the subjunctive by the same law. See { 223,
and 2 232, 3, with the examples.

« I 260, 2. ^ § 277. 3. >» j 171^ 1

" Sc. trdffxwv¥ from the following verb. See further note 7, above, and


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